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BATTLES 



THE BRITISH NAVY 



VOL. II. 



3 






r CD o 







H 



BATTLES 



Of 



THE BRITISH NAVY. 



BY 

JOSEPH ALLEN, ESQ., R.N., 

OF GKEKNWICH HOSPITAL. 

j^clu station, iUbtedJ auto Crnlargcto. 

IN TWO VOLUMES. 
VOL. II. 

"Palmafta qui meruit feral." 

LONDON: 
HENRY G. BOHN, YORK STREET, COVENT GARDEN. 

MDCCCL1I. 



10 

hi 

v<3 



printed by 

cox (brothers) and wyman, great queen street, 

lincoln's-inn fields. 



CONTENTS OF VOL. II. 



1800. 

General use of carronades, page 1 — capture of Gdnereux, 1. Capture 
of Pallas, 2. Peterel and Ligurienne, 3. Capture of Guillaume Tell, 4. 
Capture of El Carmen and Florentina — capture of Imprenable, 6. Cut- 
ting out the Prima galley, 7. Boat actions under Lieutenant Burke, 8. 
Capture of Desire'e, 10. Capture of the Freya — boarding the Cerbere, 
11. Me'de'e .captured by an Indiaman, 12. Seine and Vengeance — 
Success and Diane, 13. Cutting out of the Guepe — surrender of 
Malta — capture of Esmeralda and Paz, 14. Lieutenant Fitton at 
Curacoa, 15. Gipsy and Quidproquo — boats of Phaeton — Mill brook 
and Bellone, 16. Cutting out the Edolaise — Admiral Pasley and 
Spanish gun-boats, 17. 



1801, 



Armed Neutrality — destruction of the Senegal, 18. Capture of the 
Eclair, the Sans Pareille, and the De"daigneuse, 19. Active's prize and 
Santa Maria, 20. Bordelais with Curieux and consorts, 21. Expedition 
to Egypt, 22. Success captured — Penguin and French squadron, 24. 
Phoebe and Africaine, 25. Boats of Andromache and Cleopatra at 
Levita, 26. Expedition to Copenhagen, 26. Lord Nelson's negotiation, 
33. Anecdote of Nelson, 37 {note). Boats of Trent at Bre'hat — Speedy 
and Gamo, 38. Cutting out exploits, 40. Swiftsure and Speedy cap- 
tured, 41. Action in Algesiras Bay, 42. Junction of a Spanish 
squadron, 46. Superb and Spanish three-deckers, 48. Cutting out of 
the Chevrette, 50. Henry Wallis, of the Beaulieu, 53 — capture of the 
Invention, 53. Sylph and French frigate, 54. Capture of Carrere and 
Eveille, 55. Attack on the Boulogne flotilla, 56. Sibylle and Chiffonne, 
57. Boats of Fisgard off Corunna, 59. Victor and Fle'che, 60. Pasley 
and Spanish polacre — peace of Amiens, 61. Losses of the British 
Navy, 62. Losses of the enemy, 63. 



1803. 
Renewal of the war — state of the British Navy — capture of the 
Affronteur and the Franchise, 64. Cutting out of the Venteux — 



523-IS3 



CONTENTS. 

numerous o4 x>. oo. Anecdote of a sailor of the Minerva \notn) 

Da|Ma^ op. Kaooon with Lodi. vtc 67. Boats 

af Hvdr.i il U.*\ re —capture and recapture of the Lord Nelson — 

S Bombardments of K ap p a and Granville, 

•pe off the Texel. 71. Cancan of B a aa o i ca — 

Blanche in Manociiille Bay. 7_. Gallantry of Lieutenant 

\ . " e Rarmotiie. 74 Lieutenant Willoughby 

- 75. 



1804. 

The ' British sfoof) ol vvar Diamond Rock." 76. ( | '■ the 

Curieux. 77. Panee and 1. - 3 s» 71 ~ ,f the Blenheim 

•v. SO. Capture of the Mozambique — boats of the Pru k 

- the Renommee, SI. Capture of the Egyp- 

■ _ - inure 

and Psyche, 84 ^ _ ad French 

Dutch prames and gun-boats, and - s and 

nes and Bonaparte. >? B - Baj — 

-e of the Lily. > 7. A ' _ t the 

Lttatk on the General Ernouf — capture of the 

~ .uadron. 90. Capture of Spanish 

- - S ". 91. Recapture of Goree. 92. 



? 

Spain — attack on the Yimereux. 9?. Sufferings of Lieu- 
N - a's pursuit ot Yilleneuve — Gipsy 

a of Arrow and Acheron — capture of 
the r S renao and ft ra and 

rd and General Ernouf. 100. Boats 
I 

IVoe-^-bord and Esperanza. 10$. Lieutenant Yeo at 
Boats " . " '• "s River. I re of 

- - with 

the B S v-hiem and 

Raaoaa andT. 
- .aable and Topaie, lit*. Captu- 117. 

\ I18L 

Trafalgar. 119* Pea: K - 

man I »W Heavy gale and Ices of the \ 

..an and Dumanoir. 14SL E - Serpent at TVuxillo — cap- 



? 



fceur and Xapoleo. _ : e Raposo. 

161. 
::geur, 163. Capture ~-*ra. 



CONTENTS. vn 

Ne*arque, and Vigilante, 164. Capture of the Tapageuse, 165. Cap- 
ture of the Bergere— cutting out the ( riganta, 166. Pallas and Minerva, 
167- Capture of the Diligente — Warren Hastings and Pie"montaise, 168. 
Capture of Bellone, 170. Cutting out the Ce"sar, 170. Blanche and 
Gruerriere, 171. Capture of Pallas and consorts, 17*2. Capture of Rhin, 
173. Phosphorus and French privateer, 174. Capture of the Pomona, 
175. Privateers destroyed at Batahano, 176. Capture of French 
frigate squadron, 177. Capture of the Presirlente — boat action on the 
coast of Spain, 179. Caroline and Dutch squadron, 180. Pitt and 
Superbe, 181. Unrequited services of Lieutenant Fitton, 183. Boat 
actions in the West Indies, 184. Halcyon and Spanish squadron, 185. 



1807. 

Storming of Curacoa, 188. Boats of Cerberus at Martinique — expe- 
dition against Buenos Ayres, 188. Storming a battery at Fort Ro- 
quette — boarding the Lynx, 189. Recapture of Favourite — boats of 
Lark at Lishata — expedition to Constantinople, 191. Repassing the 
I 'anlanelles, 194. Expedition to Egypt — attack on Samana, 195. 
Grlatton at Sign — Comus at Puerta de Haz, 196. Comus at Grand 
Canaria, 197. Search for deserters — Leopard and Chesapeake, 198. 
Boats of Spartan beaten off by a polacre, 199. Remarkable escape of 
James Bodie, 200 (note). Sally and consorts in the Vistula, 201. 
Expedition to Copenhagen, 202. Danish ships captured, 206. Hydra 
at Begur, 207. Confiance at Cuardia, 208. Capture of Heligoland — 
rapture of the Jeune Richard, 209. Boats of Porcupine in the Adri- 
atic, 210. Ann beats off ten Spanish gun-boats, 211. Curieux and 
Revanche, 21 2. Grasshopper and San Josef, 213. Sir Edward Pel- 
lew at Griesse, 214. Capture of St. Thomas, St. Croix, and Madeira. 
216. 



1808. 

Linnet and Cruiser — Delight burnt — capture of Dorade, 217. 
Boat actions, 218. San Fiorenzo and Pieinontaise, 219. Boats of 
Emerald at Viveros, 221. Childers and Lougen — Prindtz Christian 
Frederick destroyed — Terpsichore and Se"millante, 222. Fortunate 
voyage of the Se"millante, 223 (note). Convoy captured at Flodstrand, 
224. Spanish convoy attacked off Cadiz, 225. Unfortunate attack on 
the Garotta, 226. Death of Capt. Shipley, 227. Grasshopper and 
Rapid at Faro — Goree with French corvettes, 228. Falcon in the 
Baltic — capture of Ronco and consorts — Redwing and Spanish convoy, 
229. Weasel and Requin, 230. Capture of the Griffon — the Tartar at 
Bergen, 231. Capture of Guelderland — destruction of the Balleine, 233. 
Actions with Danish gun-boats, 234. Seagull and Lougen, 235. Cap- 
ture of Volpe, 236. Boats of Porcupine in the Adriatic, 237. Seahorse 
and Turkish squadron, 238. Capture of the Badere Zaffer, 239. Death 
of Lieut. Spearing at St. Martin's— boats of Kent and Wizard at Noli, 
242. Comet with Espiegle and Sylphe, 243. Action with the Russian 



Vlll CONTENTS. 

fleet near Hango Head, 244. Sewolod destroyed, 246. Capture of 
Rook — Recruit and Diligente, 247. Laurel and Canonniere, 248. 
Capture of Maria, 249. Carnation and Palinure, 250. Capture of 
Palinure — Africa and Danish gun-boats, 251. Capture of the Jena — 
Amethyst and Thetis, 252. Boats of Heureux at Mahaut — death of 
Captain Coombe, 255. Destruction of the Cigne, 256. 



1809. 



Captain Yeo at Guy an e — Confiance and Topaze, 259. Onyx and 
Manly — capture of Iris and Hdbe, 260. Capture of Topaze — Am- 
phion at Melita, 261. Junon and Horatio — capture of Var, 262. Cap- 
ture of Martinique, 263. Destruction of three French frigates at Sables 
d'Olonne — Lieut. Roberts in Basque roads (note), 264. Attempt to 
destroy the French fleet there, 265. Renewed attacks, 274. Court' 
martial, 276. Arethusa at Lequito — boats of Mercury cut out the 
Le"da, 278. Amethyst and Niemen, 279. Chase and capture of 
D'Hautpoult, 281. Attack on Pesaro, 282. Thrasher and Boulogne 
flotilla — Spartan and Mercuiy at Cesenatico — Melpomene at Huilbo, 
283. Tartar at Felixburg — presence of mind of one of her crew — 
Goldfinch and Mouche, 284. Capture of Anholt — Melpomene and 
Danish gun-boats — Topaze at Demata, 285. Scout and convoy off 
Cape Croisette — capture of Ischia and Procida, 286. Cyane and Espoir 
with Ceres, 287. Boats of Bellerophon at Hango Head, 288. Capture 
of Furieuse, 289. Attack on Russian gun-boats, 290. Capture of 
Senegal — boats of Scout at Carri, 291. Boat attack in Aspo roads — 
capture of convoy at Duin, 292. The Walcheren expedition — boats of 
Otter at Riviere Noire, 293. Boats of Amphion at Cortelazzo, 295. 
Capture of the Puglie'se — Diana and Zephyr, 296. Capture of St. Paul's, 
Bourbon, 297- Destruction of Robust and Lion, 299. Destruction of 
convoy at Rosas, 300. Capture of Zante, &c. — capture of Victor, 301. 
Reduction of Ras-el-Khyma — capture of Nisus, 302. Capture of Bear- 
nais and Papillon — Junon and French squadron, 303. Death of Capt. 
Shortland, 305 (and note). Destruction of the Seine and Loire, 306. 
Death of Capt. Cameron, 307. 



1810. 

Capture of Aimable Nelly and Oreste, 308 — boats of Freija at Ma- 
haut, 309. Surrender of Guadaloupe, 310. Rainbow and Avon with 
NeYeide, 311. Lieut. Guion in Basque roads — capture of Amboyna, 
312. Capture of Necessite and Echo — attack on Castiglione, 313. 
Recapture of Laurel — surrender of Santa Maura — capture of Alcide, 
314. Boats of Nereide at Jacotel, 315. Accident to Capt. Willoughby, 
317 (note). Spartan and Neapolitan squadron, 318. Boats of Armide, 
&c. at Fosse de l'Oye, 320. Tribune and Danish gun-boats — boat 
attack at Grao, 321. Capture of Indiaman — capture of Bourbon, 322. 
Capt. Cole at Banda Neira, 323. Letter from " the Carolines," 326 
(note). Alceste at Alassio — heroic conduct, 327. Capture of Danish 



CONTENTS. IX 

gun-boats. Attack on Amanthea — Procris and Dutch gun-boats — cap- 
ture of Isle de la Passe, 329. Enemy decoyed into Grand Port, 331. 
Recapture of the Windham, 332. Unsuccessful attack on the French 
ships in Grand Port, 333. Surrender of the British force, 336. Queen 
Charlotte and Swan — boats of Dreadnought at Ushant — boats of Sur- 
veillante, &c. off the Morbihan, 337. Capture and recapture of the 
Africaine, 339. Ceylon and Venus, 341. Boadicea and Venus — boats 
of Caledonia, &c. in Basque Roads, 342. ' Captures of privateers, 343, 
344. Capture of the Isle of France, 344. Capture of Mamelouck — 
Entreprenant beats off four large French privateers, 345. Rinaldo and 
French privateers, 346. Boats of Kent, &c. at Palamos, 347. 



1811. 

Boats of Cerberus and Active at Pestichi and Ortona, 348. Action 
off Lissa, 349. Destruction of the Amazone, 354. Defence of Anholt, 
355. Belle Poule and Alceste at Parenza, 358. Action off Madagas- 
car, 359. Scylla and Canonniere — war with the United States, 362. 
Amei-ican 44-gun frigates, 363. Little Belt and President, 364. Sir 
Francis Drake and Dutch gun-boats, 365. Boats of Sabine at Sabiona 
— Alacrity and Abeille, 366. Boats of Pilot at Strongoli, 367. Gua- 
daloupe with Tactique and Guepe — capture of St. Francois de Paule, 

368. Thames, &c. at Porto del Infreschi — boat actions in the Adriatic, 

369. Storming Fort Marrack, 370. Capture of Java, 371. Reduc- 
tion of Madura, 373. Boats of Quebec, &o. in the Jahde, 374. Hawk 
and French convoy — Diana and Semiramis in the Gironde, 376. Teazer 
and convoy captured, 377. Capture of Manly — actions with Boulogne 
flotilla, 378. Boats of Imperieuse at Salerno, 3S0. Capt. Napier at 
Palinuro — Skylark and Locust and French gun-vessels, 381. Perlen 
with Trident and squadron — capture of Corceyere, 382. Capture of 
Pomone, 383. Capt. Gordon wounded, 384 (note). Capture of Per- 
sanne, 384. 



1812. 



Capture of Ame'thyste and Merinos, 385. Capture of Rivoli, 387. 
Rosario and Boulogne flotilla, 388. Capture of Martinet — boats of 
Hyacinth, &c. at Malaga, 389. Capture and recapture of the Apelles, 
390. Boats of Leviathan, &c. at Languelia and Alassio, 391. Thames 
and Pilot at Sapri — French Frigates destroyed at the Isle of Groix, 392. 
Menelaus chases a frigate and brig — cutting out of the Dorade — Swallow 
with Renard and Goeland, 393. Briseis at Pillau, 394. Belvidera 
chased by American squadron, 395. Danish squadron destroyed at 
Malmo, 397. Capture of the Eole, 398. Sealark and Ville de Caen, 
399. Boats of Minstrel at Biendom — gallantry of Mr. Dwyer, and 
generosity of the French officers, 400. Alert and Essex, 401. Guer- 
riere and Constitution, 402. Comparative force of the combatants, 405 
(note). Boats of Bacchante at Rovigno, 405. Laura and Diligente — 
Frolic and Wasp, 406. Macedonian and United States, 40S. Capture 
VOL. II. b 



CONTENTS. 



of the Java, 411. Edward Keele, midshipman, 414 (note). Albacore 
and Pickle with Gloire — capture of Ruse, 415. 



1813. 



Boat actions, 416. Capture of the island of Augusta — Amelia and 
Are*tkuse, 417. Boats of Kingfisher at Corfu — Cutting out of the Lot- 
tery, 419. Boarding American schooners, 420. Peacock and Hornet, 
421. Comparative force of the combatants (note) — surrender of Ponza 
— boats of Undaunted, &c. near Marseilles, 422. Weasel and gun- 
boats, 423. Boat expedition on the Susquehanna, 424. Shannon and 
Chesapeake, 425. Comparative force of the combatants, 430. Surveyor 
captured, 431. Boats of Bacchante at Gela Nova — capture of Fortune 
and Aspe, 432. Capture of the Anaconda — Martin and American gun- 
boats, 433. Capture of the Dominica — actions on the Canadian lakes, 
434. Pelican and Argus, 436. Boxer and Enterprise, 437. Alphea 
and Renard, 438. Action on Lake Erie, 439. Boats of Swallow off 
the Tiber, 441. Flibustier destroyed — Furieuse at Marinello, 422. 
Capture of Weser and Trave — Thunder and Neptune, 443. Snap and 
Lion — action off Toulon — boats of Undaunted at Port Nouvelle, 444. 
Reduction of St. Sebastian, 445. 



1814. 



Surrender of Gluckstadt — capture of Ceres, 446. Surrender of Cattaro 
—capture of Heureux — capture of Iphigenie and Alcmene, 447. Creole 
and Astrea with Etoile and Sultane, 448. Capture of Terpsichore, 449. 
Action off Toulon — Phcebe and Essex, 450. Eurotas and Clorinde, 451. 
Congreve guns, 453 (note). Capture of Mars, 453. Primrose and Marl- 
borough packet, 454. Hebrus and Etoile, 455. Capture of Sultane — 
boats of Porcupine at Pouillac — destruction of Regulus — boat action in 
the river Connecticut, 456. Capture of Frolic — Epervier and Peacock, 
457. Bonaparte conveyed to Elba — lake squadrons, 459. Operations 
on Lake Ontario, 460. Action in Sandy Creek, 461. Shipping de- 
stroyed at Wareham — Reindeer and Wasp, 462. Heroic death of Capt. 
Manners, 463 (and note). Schooners destroyed on Lake Erie — Death of 
Sir Peter Parker, 464. Avon and Wasp, 465. Operations on Lake 
Huron, 466. Capture of Tigress and Scorpion, 467. Expedition to 
Hamden, 468. Destruction of the Adams, 469. Operations on Lake 
Champlain, 470. Destruction of the British squadron, 472. Commo- 
dore Barney's flotilla, 473, 476. British incursions, 474. Battle of 
Bladensburg, 477. Capture of Washington, 478. Expedition to Alex- 
andria (U. S.), 480. Descent of the Potomac, 481. Attack on Balti- 
more, 483. Attack on Fort Bowyer, 486. Destruction of the General 
Armstrong — attack on the Neufchatel, 487. Capture of American 
flotilla on Lake Borgne, 488. 

1815. 
Endymion and President, 491. Comparative force of the combatants, 



CONTENTS. XI 

492, (note). Capture of Cyane and Levant, 493. Capture of St. Law- 
rence, 495. Penguin and Hornet, 496. Peacock and Nautilus, 499. 
Peace with America — Rivoli and Melpomene— Pilot and Legere — Rhin 
and squadron at Corigeou, 500. Removal of the ex-emperor to St. 
Helena, 501. Losses of the contending parties from 1793 to 1815, 502. 



1816. 

Bombardment of Algiers, 504. 



1827. 
Battle of Navarin, 514. 



1840. 
Operations on the coast of Syria, 524. 



ILLUSTRATIONS TO VOL. II. 



■William IV 

Lord Nelson's last Telegraphic Signal... 
Rear- Admiral Sir James Saumarez, G.C.B 

age of 45 ... 
Admiral Sir Richard Goodwin Keats, G.C.B, 
Admiral Rainier 

Vice- Admiral Lord Viscount Nelson, K.B 
Vice- Admiral Lord Collingwood, K.B. 

H.M. ship Victory 

Admiral Sir Sidney Smith, G.C.B. ... 



Vice-Admiral Sir Thomas Masterman Hardy, Bart. G.C.B. 253 

Captain Edward Pelh am Brenton ... ... ... 257 

Vice-Admiral Sir James Saumarez, K.B. ... ... 285 

Captain Sir Nesbit Josiah Willoughby, Kt. G.B.C. ... 314 

Captain Sir William Hoste, Bart. K.B.C. 350 

Admiral Sir George Cockburn, G.C.B 420 

Admiral Lord Viscount Exmouth, G.C.B. ... ... 504 

Admiral Sir Edward Codrington, G.C.B. ... ... 514 

Admiral the Hon. Sir Robert Stopford, G.C.B. ... 524 



. . Frontispiece. 
. . Vignette Title. 
,, at the 

Page 41 
... 50 

57 

93 

123 

140 

193 



DIAGRAMS. 

Sir James Saumarez's action in Algesiras Bay 

Track of the Victory at Trafalgar 

Sir John Duckworth's action off St. Domingo 

Sketch of Basque Roads 

Spartan with Ceres and consorts 

Action off Lissa 

Plan of the fortifications of St. Jean d'Acre, and 

positions of the ships of the allied squadrons under 

Admiral Sir Robert Stopford 



45 
132 
158 
267 
318 
350 



539 



BATTLES OF THE BRITISH NAVY. 



1800. 

At the commencement of this century, carronacles were 
in general use in all classes of ships. The war was still 
prosecuted with vigour, although one of the first acts of 
Napoleon, on attaining the chief consulship of France, was to 
make proposals for peace. His terms, however, were inad- 
missible, and the overture was considered an artifice ; for, 
had an armistice been concluded, Napoleon would, in all 
probability, have used it for the purpose of sending troops 
and stores to the colonies and acquired dependencies, with 
the design of renewing the war. 

On the 18th of February, the French 74-gun ship Gene- 
reux was captured off Malta by the Mediterranean fleet 
under Vice- Admiral Lord Keith. The only person killed 
on board the Genereux was Bear- Admiral Perree. This 
gallant officer was severely wounded in the eye by a splinter, 
but continued on deck giving, orders, until a shot took off 
his right thigh, from which wound he died in a few minutes. 
The capture of the Gfenereux was accompanied by that of 
the supplies for the French garrison at Valetta. 

Intelligence having reached Jersey that .a French frigate 
was hovering about the islands,, the 16-gun corvette Fairy 
and 18-gun brig-sloop Harpy, Commanders Joshua Sydney 
Horton and Henry Bazeley, weighed from St. Aubin's Bay, 
on the morning of the 5th of February, with a fresh breeze 
at north-west. At llh. 30m. a.m., Cape Frehel bearing 
south-east, distant six miles, a large ship was discovered 
running down along the land to the westward, and it was 

VOL. II. B 



2 CAPTURE OF THE PALLAS. [1800. 

determined to bring the stranger (which was the French 
18-pounder 38-gim frigate Pallas, Captain Jacques Epron) to 
action. In order to draw her off the land, the Fairy and 
Harpy tacked to the northward. The Pallas immediately 
followed, and at lh. P.M., having arrived within pistol-shot 
to windward of the British vessels, which were close together 
— the Fairy astern, an action commenced. The Harpy, putting 
her helm down occasionally, luffed across the bows of the 
Pallas, and raked her with much effect. The engagement 
continued in this manner until 3h. p.m., when the wind 
having changed to south-west, the Pallas bore up, and made 
sail. The British vessels, having repaired damages, made 
sail after the frigate, which latter, observing two sail ahead, 
had hauled up north-west, pursued by the Harpy and Fairy. 
The strangers were the 38-gun frigate Loire, Captain New- 
man Newman ; 20-gun ship Danae, Captain Lord Proby ; 
and 1 6-gun sloop Railleur, Commander W. J. Turquand. 

The Pallas used every possible means to deceive the 
British, but without effect. The Loire, Railleur, Harpy, and 
Fairy followed her closely, firing every gun which would bear, 
and receiving in return the fire of the frigate, and also that 
of a battery upon Seven Islands. At a little past midnight, 
the Harpy being on the weather quarter of the Pallas, 
gallantly engaged until hailed to say that the Pallas had 
surrendered. The loss on board the British ships was as 
follows : — Loire : three seamen killed, and Watkin Owen Pell 
(lost a leg), F. W. Eves, and J. A. Medway, midshipmen, 
and sixteen men wounded. Bailleur : "William Prothers, 
midshipman, and two seamen killed, and four wounded. 
Fairy : four seamen killed, Commander Horton, Peter 
Hughes, purser, four men badly and three slightly wounded. 
The Harpy had only one man killed and three wounded. 
The loss of the Pallas is not mentioned. The prize was a 
fine ship of 1,030 tons, quite new, and was added to the 
British navy as the Pique. Commanders Horton and 
Bazeley were promoted to post rank as soon as their conduct 
was made known. The naval medal for this action is 
awarded to the Fairy and Harpy only. 

On the 2nd of March, the 12-pounder 3 6-gun frigate 
Nereide, Captain Frederick Watkins, being off the Pen- 
marcks, chased a squadron of French privateers, consisting of 



1800.] PETEREL AND LIGURIENNE. 3 

the Bellone, mounting twenty-four long 8-pounders and six 
brass 36-pounder carronades ; Vengeance, of eighteen long 
8-pounders ; Favorite and Huron, each of sixteen guns ; and 
Tirailleuse, of fourteen guns. Having arrived within gun- 
shot of the enemy, which at first appeared disposed to engage, 
the squadron dispersed ; but the JSTereide succeeded, on the 
3rd, after a chase of 123 miles, in overtaking the Vengeance, 
which was captured. 

On the 20th of March, while the 32-gun frigate Mermaid, 
Captain Eobert D. Oliver, and 16-gun sloop Peterel, Com- 
mander Francis W. Austen, were cruising off Marseilles, the 
latter was detached in- shore ; and on the morning of the 
21st, a convoy of fifty sail and three armed vessels were dis- 
covered and chased, and two merchant vessels captured by 
the Peterel's boats. The Peterel made all sail after the 
ships of war, then using every endeavour to escape ; and 
one, mounting fourteen guns, and also a 6-gun xebeck, per- 
ceiving the Mermaid beating up towards them, ran on shore. 
The third — the French national 16-gun brig Ligurienne, 
lieutenant Pelabond — was brought to action by the Peterel ; 
and after a running fight of an hour and a half (in the course 
of which the Peterel was exposed to the fire of a 4-gun bat- 
tery) the brig struck her colours, being then about six miles 
only from Marseilles. The Peterel had no one hurt, but the 
Ligurienne had her commander and one seaman killed and 
two seamen wounded. The Ligurienne was a very fine 
vessel, well equipped, and in excellent repair, only two years 
old. She was fastened throughout with screw bolts, but was 
not purchased into the naval service. The ship, which was 
the Cerf, was totally wrecked ; but the xebeck, Lejoille, was 
got off and was carried into Marseilles. Commander Austen 
was promoted to post rank in the month of May following. 
The naval medal is awarded to the Peterel. 

The squadron blockading Malta in the month of March 
was in command of Captain Troubridge, of the 74-gun ship 
Culloden, who had under Ms orders the 64-gun ship Lion, 
Captain Manley Dixon ; 80-gun ship Foudroyant, Captain 
Sn; Edward Berry ; 74-gun ship Alexander, Lieutenant 
William Harrington, acting captain; and 36-gun frigate 
Penelope, Captain the Hon. Henry Blackwood, together with 
some smaller vessels. On the 30th, at llh. p.m., the French 

b2 



4 CAPTURE OF THE GUILLAUME TELL. [1800. 

80-gun ship Guillaume Tell, Captain Saulnier, bearing the 
flag of Hear- Admiral Decres, weighed from Malta harbour, 
and put to sea with a fresh gale at south, in the hope of 
escaping unseen. At llh. 55m., however, she was discovered 
by the Penelope on the weather bow, coming down under a 
press of sail, with the wind on her starboard quarter, and 
Captain Blackwood immediately made the signal to the 
Vincego brig, Commander George Long, to convey the in- 
telligence to the commodore, while the Penelope kept close 
to the Guillaume Tell. At 12h. 30m. a.m. the Guillaume 
Tell being on the weather quarter, the Penelope tacked, and 
luffing under the stem of the French ship, fired the larboard 
broadside ; then wearing round, the Penelope recrossed the 
Guillaume Tell, raking her with a starboard broadside. The 
French ship could only return this destructive fire from her 
stern guns, and the Penelope continued to harass the enemy 
with such effect that, just as the day dawned, the Guillaume 
Tell's main and mizen topmasts and the slings of her main- 
yard were shot away. The frigate's damages were very 
slight, and confined to her masts and sails ; but her master, 
Henry Damerell, was killed, and Henry W. Sibthorpe, mid- 
shipman, and two seamen, were wounded. 

At a little past 5h. a.m. the Lion gallantly ranged up to 
leeward of the French ship, and discharged her broadside 
with great precision and effect ; she then luffed across the 
bows of her opponent, and falling on board, earned away the 
Guillaume Tell's jib-boom. In this position, aided occasion- 
ally by the Penelope, she continued for a quarter of an hour, 
at which time the two ships swang clear, and the Lion, much 
cut up in her rigging and sails, dropped astern, but still 
continued her fire. About 6h. the Foudroyant, under a press 
of sail, came up on the Guillaume Tell's starboard side ; Sir 
Edward Berry hailing the French ship to surrender, and at 
the same time pouring in her powerful broadside. The 
request, however, was disregarded, and the French ship 
returned the fire with so much effect, that her second broad- 
side shot away the Foudroyant's fore-topmast, main-topsail- 
yard, jib-boom, and spritsail-yard, and her courses were cut 
into shreds. Thus crippled, she dropped astern, leaving the 
lion upon the Guillaume Tell's larboard beam, and the 
Penelope on her quarter. At 6h. 30m. the French ship's 



1800.] CAPTURE OF THE GUILLAUME TELL. 5 

main and inizen masts fell, and the Foudroyant, having 
cleared the wreck, soon resumed her position on the star- 
board quarter of the enemy. At 8h. the Guillaume Tells 
foremast fell over her side, and she became an unmanageable 
hulk, rolling her lower-deck ports under water. At 8h. 20m.,, 
finding further resistance unavailing, the French flag — the 
honour of which had never been better sustained — was 
hauled down. The Foudroyant 's lower masts were badly 
wounded, and her mizenmast so much injured, that it fell 
shortly after the close of the action. The Lion had suffered 
much aloft. 

The Foudroyant, out of a complement of 718 men and 
boys, had eight killed; Captain Sir Edward Berry (slightly). 
Lieutenant John A. Blow, Philip Bridge, boatswain, Edward 
West, Hon. Granville Proby, Thomas Cole, and Francis 
A. Collier, midshipmen, and fifty-eight seamen and marines^ 
wounded. The Lion, out of her crew of 300, had Hugh. 
Roberts, midshipman, and seven seamen and marines killed, 
and Alexander Hood, midshipman, and thirty-seven seamen 
and marines wounded. The Penelope had one killed and 
three wounded, as already stated, making the total loss 
amount to seventeen killed and 101 wounded. The Guillaume 
Tell had upwards of 200 killed and wounded in this heroic 
defence. The persevering gallantry of Captain Blackwood, 
his officers, and crew, to which the Guillaume Tell owed her 
capture, deserves every praise ; for had it not been for the 
Penelope's knocking away the topmasts of the French ship, 
she would, in all probability, have escaped. Nor should the 
gallantry of Captain Dixon be forgotten. The Guillaume 
Tell was towed by the Penelope to Syracuse, and added to 
the British navy by the name of Malta, in which, except the 
Canopus, she was the largest two-decked ship. The naval 
medal for the capture of the Guillaume Tell is given to the 
Penelope and Vincego, to the exclusion of the Lion and 
Foudroyant. 

On the 5th of April, a squadron, comprising the 74-gun 
ship Leviathan, Captain James Carpenter, bearing the flag 
of Rear- Admiral Duckworth; 74-gun ship Swift sure, Captain 
Benjamin Hallowell ; and 36-gun frigate Emerald, Captain 
Thomas M. Waller, fell in with a Spanish convoy of thirteen 
sail off Cadiz, under the protection of three frigates. At 



6 • BOAT ACTIONS, ETC. [1800. 

3L a.m. on the 6th, the Emerald captured a ship mounting 
ten guns, with a crew of seventy men ; but at daybreak the 
convoy, with the exception of a brig which lay becalmed near 
the Emerald, had got out of sight. Lieutenant Charles M. 
Gregory, with the boats of the Leviathan and Emerald, was 
despatched to board the brig, and after a sharp contest of 
forty minutes, she was carried without loss on either side. 
She was called Los Anglese, and mounted fourteen guns and 
six swivels, with a crew of forty-six men. The British ships 
then proceeded in chase of three sail seen from the mast- 
head steering different courses ; and at daybreak on the 7th, 
the Leviathan, after a stout resistance, captured the Spanish 
34-gun frigates El Carmen and Florentina. The frigates 
together sustained a loss of fifty men killed and wounded. 
The prizes were ships of 900 tons, and were added to the 
British navy under the names of El Carmen and Florentine. 

On the 13th of April, the cutter belonging to the 16-gun 
brig Calypso, Commander Joseph Baker, in charge of Wil- 
liam Buckley, master, being under Cape Tiburon, at llh. a.m., 
gallantly boarded and captured the French privateer 
schooner Diligente, mounting six guns, with a crew of 
thirty-nine men. Notwithstanding a heavy fire of musketry 
was opened upon the boat as she approached, only one man 
was wounded. The Diligente had seven badly wounded. 

On the 21st of April, the hired 14-gun lugger Lark, Lieu- 
tenant Thomas H. Wilson, while cruising off the Texel, 
chased and drove on shore a large French cutter privateer! 
On the 25th, the Lark chased the French 14-gun cutter 
Imprenable, which ran aground on the Vlie island, where 
her crew of sixty men maintained a spirited defence for 
about two hours, after which the crew of the privateer 
were seen escaping to the shore, where they intrenched 
themselves behind some sand-hills. Sending the master, 
Thomas Geltins, to attack the party on shore, which had 
been keeping up a smart fire of musketry, Lieutenant 
Wilson, with the remaining boat, proceeded to board the 
cutter, which, in consequence of the successful attack of the 
master's party, he was enabled to board and carry without 
loss. The cutter was got afloat and brought out. 

Genoa being in the possession of the French, and closely 
blockaded by the squadron under Yice-Admiral Lord Keith, 



1800.] CUTTING OUT THE PRIMA GALLEY. 7 

frequent bombardments took place under the orders of 
Captain Philip leaver, of the 28-gun frigate Aurora. The 
French suffering much injury from these repeated attacks, 
determined to capture the vessels employed on the service, 
and fitted out a flotilla, consisting of one large galley, called 
the Prima (rowing fifty-two oars and mounting two long 
brass 36-pounclers, besides smaller guns), an armed cutter, 
three settees, and several gun-boats. On the 20th of May 
this flotilla attacked the Audacious, the shot from the galley 
hulling her several times, but at sunset took up a position 
under the guns of the two moles and the city bastions. The 
British boats ; however, stood in-shore for the fourth time, to 
attack the town and shipping, and at a little past midnight 
opened their fire. This was returned by the batteries, but 
more especially by the Prima, which was by this time 
moored with chains close to the inside of the eastern mole- 
head. Captain Beaver, feeling the effect of her long guns, 
determined, if possible, to carry her by boarding; and 
selecting ten boats, carrying about 100 officers and men, 
proceeded on this perilous service. In the darkness which 
prevailed, the boats fell in with a gun-boat, which com- 
menced firing upon them ; but without taking notice of this 
enemy, they dashed alongside the Prima. The gunwale of 
the galley projected three feet from the side, and this was 
surmounted by a strong bulwark, on the top of which 
blunderbusses and wall-pieces were fixed ; the oars also were 
banked, and their looms or handles secured down to the 
thwarts, and the crew available for her defence amounted to 
257 men, which, alarmed by the firing of the gun-boat, were 
all prepared for the attack. The Haarlem's boat, com- 
manded by John Caldwell, midshipman, pushing under the 
oars, was the first to get alongside, and boarded her on the 
starboard side. Other boats quickly followed, and Captain 
Beaver, in the Minotaur's cutter, and Lieutenant William 
Gibson, in the Vestal's launch, by means of the images over 
the rudder-head and on her quarters, gained a footing on 
the poop-deck, where a considerable number of French 
soldiers were stationed. A short but desperate struggle 
ensued, but it ended in the capture of the galley, which was 
veiy soon released from her moorings and in tow of the 
British boats. The galley slaves readily manned the oars, 



8 BOAT ACTIONS [1800. 

and, in the teeth of a tremendous fire of shot and shell, the 
Prima was conveyed in safety alongside the Minotaur. The 
loss was slight on the part of the galley, amounting only to 
one man killed and fifteen wounded ; and the British had 
only five men wounded. The Prima measured 159 feet in 
length, and in breadth twenty-three feet six inches. In her 
hold were thirty large brass swivels, intended to have been 
mounted on her poop and forecastle. 

On the 10th of June, as Rear- Admiral Sir John Warren, 
in the Renown; with the Defence, Captain Lord Harry 
Paulet; Fisgard and Unicorn, frigates, Captains Thomas 
B. Martin and Philip Wilkinson, was cruising off the Pen- 
marcks, the boats were sent away to attack a convoy of 
brigs and chasse-marees lying at St. Croix, laden with wine 
and provisions for the Brest fleet. Eight boats were 
selected for the service, two from each ship, in charge of 
Lieutenants Henry Burke (Renown), WiUiam Dean, and 
Lieutenant of marines Mark A. Gerard (Fisgard), Thomas 
Stamp (Defence), and WiUiam Price (Unicorn), the whole of 
which quitted the Fisgard at 1 lh. p.m. Having to row against 
a head-wind, the boats were prevented reaching the objects 
of their attack until after daylight on the 1 1th, when, in the 
face of a heavy battery, three armed vessels, and a continual 
discharge of musketry from the shore, the British captured 
one gun-boat, two armed chasse-marees, and eight merchant 
vessels. The remainder escaped by running upon the rocks. 
This service was attended by no other casualty than three 
seamen and one marine wounded. Besides the above-named 
officers, acting Lieutenant Henry Jane, and master's mate 
John Fleming, and Lieutenant Killogrivoff, of the Russian 
navy, are honourably mentioned. 

On the 1st of July, Sir John Warren, having the same 
squadron (with the exception of the Unicorn) under his 
orders, received information that a large convoy was at 
anchor under the island of Noirmoutier, determined on des- 
patching the boats of the squadron to attempt its capture 
or destruction. The convoy was under the protection of 
the 20-gun corvette Therese, a 12-gun lugger, armed cutter, 
and two schooners, each mounting six guns. These, together 
with the convoy, were at anchor inside the sands, at the 
bottom of the bay, under cover of numerous batteries and 



1800.] UNDER LIEUTENANT BURKE. D 1 

guns, planted in the best positions for defence. The boats 
having assembled alongside the Fisgard, departed, as soon as 
the night closed in, in three divisions, and altogether con- 
tained 192 officers, seamen, and marines. The expedition 
was commanded by Lieut. Henry Burke, of the Renown, 
assisted by Lieut. William Dean (Fisgard), and Lieuts. of 
marines John Thompson, Charles H. Ballingall (Renown), 
Mark A. Gerard (Fisgard), and William Garrett and Hugh 
Hutton, of the Defence. At about midnight the boats, 
after a very obstinate resistance, captured the Therese and 
three of the armed vessels, together with fifteen sail of 
merchant ships, laden with corn, flour, and other provisions 
and necessaries for the fleet in Brest. As the prizes could 
not be brought off, Lieutenant Burke ordered them to be 
destroyed, which was effectually done. Having performed 
this exploit without loss, the boats were returning to the 
ships ; but before getting out of reach of the batteries, they 
grounded on a sand-bank, and in ten minutes were left high 
and dry. In this helpless situation the party became ex- 
posed to an incessant fire from the forts, and also from 
about 400 soldiers. Nothing daunted by their perilous 
situation, part of the boats' crews managed to get possession 
of one of the French row-boats, which still remained afloat, 
and in this vessel 100 officers and men succeeded in passing 
between and over the sands, and reached their ships ; 
but ninety-two, including Lieutenants Burke, Thompson, 
and Ballingall, who were wounded, were obliged to surrender 
themselves prisoners. 

On the 6th of July, Captain Henry Inman, in the 32-gun 
frigate Andromeda, having been intrusted with a squadron 
for the purpose of destroying some French frigates lying in 
Dunkirk, despatched Commander Patrick Campbell, in the 
30-gun corvette Dart ; l the gun-brigs Biter and Boxer, 
Lieuts. Samuel Norman and Thomas Gilbert ; fire-ships 

1 The Dart and Arrow were experimental vessels, built from the 
plans of Bentham. They were sharp, both forward and aft, like a 
wherry, and sailed very fast in fine weather ; their rig was peculiar, 
and altogether they were perfect originals. The armament of the Dart 
was thirty carronades, 32-pounders, fitted on the non-recoil principle, 
which, whatever might have been its disadvantages, enabled the men to 
load and fire with great celerity. Her complement was only 120 men. 



10 CAPTURE OF THE DESIREE. [1800. 

Wasp, Falcon, Comet, and Rosario, Commanders John 
Edwards, Henry S. Butt, Thomas Leef, and James Carthew, 
together with cutters and small craft, on this service. The 
Dart and squadron made sail in- shore, and at midnight got 
sight of the 24-pounder 44-gun frigate Poursuivaute, and 
40-gun frigates Carmagnole, Desiree, and Incorruptible, 
moored in line ahead. The Dart, on approaching the outer- 
most frigate, was hailed and asked from whence she came ; to 
which Captain Campbell replied, " De Bordeaux." They next 
desired to know what the vessels astern were ; but Captain 
Campbell answered — the Dart having by this time passed her 
— " Je ne sais pas." Determined to do the work effectually, 
the Dart continued her course for the inside frigate, and 
passed on unmolested until abreast of the third frigate, 
which fired a broadside. This salute the Dart returned 
from her fifteen double-shotted carronades, and, quickly 
reloading, prepared for the next ship. Having the cable 
passed aft, the anchor was let go, which brought her up by 
the stern ; but not before she had run the Desiree on board, 
her jib-boom passing under the frigate's forestay. The first 
lieutenant (James M c Dermeit), at the head of about fifty 
seamen and marines, immediately sprang upon the frigate's 
forecastle, and in a short time the British sailors were in 
possession of the deck. Lieutenant M c Dermeit was badly 
wounded in the arm, and the French, numbering 200 or 300, 
observing the small number of the British, were about to 
rally, when Lieutenant W. J. Pearce, with a second division 
of boarders, being sent to their assistance, speedily reduced 
the enemy to subjection. In fifteen minutes from the com- 
mencement, the cables of the Desiree were cut and the ship 
underway ; and this dashing exploit was performed with 
the loss of one seaman killed, and Lieutenant M c Dermeit, 
James Hall, master's mate, and nine seamen and marines 
wounded. The loss on board the Desiree was computed at 
100 killed and wounded. While the Dart was attacking 
the Desiree, the hired armed cutters Kent and Ann, Lieuts. 
Robert B. Cooban and Robert B. Young, spiritedly engaged 
several French gun-boats, in which both had one man 
wounded. The gun-brig Biter had her commander wounded 
on the same service. The fire-ships were admirably con- 
ducted, and were not abandoned until completely in flames. 



1800.] CAPTURE OF THE FREYA. 11 

Commander Thomas Leef and one seaman were wounded 
by the explosion of the Comet. The frigates, however, cut 
their cables and avoided them. The Desiree was got over 
the bar with some difficulty, and being a fine new ship of 
1,015 tons, was added to the British navy, and was soon 
afterwards commissioned by Captain In man. Commander 
Campbell, being posted, was appointed to the 20-gun ship 
Ariadne. Lieutenant M c Dermeit was promoted on the 
17th of July following, but did not long enjoy his rank, as 
his name disappears from the list of 1802. Mr. Hall was 
promoted in August, 1801. The naval medal has been 
granted for this action. 

On the 25th of July, at 6h. p.m., the Danish 18-pounder 
40-gun frigate Freya, Captain Krabbe, in charge of a convoj^, 
was fallen in with, in the North Sea, by the 28-gun frigate 
Nemesis, Captain Thomas Baker, having a squadron in 
company. Captain Krabbe refusing to allow any of the 
ships under his convoy to be searched, and having fired upon 
a boat sent away with that intention, the Nemesis and 
Arrow sloop opened fire upon the Danish frigate, and after 
a short action, in which the Nemesis and Arrow had each 
two men killed, the Freya hauled down her colours, having 
suffered a similar loss. This action was the ostensible cause 
of the rupture with the northern powers. 

On the 26th of July, Lieutenant Jeremiah Coghlan 
(acting), commanding the 10-gun cutter Viper, attached to 
the squadron of Sir Edward Pellew, watching Port Louis, 
proposed to cut out a French gun-brig, mounting three long 
24-pounders and four 6-pounders, moored, with springs on 
her cables, within pistol-shot of three batteries, and within 
a mile of a French seventy -four and two frigates. Per- 
mission being granted, Lieutenant Coghlan was intrusted 
with a ten-oared cutter, manned by twelve volunteers from 
the squadron, to which he added Silas Hiscutt Paddon, 
midshipman, and six seamen, from the Viper, in all twenty 
men. Another boat from the Amethyst and one from the 
Viper accompanied them. As they approached, it was dis- 
covered that the brig was fully prepared ; but, although the 
other boats were a great way astern, the lieutenant pushed 
on and boarded the brig on the quarter. Owing to the 
extreme darkness of the night, the leader jumped into a 



12 BOARDING THE CERBERE. [1800. 

trawl net, which was hung up to dry, and while thus 
entangled was wounded in the thigh by a pike ; several of 
his men were also wounded, and the whole, after much 
severe fighting, forced back into their boat. Having hauled 
further ahead, another attempt was made, but the boarders 
were a second time repulsed. The third attempt was more 
successful ; and the Cerbere was carried, with the loss, out 
of a crew of eighty-seven, of six men killed and twenty — 
including all her officers — wounded. Lieutenant Coghlan 
and Mr. Paddon were both severely wounded, the former in 
two, and the latter in six places, and one seaman was killed 
and eight wounded. The other boats now joining, took the 
prize in tow, and brought her out under a heavy but ineffectual 
fire from the batteries. Mr. Coghlan, although he had not 
served the prescribed time, was confirmed in his rank, and 
the officers and men of the squadron bearing testimony to 
the extreme gallantry of the affair, generously relinquished 
all claim to the prize in favour of those immediately con- 
cerned in her capture. The naval medal has been awarded 
for the above splendid achievement. 

On the 4th of August, the 64-gun ship Belliqueux, Cap- 
tain Rowley Bulteel, being off the coast of Brazil with a 
fleet of outward-bound East Indiamen under her protection, 
fell in with the French 40-gun frigate Concorde, Commodore 
J. F. Landolphe ; 36-gun frigates Medee and Franchise, 
Captains J. I). Coudin and Pierre Jurien, and a prize 
schooner tender. At 7h. the French squadron stood towards 
the convoy ; but at noon, having approached within a few 
miles, the warlike appearance of the ships induced the 
French to bear up under all sail, steering different courses. 
The Belliqueux chased the Concorde, and directed the 
Indiamen — Exeter, Captain Henry Meriton, with the Bom- 
bay Castle, Coutts, and Neptune, Captains John Hamilton, 
Robert Torin, and Nathaniel Spens — to pursue the Medee. 
The Concorde was overtaken and captured by the Belliqueux 
at oh. 30m. p.m., after a short resistance. At 7h. p.m., the 
Exeter ranging up alongside the Medee, with all her ports 
up, Captain Meriton demanded the surrender of the frigate. 
This demand, to the infinite surprise of Captain Meriton, 
was complied with, the French captain believing his frigate 
to be under the guns of a line-of-battle ship, and con- 



1800.] SEINE AND VENGEANCE. 13 

sidering any attempt at defence fruitless. The Franchise 
escaped. 

On the morning of the 20th of August, the 18-pounder 
38-gun frigate Seine, Captain David Milne, being in the 
Mona Passage, chased the French 18-pounder 40-gun frigate 
Vengeance, Captain Pichot. The French frigate being un- 
able to weather Cape Raphael, bore up and made all sail, 
followed by the Seine. At llh. 30m. p.m., the Seine brought 
the Vengeance to action, but being much cut up in sails and 
rigging, dropped astern, nor could she regain her position 
until 8h. a.m. on the 21st. Having succeeded in getting 
alongside the Vengeance, a close action commenced, which 
continued until lOh. 30m., when the French frigate, having 
lost her fore and mizen masts and main-topmasts, all of 
which fell on board, and being much shattered in her hull, 
surrendered. The Seine lost none of her spars, but her 
mainmast was badly wounded. Her loss, out of 281 men 
and boys, amounted to Lieutenant George Milne and twelve 
seamen killed, and the master, Andrew Barclay, Lieutenant 
of marines Archibald Macdonald, — Home, captain's clerk, 
and twenty-three seamen and marines wounded. The Ven- 
geance, out of a crew of 326 men, had thirty killed and 
seventy wounded. The Vengeance was a fine ship of 1,180 
tons, and was added to the British navy under the same 
name. The first lieutenant of the Seine, Edward Chetham, 
was promoted to the rank of commander, on the 7th of 
November following. The naval medal is awarded for the 
above action. 

On the 24th of August, the French 40-gun frigates Diane 
and Justice sailed from Valetta, hoping to evade the block- 
ading force, but were quickly perceived by the squadron 
under Captain George Martin, and Captain Shulclham Peard, 
in the 32-gun frigate Success, closed with the Diane, and 
compelled her to surrender. The Diane had only 114 men 
on board when she commenced the action, which accounts for 
her trifling resistance. The Justice effected her escape. The 
prize, a fine ship of 1,140 tons, was added to the navy 
under the name of Mobe. 

On the 29th of August, Lieutenant Henry Burke, still of 
the Renown, being released from French prison, was 
favoured with another opportunity of distinguishing him- 



14 CUTTING-OUT EXPEDITIONS. [1800. 

a *lL £ q ° Sq r dr ° n ° f ^ j0lm WaiTen was Posing 

along the Spanish coast, a ship was observed running into 

Kio and this vessel having sheltered herself under the 

batteries near Redondella, Vigo Bay, it was determined to 

cut her out Lieutenant Burke was accordingly intrusted 

with twenty boats belonging to the squadron, with which he 

proceeded to the attack. At a little past midnight, the 

boats were observed in their approach by the enemy, which 

was the Spanish 18-gun privateer Guepe, having a crew of 

160 men who gave a cheer, to show they were prepared for 

the attack The boats, however, dashed on, and m fifteen 

minutes the Guepe was earned, with the loss to the British 

of three seamen and one marine killed; and Lieutenants 

Burke, John H. Holmes, and Joseph Nourse (of the Coura- 

geux), twelve seamen, and five marines, wounded. The 

Guepe had twenty-five men killed, her commander (mortally) 

and thirty-nine wounded. Lieutenant Burke was most 

deservedly promoted to the rank of commander immediately 

afterwards. The naval medal is awarded for this action to 

those present m the boats of the Renown, Iinpetueux, 

London, Courageux, Amethyst, Stag, Amelia, Brilliant, and 

L-yntnia. 

On the fifth of September, the fortress of Valetta and its 
dependencies capitulated ; and on the same day Malta was 
taken possession of by the British forces, under Major- 
General Pigott and Captain George Martin. In the port were 
the 64-gun ships Athenien and Dego, and the frigate Car- 
thagenaise. The Athenien was added to the British navy 

On the 3rd of September, the 74-gun ship Minotaur, 
Captain Thomas Louis, and frigate Niger, armed en Mte, 
Commander James Hillyar, being off Barcelona, perceived 
the Spanish 22-gun corvettes Esmeralda and Paz at anchor 
in the roads. It being determined to cut them out, eight 
boats under Commander Hillyar, assisted by Lieutenants 
Charles M Schomberg and Thomas Warrand ; James Reid 
master, and Lieutenant of marines John Jewel, and Midship- 
men James Lowry and Richard S. Haly, proceeded towards 
the shore at 8h. p.m As they approached, the Esmeralda 
nred her broadside ; but before she could reload, the boats 
yere alongside, and she was boarded and gallantly carried 
As soon as the cheers of the boarding party announced the 



1800.] LIEUTENANT FITTON AT CURACOA. 15 

surrender of the Esmeralda, the Paz cut her cables and 
endeavoured to run ashore ; but the boats reached her before 
she could effect this, and the Paz also was brought out, not- 
withstanding a heavy fire from four batteries, ten gun-boats, 
and two schooners, and a fort on an eminence, which threw 
shells. The loss amounted to two seamen and one marine 
killed, James Reid (master of the Minotaur) and four seamen 
wounded. The Spaniards had four killed and twenty-one 
wounded. The Esmeralda and Paz were laden with pro- 
visions and stores. 

On the 13th of September, the Dutch authorities at 
Curacoa sent a deputation to Captain Frederick Watkins, of 
the JSTereide, claiming the protection of England from the 
French revolutionary party in possession of the west end of 
the island, and Curacoa was surrendered in due form to his 
Britannic majesty by the governor. Previously to this event, 
Amsterdam had been closely watched by the frigate, and also 
by the 8-gun schooner Active, Lieutenant Michael Fitton 
acting. This vessel was stationed close to the harbour, off 
which were lying, moored under Fort Piscadera, five or six 
French privateers, the position of which was too strong to 
warrant a regular attack. Lieutenant Fitton, however, 
having observed that it was the custom of the officers to 
repair on shore at a certain hour to dine at the fort, deter- 
mined to create a little amusement, which, owing to his 
paltry force, was all he could expect to do. Marking the 
time when the boats quitted the privateers, the Active, under 
all sail, ran into the harbour, and having got close to the 
privateers, brought to, and fired two or three broadsides in 
quick succession right into their sterns. Instantly all was 
bustle, the fort was quickly manned \ but Lieutenant Fitton, 
having secured a fair wind out, remained as long as the safety 
of his vessel permitted, and continued to fire upon the 
privateers, and also upon the boats reconveying the officers 
from the fort to the vessels. The forts quickly opened upon 
the little schooner, but the artillerists did not succeed in 
hulling her. Her sails, however, were much cut, and the 
shot frequently dashed the spray upon the vessel's deck. 

On the 8th of October, the 4-pounder 10-gun schooner 
Gipsy, tender to the Leviathan, Lieutenant Coryndon Boger, 
had a smart action off Guadaloupe with the French sloop 



16 BOATS OF PHAETON '. MILBROOK AND BELLONE. [1800. 

Quidproquo, of four long 8-pounders and ninety-eight men, 
principally soldiers, commanded by M . Tourpie. After an 
engagement of an hour and a half, the sloop surrendered, 
having her captain and four seamen killed, and eleven 
wounded. The Gipsy had three seamen killed, and Lieu- 
tenant Boger and nine wounded. 

On the 27th of October, four boats belonging to the 
38-gun frigate Phaeton, Captain James Nicoll Morris, under 
the orders of Lieutenant Francis Beaufort, assisted by Lieu- 
tenant George Huish, Lieutenant of marines Duncan Camp- 
bell, and Midshipmen Augustus B. P. P. Hamilton and 
Anthony C. Stanton, proceeded to the attack of the Spanish 
14-gun polacre San Josef, lying under the protection of five 
guns on the fortress of Fuengirola, near Malaga. The launch 
being unable to keep up with the barge and cutters, the latter 
three, at 5h. a.m. on the 28th, under a heavy fire of musketry, 
boarded, and, in spite of a desperate resistance, carried the 
polacre. The boats were also fired at by a French privateer 
schooner, which had entered the roadstead unseen. One sea- 
man was killed, and Lieutenant Beaufort (severely), Lieu- 
tenant Campbell, Mr. Hamilton, and one seaman wounded. 
The San Josef, whose crew comprised thirty-four seamen and 
twenty-two soldiers, had nineteen men wounded. The prize 
was commissioned as a British slooj) of war, and named the 
Calpe. Lieutenant Beaufort was promoted to the rank of 
commander in November A naval medal has been granted 
for this exploit. 

On the 1 3th of November, at daylight, the 1 6-gun schooner 
Milbrook, Lieutenant Matthew Smith, being off Oporto, 
discovered the Bellone, French privateer, of thirty guns. By 
the aid of her sweeps, the Milbrook closed, and at 8h. a.m. 
commenced the action with this formidable enemy. Lieu- 
tenant Smith was induced to seek this unequal contest 
in order to test the efficiency of the Milbrook's armament, 
which consisted of 18-pounder carronades, on the non-recoil 
principle. The action was fought within musket-shot, and 
so rapid and effective was the fire from the British schooner, 
that at lOh. the Bellone's colours were hauled down. The 
Milbrook, however, had received much damage, and not 
having a boat that would swim, was unable to take possession 
of her prize ; and the Bellone, availing herself of a light air 



1800.] CUTTING OUT THE REOLAISE. 17 

of wind, made sail, and, rehoisting her colours, escaped Out 
of forty-seven men, the Milbrook had eight seamen and one 
marine severely wounded ; and Thomas Fletcher, master 
J Pariter, surgeon's mate, and one seaman, slightly wounded' 
The Bellone was armed with long 8-pounders on the main 
deck, and six brass 36-pounder carronades on her quarter- 
deck and forecastle, with a crew of 250 men : of which 
number twenty were killed, and forty-five wounded, including 
her captain. Lieutenant Smith was promoted to the rank of 
commander in February, 1801, and the merchants of Oporto 
to mark their sense of his gallantry, presented him with a 
piece of plate, value £50. 

4 .° a**® 1 ™ 1 <> f Noyember, the 74-gun ship Captain, Cap- 
wnr ^ 1C . ard Strachan > and frigate Magicienne, Captain 
William Ogilvy, with the cutter Nile and lugger Suwarrow 
Lieutenants George Argles and James Nicholson, while 
cruising near the Morbihan, chased into Port Navalo the 
French 20-gun corvette Reolaise. In the evening, the boats 
ol the squadron, under Lieutenant William Hennah, assisted 
by Lieutenants Charles Clyde and Eichard W. Clarke pro- 
ceeded to the attack of the corvette. The boats approached 
in spite of a heavy fire from all sides of the shore, and after 
a short struggle, the Reolaise was captured. The prize was 
set on fire and destroyed. One seaman killed and seven 
wounded, was the loss sustained by the British. On the 7th 
of December, the cutters Nile and Lurcher, Lieutenants 
George Argles and Robert Forbes, dispersed and captured 
.part of a French convoy in Quiberon Bay. 

On the 10th of December, the 16-gun brig Admiral 
Pasley, Lieutenant Charles I. Nevin, was captured off Ceuta 
by two large Spanish gun-boats, after a very gallant defence, 
m which she had three seamen killed, and Lieutenant 
JNevm, Mr. Gibbs, master, and eight seamen wounded. 



vol. n. 



18 DESTRUCTION OF THE SENEGAL. [1801. 



1801. 

The northern powers, taking umbrage at the right of 
search practised by British cruisers, formed an alliance, and 
having assumed a menacing attitude, rendered a corre- 
sponding measure on the part of the British government 
imperative. In February, Spain and Portugal joined the 
confederate nations, and England, single-handed, was at war 
with the world. 

On the 3rd of January, five boats from the 38-gun frigate 
Melpomene, Captain Sir Charles Hamilton, under the orders 
of-Lieuts. Thomas Dick and William Palmer, with Lieut, of 
marines William Vivyan, and Lieut. Christie, of the A frican 
corps, proceeded to attack the French 18-gun brig Senegal 
and a schooner, in the Senegal River. At 9h. 30m. p.m., the 
boats left the Melpomene, and pulled in safety through a 
surf which broke heavily on the bar, unseen from the battery 
at the point, and at llh. 10m. arrived within a few yards of 
the brig's bows. The brig, on discovering their approach, 
opened fire from her bow guns, and at the first discharge 
killed Lieutenant Palmer and seven men, and two boats 
were sunk. The remaining three boats dashed on, boarded 
the brig, and, after a very hard fight of twenty minutes, 
carried the enemy, on board which were sixty men, com- 
manded by Citizen Renou. The schooner cut her cable and 
took shelter under a battery on the south side of the river. 
The brig was got under sail; but owing to an ebbing tide 
and a want of knowledge of the river, she grounded on the 
bar, and it was found necessary to quit her. After pulling 
through a very heavy surf, exposed to a fire of grape and 
musketry from the shore, the boats regained the Melpomene. 
The brig was soon up to her gunwales in the quicksand, and 
totally destroyed. The loss amounted to Lieuts. Palmer and 
Vivyan, Robert Main, midshipman, six seamen, one marine, 
and a corporal of the African corps, killed; and Lieut. 
Christie, John Hendrie, master's mate, Robert Darling, 



1801.] CAPTURE OF THE ECLAIR, ETC. 19 

surgeon's mate, ten seamen, and five marines, wounded : 
total, eleven killed, and eighteen wounded. 

On the evening of the 17th of January, the French 
schooner Eclair, mounting four long guns and twenty swivels, 
with a crew of forty-five men, having anchored under the 
protection of two batteries at Trois Rivieres, Guadaloupe, 
the Garland tender, accompanied by the boats of the 20-gun 
ship Daphne, Captain Richard Matson, 18-gun ship-sloops 
Cyane and Hornet, Commanders Henry Matson and James 
Nash, under the command of Lieuts. Kenneth Mackenzie 
and Francis Peachey, proceeded to cut her out. The Gar- 
land, having on board Lieutenant Peachey, together with 
twenty-five seamen and marines, however, undertook the 
business alone ; and having succeeded at daylight on the 
18th in getting alongside the Eclair, after a short struggle 
captured her, with the loss of two men killed and three 
wounded. The Eclair was a fine vessel of 145 tons, and was 
added to the British navy as a 12-gun schooner. 

On the 20th of January, the 28-gun frigate Mercury, 
Captain Thomas Rogers, captured off Sardinia, after a nine 
hours' chase, the French corvette Sans-Pareille, mounting 
eighteen brass 8-pounders and two 36-pounder carronades. 
The Sans-Pareille made no resistance. She was laden with 
shot, arms, &c, for the French army in Egypt. 

On the 26th of January, the French 36-gun frigate De- 
daigneuse was chased off Cape Finisterre by the 12-pounder 
36-gun frigate Oiseau, Captain Samuel Hood Linzee. The 
frigates Sirius and Amethyst, Captains Richard King and 
John Cooke, joined in the pursuit, and the Dedaigneuse was 
captured, after a running fight of forty minutes, in which 
she had twenty men killed and wounded. The prize 
measured 900 tons, and was added to the British navy under 
her French name. 

The Active, whose adventure under Fort Piscadera we 
have just related, 1 having returned to Jamaica, was found to 
need a thorough repair, which would occupy some con- 
siderable time ; and Lieutenant Fitton, in order to keep Ins 
crew together, obtained permission from Rear-Admiral 
Duckworth to fit out temporarily one of the Active's prizes, 

1 See page 15, ante. 
c2 



20 ACTIVE'S PRIZE AND SANTA MARIA. [1801. 

to cruise in while the tender was repairing. The vessel 
selected was a Spanish felucca of about fifty tons burden, and 
exceedingly shallow, but in fine weather sailed fast. Her 
armament consisted of a long 12-pounder gun on a pivot, 
which, by means of a screw, was raised from or lowered into 
the hold. Having with difficulty crammed the crew into 
this crazy vessel, Lieutenant Fitton put to sea in January, 
and stood over to the Spanish main, where he succeeded in 
capturing and destroying several Spanish privateers and 
small craft, which had for a long time infested the commerce 
of the islands. A succession of bad weather, together with 
the leaky state of the felucca's deck, having caused much 
sickness on board, Lieutenant Fitton took possession of a 
small key near Point Canoe, where he landed his sick, and 
endeavoured to remedy some of the defects of his vessel. 
These, however, were for the most part irremediable : her 
rigging and sails were rotten, and he possessed no store 
either of canvass or rope ; but as the felucca's sails were 
larger than necessary, Lieutenant Fitton, by altering the rig 
more into that of a lugger, reduced them, and from the can- 
vass saved he made sail-twine, and repaired the sails. Thus 
refitted, the felucca quitted the key and stood over towards 
Porto Bello, in the hope of making a prize of some vessel 
which should be more seaworthy, and which would carry 
himself and crew back to Jamaica. 

On the 23rd of January, early in the morning, being off" 
Cape Rosario, a schooner was discovered in-shore, which 
made sail towards the felucca; but the latter allowed the 
schooner to close before showing any hostile intention. The 
stranger was the Spanish guarda costa Santa Maria, mounting 
six (but pierced for ten) long 6-pounders and ten swivels, 
with a crew of sixty men, commanded by Don Josef Corei ; 
which, having approached within musket-shot to windward, 
hauled up, and suspecting the character of the felucca, refused 
a closer contact. Lieutenant Fitton's intention was to 
board ; but being denied an opportunity, he could only resort 
to his gun, which, being raised from the hold, was discharged 
with such quickness and precision, that, after thirty minutes' 
mutual cannonading, the Santa Maria crowded sail for the 
Isle of Varus, closely followed by the British vessel. To 
escape her persevering adversary, the Santa Maria at length 



1801.] BORDELAIS WITH CURIEUX AND CONSORTS. 21 

ran ashore, and in a few minutes the felucca grounded 
within a few yards of her. The Spanish crew still keeping 
up a galling fire of musketry, Lieutenant Fitton, having no 
boat, gallantly jumped overboard with his sword between his 
teeth, and, followed by several of his crew, swam to the 
schooner, and after much resistance, gained possession of the 
vessel. By means of the anchors and cables of the prize, 
the felucca (having first thrown her gun overboard) was hove 
off; and as the inhabitants were assembling in great num- 
bers on the shore, and annoying the crew with musketry, it 
was found necessary to destroy the schooner. After allowing 
her crew to land, and taking from her all that could be 
removed, she was set on fire. In this affair, the tender had 
two seamen killed and five wounded. Many in the sick-list, 
on hearing the order given to board, unmindful of the 
doctor's injunctions, quitted their hammocks and jumped 
overboard with the rest, but being excessively weak, 
were with difficulty preserved from drowning. The loss of 
the guarda costa, as owned to by her officers, amounted to 
five men killed and nine wounded, including her commander, 
very badly. Having effected this gallant service, Lieutenant 
Fitton 1 made sail for Jamaica, and arrived in Black River 
on the fourth day, with scarcely a gallon of water on board. 
On the 29th of January, the 24-gun ship Bordelais, Cap- 
tain Thomas Manby, while off Barbadoes, was chased by two 
French national brigs and a schooner. At sunset, the Bor- 
delais having shortened sail, the Curieux, of eighteen long 
8-pounders, Captain Radelet, Murine, of sixteen long 
6-pounders, and schooner Esperance, of six 4-pounders, got 
within range. At 6h. p.m., the Bordelais having wore round, 
brought the Curieux to action within half pistol-shot ; which 
was maintained by the brig for thirty minutes, her consorts 
having abandoned her at the onset. The brig, finding the 
3 2 -pounders of the Bordelais too much for her, was compelled 
to surrender, after having had fifty men killed and wounded, 

1 At the peace which followed at the end of this year, this dashing 
officer returned to England ; and although he had been acting for about 
six years, in each of which he had seen much service, the Admiralty, in 
consequence of some informality in his acting order, refused to confirm 
him in the rank of lieutenant ! — and he afterwards served near two years 
before this rank was conferred upon him. 



Ships. 








Admiral Lord Keith, K.B. (blue 


Foudroyant ■ 


Captain Philip Beaver 




„ 


William Young 


Kent - 


Rear-Adm. Sir R. Bickerton, Bt. (white) 


Captain William Hope 


Ajax . . ... ... ... ... 


,, 


Hon. A. Inglis Cochrane 


Minotaur,.. ... ... ... 


>> 


Thomas Louis 


Northumberland 


a 


George Martin 


Tigre . . 


}> 


Sir Wm. Sidney Smith 


Swiftsure. . ... . . ... 


>> 


Benjamin Hallowell 



22 LANDING IN EGYPT. [1801. 

including the captain, who had both legs shot off, and who 
only survived a few hours. The Bordelais had one man 
killed, and Lieut. Robert Barrie, James Jones, master's 
mate, John Lions, midshipman, and four seamen wounded. 
The Curieux foundered at 8h. p.m. ; and midshipmen Spence 
aud Auckland, with five seamen of the Bordelais, perished 
in her, along with a great portion of the wounded. 

On the 31st of January, a squadron, consisting of the 
following ships, arrived in Marmorice Bay, on the coast of 
Karamania. 

Guns. 

80 



74 J 



with frigates, flutes, and transports, amounting in all to 
seventy sail, having on board 16,000 troops, under General 
Sir Ralph Abercromby. This fleet sailed from Marmorice, 
and reached Alexandria on the 1st of February, and on the 
same day anchored in Aboukir Bay; but a succession of 
northerly gales had caused so heavy a swell, that the dis- 
embarkation was delayed until the 8th. 

At 3h. a.m. on this day the signal was made for the boats, 
in number 320, to assemble near the Mondovi, Captain John 
Stewart, anchored about a gun-shot from the shore; and at 
9h. a.m. the flotilla, formed in a double line abreast, with the 
accuracy of a column of soldiers, pulled steadily towards the 
shore, flanked at each end by gun-boats and an armed cutter. 
The whole were under the direction of Captain Cochrane, of 
the Ajax, assisted by Captains James Stevenson (Europa), 
George Scott (Stately), John Larmour (Diadem), Charles 
Apthorp (Druid), and John Morrison (Thisbe), and by the 
several agents of transports. The launches, containing the 
field artillery, as well as a detachment of seamen to co-operate 
with the army, were under the direction of Captain Sir 
Sidney Smith, assisted by Commanders Peter Bibouleau 



1801.] LANDING IN EGYPT. 23 

(Astrea), David Oliver Guion (Eurus), John G. Saville (Ex- 
periment), John Burn (Blonde), and James Hillyar (Niger). 
The bomb-vessels Tartarus and Fury, Commanders Thomas 
Hand and Richard Curry, were placed at the proper distance 
for throwing shells ; and the sloops Peterel, Cameleon, and 
Minorca, Commanders Charles Inglis, Edward O'Bryen, and 
George Miller, were moored close to the beach, with their 
broadsides bearing upon it. The battalion of marines ap- 
pointed to act with the army was commanded by Lieu- 
tenant-Colonel Walter Smith. 

The French troops assembled to dispute the landing 
amounted to about 7,000 men, under General Friant, winch 
were formed behind the sand-hills ; and on a steep hill a 
battery of fifteen pieces of heavy artillery was advantageously 
placed, and field-pieces and mortars were planted with equal 
skill. As the boats approached the shore, a very destruc- 
tive cannonade was opened from the guns on the heights, 
and also from the castle of Aboukir, to which was soon added 
a constant roar of musketry, as well as grape-shot from the 
sand-hills. The boats, however, moved on in excellent order, 
and in a short time the troops were disembarked on the 
beach, and quickly dashed on at the enemy, which, after a 
sharp contest, were driven from their position. The boats 
returned for the second division ; and before the evening of 
the 9th, the whole army, together with their stores and 
provisions, were landed. 

Sir Sidney Smith was then detached, with 1,000 seamen, 
to serve with the army, which with their usual energy, under 
their daring leader, dragged cannon up the heights. The 
loss sustained on the whole, including that occasioned by 
landing the troops, amounted to twenty-two men killed, and 
Lieutenants John Bray (Stately), George Thomas (Europa), 
and Francis Collins (Dolphin); Richard Ogleby, master's 
mate (Charon); John Finchley (Swiftsure), John Donellan 
(Iphigenia), and Edward Robinson (Dictator), midshipmen 
(the latter mortally), and sixty-three seamen, wounded. The 
army had, on the same occasion, 124 killed and 585 
wounded. 

On the 12th of February the British army moved forward, 
and on the 13th a battle was fought, in which the seamen 
and marines took a very distinguished part, and Mr. Wright 



24 PENGUIN AND FRENCH SQUADRON. [1801. 

(midshipman) and five seamen were killed, and nineteen 
seamen wounded ; and Lieuts. of marines Paul Hussey and 
John Linzee Spea, and twenty-two were killed; and Major 
William Minto, Captain Robert Torkington, Lieuts. John 
Perry and George Peebles, two sergeants, and twenty-nine 
privates, wounded. The army had 186 killed and 1,135 
wounded. For the subsequent operations of the British 
army, and the death of Sir Ralph Abercromby, we must 
refer our readers to our military historians. A naval med^i 
has been granted to those who participated in this arduous 
service. 

The 32-gun frigate Success, Captain Shuldham Peard, was 
captured on the 13th of February by a French squadron 
under M. Ganteaume. 

On the 18th of February, the 18-gun sloop Penguin, Com- 
mander Robert Mansel, being in. lat. 28° 24/ north, Ion. 
18° 17' west, on her way to the Cape of Good Hope with 
despatches, discovered three ships on her weather quarter, 
bearing west-north-west, the leading one a corvette, having 
twelve ports of a side. The corvette, at a little past noon, 
edged off the wind to close the Penguin, which in the mean- 
while had shortened sail, and got ready to receive her. But 
a nearer approach induced the French commander to alter 
his design, and he tacked to rejoin lus consorts. The Pen- 
guin also tacked, and at 5h. 10m. arrived within gun-shot of 
the corvette, which then, with her companions, fired a shot 
and hoisted French colours. After much manoeuvring, the 
largest of the enemy's ships (apparently a store-ship) appeared 
to meditate running the British brig on board; but a well- 
directed broadside from the latter caused this ship to let fly 
her top-gallant sheets, and haul down her colours. Captain 
Mansel, without waiting to take possession of a beaten 
enemy, hauled to the wind in pursuit of the corvette, and at 
7h. 45m. was on the point of renewing the engagement when 
her fore-topmast went over the side, on which the corvette 
bore up to attack her, and a veiy spirited action ensued. 
The engagement lasted till Sh. 30m. p.m., when the corvette 
again hauled to the wind, and discontinued the action. The 
damages to the sails and rigging of the Penguin, in conse- 
quence of the description of missile fired from the corvette's 
guns (iron bars about twelve inches in length), were very 



1801.] PHCEBE AND AFRICAINE. 25 

great ; but having repaired them, and got up another top- 
mast, she again made sail in chase, and at daylight on the 
19th regained sight of them; but all three succeeded in 
reaching Teneriffe. The Penguin's loss, in consequence of 
the high firing of the corvette, was one man killed and a few 
wounded. 

On the 19th of February, at 4h. p.m., the 18-pounder 
36-gun frigate Phoebe, Captain Robert Barlow, when about 
two leagues to the eastward of Gibraltar, working up for that 
place, with the wind at west, discovered a ship under a press 
of sail steering to the eastward. The Phcebe immediately 
hove about, and made sail after the stranger, and at 7h. 30m., 
by good sailing, arrived up on the larboard quarter, and fired 
a gun as a signal for her to heave to. The stranger, which 
was the French 40-gun frigate Africaine, Commodore Saul- 
nier, from Rochefort, bound to Egypt, having on board 400 
troops, finding an action inevitable, shortened sail, and hauled 
up on the larboard tack. The Phcebe also hauled up to 
windward, and the two ships being abreast of each other, 
engaged with great spirit until 9h. 30m., when the Africaine, 
having her decks covered with killed and wounded, and her 
masts, . sails, and rigging very much damaged, with five feet 
water in the hold, struck her colours. The carnage on board 
the Africaine was terrific. Of her crew and troops — together 
715 persons — she had Commodore Saulnier, a brigadier- 
general, three surgeons (killed in the cockpit), ten officers, 
and 185 seamen and soldiers, killed; and General Desforneaux, 
two generals of brigade, her first lieutenant (Jacques Magen- 
die), thirteen inferior officers, and 125 seamen and soldiers, 
wounded : total, 200 killed, and 143 wounded. The Phoebe's 
crew numbered 239 men, of whom she had one seaman 
killed, and her first lieutenant, John Wentworth Holland, 
Thomas Griffiths, master, and ten seamen wounded. Both 
ships reached Mahon about a fortnight after the action. 
Captain Barlow received the honour of knighthood, and 
Lieutenant Holland was promoted to the rank of commander. 
The prize was added to the British navy as an 18-pounder 
38-gun frigate, under the name of Amelia. The naval 
medal has recently been awarded to the survivors of this 
action. 

On tht 22nd of March, the frigates Andromache and 



26 EXPEDITION TO COPENHAGEN. [1801. 

Cleopatra, Captains Israel Pellow and Rober Lawrie, cruising 
off the north-east coast of Cuba, observed a convoy of 
twenty-five Spanish vessels, known to be richly laden, at 
anchor in the Bay of Levita, under the protection of three 
armed galleys. The boats were accordingly despatched, 
under the command of Lieutenant Joseph Taylor, of the 
Andromache, and at midnight arrived within gun-shot of 
the galleys, which received them with a heavy and destruc- 
tive fire of grape, langridge, and musketry. The boats, 
however, dashed on, and boarded ; but having suffered a 
heavy loss in the execution of this service, it was found imprac- 
ticable to carry off more than one trophy. Several boats were 
sunk, and the loss amounted to Lieutenant Taylor, William 
M c Cuin, master's mate, William Winchester, midshipman 
(both of the Cleopatra), and six seamen killed, and twelve 
wounded. The loss on board the Spanish vessels was also 
severe. 

The threatening attitude assumed by the northern powers 
just alluded to having rendered some step necessary on the 
part of the British government, a fleet was despatched from 
Yarmouth Boads on the 12th of March, under the command 
of Admiral Sir Hyde Parker, having Lord Nelson as his 
vice-admiral. This fleet consisted of eighteen sail of the 
line, with frigates and bomb-vessels, &c, having on board the 
49th regiment, two companies of the rifle corps, and a 
detachment of artillery. On the 21st, the fleet anchored at 
the entrance of the Sound. Mr. Yansittart, in the Blanche 
frigate, who had preceded the expedition, and had gone on 
to Copenhagen, returned to the fleet on the 23 rd, together 
with Mr. Drummond, the British charge cF affaires at Copen- 
hagen, when it appeared that all the terms proposed by the 
English government had been rejected, and that the Danes 
were using every means to resist an attack. 1 

1 While these negotiations were under discussion, an officer of dis- 
tinction, and high in favour with the crown prince, arrived on board the 
admiral's ship, with a verbal answer to some of the proposals. Finding 
some difficulty in making himself understood, the officer was requested 
to submit his communication in writing, and a pen (none of the best, 
probably) was offered to him for the purpose. Observing that it had 
seen much service and required mending, the officer, whose wit was 



1801.] NELSON AT COPENHAGEN. 27 

After some little delay, the British fleet got underway at 
6h. a.m. on the 30th, and with a fine breeze at north-north- 
west, formed in line ahead and proceeded up the Sound ; 
the van division commanded by Vice- Admiral Lord Nelson, 
the centre by Sir Hyde Parker, and the rear by Eear- 
Admiral Thomas Graves. At 7h. a.m., the batteries at 
Elsineur opened fire upon the Monarch, but without doing 
any damage ; and only a few ships fired in return, except 
the bomb-vessels, which threw more than 200 shells into 
Cronenburg and Helsingen, doing much execution. The only 
casualty in the British fleet was occasioned by the bursting 
of a 24-pounder on board the Isis, by which accident seven 
men were killed and wounded. The fleet continued its 
course, keeping within a mile of the Swedish shore, on 
which only eight guns were mounted, and thus avoided 
the fire of 100 pieces of cannon mounted in the castle of 
Cronenburg. 

About noon, the fleet anchored above the island of Huen, 
and fifteen miles below Copenhagen. The three admirals, 
with Captain Domett, Colonel Stuart, and others, then 
proceeded in the Lark lugger to reconnoitre the defences of 
the enemy ; and in the evening a council of war was held 
on board the London, at which Lord Nelson offered to con- 
duct an attack with ten sail of the line and all the smaller 
vessels. This proposal was accepted by Sir Hyde Parker, 
who added two ships of the line to the force demanded, and 
the following were selected for this service : — 

Guns. Ships. 

( Vice- Admiral Lord Nelson, K.B. (blue) 

Elephant < Captain Thomas Foley 

f „ Thomas M. Hardy 
Defiance \ R^ 3,1 "" Admiral Thomas Graves (white) 

mi J '"" ( Captain Richard Retalick 

~RA"»r George Murray 



Edgar 
j Monarch 
I Bellona 
I Ganges 
I. Russell 



James Robert Mosse 
Sir Thomas Bouldeh Thompson 
Thomas Francis Fremantle 
William Cuming 



sharp enough, remarked, sarcastically, that if their guns were not better 
pointed than their pens, they would not make any very great impression 
on the walls of Copenhagen. 



28 RECONNOITRING THE ENEMY. [1801. 

Guns. Ships. 

! Agamemnon . . Captain Robert Devereux Fancourt 

Ardent „ Thomas Bertie 

Polyphemus ... „ John Lawford 

50 jGlatton „ William Bligh 

{ Isis „ James Walker 

Frigates. 

38 Amazon „ Henry Riou 

„g \ Desiree „ Henry Inman 

\ Blanche ...... „ Graham E. Hammond 

32 Alcmene ...... ,, Samuel Sutton 

24 Jamaica ,, Jonas Rose 

Ship- { Arrow Commander William Bolton (act.) 

sloops. \ Dart. . „ John F. Devonshire 

Brig- | Cruiser „ Jame3 Brisbane 

sloops. | Harpy „ William Birchall 

/"Discovery . . _ „ John Conn 

Explosion .... „ John H. Martin 

I Hecla „ Richard Hatherill 

Bombs. ■{ Sulphur ...... „ Hender Whitter 

I Terror „ Samuel C. Rowley 

| Volcano _..,.. „ James Watson 

I Zebra „ Edward S. Clay 

Fire- j Zephyr „ Clotworthy Upton 

ships. ( Otter „ Geo. McKinley 

Also launches from most of the ships of the fleet, with anchors and cables 
to assist ships on shore, &c. 

The Danes, in order to render the approach — at all times 
exceedingly intricate — more difficult, had removed the buoys, 
and Lord Nelson, accompanied by Captain James Brisbane, 
proceeded in his boat to rebuoy the outer channel. 

On the morning of the 1st of April, the fleet weighed, 
and anchored again about six miles from Copenhagen, off 
the north-western extremity of the middle ground, which 
shoal extends along the whole sea front of the city, with 
the King's Channel inside, about three-quarters of a mile in 
width, in which channel the Danish block-ships, radeaus, 
prames, and gun-vessels, were moored. In the forenoon, 
Lord Nelson embarked on board the Amazon, and again 
reconnoitred the Danish force ; and soon after his return at 
lh. p.m., ordered the signal to weigh to be hoisted on board 
the Elephant. This signal was received by loud cheers 
from the different ships of the fleet ; and in a very short 
time the vice-admiral's squadron, amounting in all to thirty- 
six sail, were underway, and formed in two divisions, with a 



1801.] DANISH FORCE. 29 

light but favourable air of wind, leaving Sir Hyde Parker at 
anchor with the undermentioned eight sail of the line : 

Guns. Ships. 

j Admiral Sir Hyde Parker (blue) 

j London -j Captain Wm. Domett 

Kobert Waller Otway 



/ St. George . 

( Warrior ... . 
y . ) Defence ... . 

j Saturn ...... 

( Ramillies . . . 
g 1 ( Eaisonnable 

/ Veteran 



Thomas Masterman Hardy 1 

Charles Tyler 

Lord Henry Paulet 

Robert Lambert 

Jas. Wm. Taylor Dixon 

John Dilkes 

A. Collingwood Dickson 



The Amazon leading, the British squadron passed along 
the edge of the middle ground until it had reached the 
southern extremity, and at about 8h. p.m. anchored, the 
headmost ship of the British being then about two miles 
from the southernmost ship of the Danish line. Durino- the 
night, Captain Hardy was employed in sounding the channel, 
and passed completely round one of the enemy's floating 
batteries imperceived; and about llh. p.m. returned to the 
Elephant, and reported the depth of water close up to the 
Danish fleet. 

The following is a description of the Danish force, which 
consisted principally of two-decked ships, most of them 
being old and dismantled; to which were added square 
floating batteries, radeaus, and frigates, and other old vessels; 
but all were well manned and armed, and fully provided to 
maintain a desperate resistance : — 

J Serving as a volunteer on board the Elephant. The St. George was 
Lord Nelson's proper flag-ship. 



DEFENCES OF COPENHAGEN. 



[1801. 



Name. 



Description. 



Mounting Guns of 



Provesteen . 
Wagner ... 
Rensburg 
Nyburg ... 
Jutland ... 
Suersishen 
Cronburg 
Hajen. . ... 
Dannebrog . 
Elwen 
Grenier's float 
Aggerstans 
Zealand ... 
Charl Amelia 
Sobesten 
Holstein. 
Indosforethen 
Hielpern .... 



Block-ship 

Prame ... . . 

Block-ship 

Radeau 

Block-ship 

Radeau 

Block-ship 

Radeau 

Prame 

74 -gun ship 

Block-ship 

Radeau 

60-gun ship 

Block-ship 

Frigate . . ... 



28 



20 



4S 



360 



30 



24 



24 



14 



14 



56 

48 
20 
20 
48 
20 
22 
20 
62 
6 
24 
20 
74 
26 
IS 
60 
64 
20 



70 



72 



628 



515 
361 
216 
209 
396 
117 
196 
155 
336 
80 
120 
213 
529 
225 
126 
400 
390 
265 



4,849 



At the northern extremity of this line, which extended 
above a mile and a half, were the two Trekroner batteries 
formed on piles ; one mounting thirty long 24-pounders, 
and the other thirty-eight long 36-pounders, with furnaces 
for heating shot. These batteries were each commanded 
by two two-decked block-ships, the Mars and Elephanten, 
not included in the foregoing list. A chain was thrown 
across the entrance to the inner harbour (as it may be 
termed, to distinguish it from the outer roadstead in which 
the flotilla was moored), which was also protected by the 
crown batteries, and in addition by the 74-gun ships 
Trekroner and Dannemark, a 40-gun frigate, two brigs, and 
some armed boats, which latter were provided with furnaces 
for heating shot. On the island of Aniag, to the southward 
of the line, were several gun and mortar batteries. The 
whole Danish force was under the command of Commodore 



1801.] BELLONA AND RUSSELL AGROUND. 31 

Olfert Fischer, who had his broad pendant flying on board 
the 6 2 -gun ship Dannebrog. 

At 8h. a.m. on 2nd of April, the signal was made for the 
captains of the several ships, to each of which Lord Nelson 
assigned their several stations. The intention was that all 
the ships of the line should take their places abreast of the 
enemy's ships, anchoring by the stern ; while the frigates 
were to attack the ships off the harbour's mouth, and to 
rake the southern extremity of the Danish line. It was also 
intended that the 49 th regiment, under Colonel Stewart, 
and 500 seamen, under Captain Fremantle, should storm 
the largest of the crown batteries. These plans, however, 
were many of them frustrated by the accidents which hap- 
pened. At 9h. 30m., wind south-east, the pilots assembled 
on board the Elephant, and their want of knowledge and 
indecision became evident, and it would have been well had 
the opinion of Captain Hardy been taken. However, the 
signal was made to weigh. The Edgar led, and the Aga- 
memnon was to have followed her ; but the wind being- 
scant, and a strong tide running, the latter found it impossible 
to get round the end of the shoal, and after two or three 
attempts was compelled to anchor. The Polyphemus then 
became the second ship, followed by the Isis. The Bellona, 
owing to the ignorance of her pilot — although she had 
rounded the point — got ashore on the middle ground, about 
450 yards from the rear of the Danish line, where, however, 
she was within reach of the enemy's shot ; and the Russell 
following her leader very closely, also grounded, with her 
jib-boom almost over the Bellona's taffrail. 

The Elephant, bearing Lord Nelson's flag, was the next 
ship, but, in opposition to the pilots, on observing the acci- 
dent to two of his ships, the Elephant's helm was put 
a-starboard, and she passed to the westward, and on the lar- 
board side of the Bellona ; the remaining ships following 
the same course, succeeded in getting into action. At 10b. 
the firing commenced ; but the ships principally engaged for 
the first half-hour were the Polyphemus, Isis, Edgar, Monarch, 
and Ardent. At llh. 30m. the Glatton, Elephant, Ganges, 
and Defiance, as well as several of the smaller vessels, had 
reached their several stations ; and the Desiree, by directing 
a raking fire at the Provesteen, drew part of her attention 



32 NELSON RECALLED. [1801. 

from the Isis, which ship, however, suffered very severely. 
The strong tide prevented the Jamaica and the gun-vessels 
from getting near enough to take part in the action, nor did 
the bombs perform much service. The grounding of the 
Bellona and Russell, and the absence of the Agamemnon, 
occasioned some of the British ships to have more than one 
opponent. The Amazon suffered considerably, Captain Riou 
having anchored her, with three other frigates and the sloops, 
abreast of the Trekroner batteries. 

The engagement had continued three hours, and no ship 
in the Danish line had ceased firing. On the other hand, 
signals of distress were flying on board the Russell and 
Bellona, and the Agamemnon had hoisted that of inability. 
The Veteran, Defence, and Ramillies had been detached to 
reinforce Lord Nelson ; but their progress was so slow, that 
Sir Hyde Parker was induced to order the signal to be made 
to discontinue the action. The signal officer of the Elephant 
reported to Lord Nelson that No. 39 (the signal for leaving 
off action) was flying on board the admiral's ship, and asked 
if he should repeat it. " No," said his lordship ; " but 
answer it." The answering pendant was accordingly hoisted. 
Immediately afterwards his lordship demanded if the signal 
for close action was still flying on board his own ship ; and 
being answered in the affirmative, replied, " Mind you keep 
it so." 1 

1 Lord Nelson now paced the deck moving the stump of his right arm 
in a manner which always indicated great emotion. "Do you know," 
said he to Mr. Fergusson, " what is shown on board the commander-in- 
chief?" " No. 39." " What does that mean ?" " To leave off action." 
Shrugging up his shoulders, he repeated the words, " Leave off action 

n 0W i me if I do. You know, Foley," turning to the captain, " I 

have only one eye, and I have a right to be blind sometimes ;" and 
putting his glass to his blind eye in that mood which sports with bitter- 
ness, he exclaimed, "I really do not see the signal." Presently he 
exclaimed, " Keep my signal for close action flying ; that is the way I 
answer such signals. Nail mine to the mast."* The Defiance kept 
No. 16, for close action, flying at the maintop-gallant masthead, and 
repeated the recall of the commander-in-chief at the lee maintop-sail 
yardarm, where of course it was hardly visible. — Southey. 

* It has been stated that, in making this signal of recall, Sir Hyde 
had no intention of defeating Lord Nelson's measures ; but, on the con- 
trary, that the signal was only intended to justify Lord Nelson, if his 
lordship should see cause for discontinuing the action. 



1801.] EXTRAORDINARY NEGOTIATION. 33 

The frigates about this time hauled off from the Crown 
"batteries ; but as the Amazon exposed her stern to their 
heavy fire, Captain Riou was cut in two, and many others 
added to the slain. At lh. 30m. p.m. the firing of the Danes 
slackened, and before 2h. it had ceased in all the ships astern 
of the Zealand ; but none of the vessels would allow the 
British to take possession ; and as the boats approached for 
that purpose, they were fired at by the Danes, continually 
reinforced from the shore. This extraordinary mode of 
warfare irritated Lord Nelson, who was almost induced to 
order the fire-ships in to burn the surrendered vessels ; but 
he first determined to try the effect of negotiation, by 
addressing a letter to the Crown Prince of Denmark. His lord- 
ship's letter ran thus : — "Vice-Admiral Lord Nelson has been 
commanded to spare Denmark, when no longer resisting. 
The line of defence which covered her shores has struck to 
the British flag ; but if the firing is continued on the part 
of Denmark, he must set on fire all the prizes that he has 
taken, without having the power of saving the men who have 
so nobly defended them. The brave Danes are the brothers, 
and should never be the enemies of England." A wafer was 
handed his lordship for the letter ; but with that coolness 
and ability which ever distinguished him, he remarked that 
this was no time to appear hurried and informal, and ordered 
a candle to be brought from the cockpit. His lordship sealed 
the letter with wax, affixing a larger impression than usual. 
Sir Frederick Thesiger (a young commander, acting as one of 
Lord Nelson's aides-de-camp) was then despatched on shore 
with the letter and a flag of truce, and meeting the Crown 
Prince at the sally-port, delivered the letter. 

In the mean time, the cannonade was continued by the 
Defiance, Monarch, and Ganges, which in a short time 
silenced the Indosforethen, Holstein, and the ships next 
them in the Danish line. The approach of the Defence, 
Ramillies, and Veteran, also rendered the case of the Danes 
hopeless. The great Crown battery, however, having been 
reinforced with 1,500 men, continued firing ; and it was 
deemed advisable to withdraw the ships from before it while 
the wind continued fair. Preparations were making for 
carrying this into effect, when the Danish adjutant-general, 
Lindholm, appeared bearing a flag of truce, upon which the 

VOL. II. D 



34 



KILLED AND WOUNDED. 



[1801. 



action, which had raged incessantly for five hours, totally 
ceased. The message from the Crown Prince was to inquire 
the precise object of Lord Nelson's note, when the latter 
replied in writing that humanity was his object ; that he 
consented to stay hostilities ; that the wounded Danes should 
be taken on shore ; that he would take his prisoners out of 
the vessels, and burn or carry off the prizes as he thought 
fit ; and concluded by expressing a hope that the victory he 
had gained would lead to a reconciliation between the two 
countries. This answer being returned, the final adjustment 
of the terms was referred to the commander-in-chief. 

During the interval, the British ships were moved from 
their stations in the line, in doing which several grounded \ 
the Elephant and Defiance, in particular, remained fast for 
many hours, about a mile from the Trekroner battery. Lord 
Nelson soon afterwards quitted the Elephant, and repaired 
on board the London, whither the Danish adjutant-general 
had preceded him. 

The following table shows the loss sustained by the ships 
of the British squadron, in the order in which they entered 
the action : — 



Ships. 


Killed. 


Wounded. 


Ships. 


Killed. 


Wounded. 


Desiree 

Russell ... ... . . ... 

Bellona ... ... ... . . 

Polyphemus .... 

Isis ... ... .^ ... ... 

Edgar . . .. 

Ardent 

Glatton 

Elephant 

Carried over. . 


11 
6 
33 
31 
30 
18 
10 


4 
6 
72 
25 
88 
111 
64 
37 
13 


Brought over 

Ganges 

Monarch ........ 

Defiance 

Amazon ... ... . . 

Blanche 

Alcmene 

Dart 


139 

7 

56 

24 

14 

7 

5 

3 


420 
1 

164 
51 
23 

19 
1 


Total 


255 


688 


139 


420 



The following are the names of the officers killed and 
wounded : — Desiree : Lieutenant Andrew King, wounded. 
Bellona : Captain Thompson (leg amputated), Lieutenants 
Thomas Wilks and Thomas Southey, Masters mate James 
Emerton, Midshipmen John Anderson, Edward Daubeney, 
"William Sitford, and William Figg, wounded. Polyphemus : 



lOUl.j OFFICERS KILLED AND WOUNDED. 35 

Midshipman James Bell, killed ; Boatswain Edward Burr, 
wounded. Isis : Master Daniel Lamond, Lieutenant of 
marines Henry Long, Midshipmen George McKinlay and 
Thomas Ram, killed ; Lieutenant of marines Richard Cor- 
nack, Midshipmen Reuben Pain, Simon Fraser, and Charles 
Jones, wounded. Edgar : Lieutenant Edmund Johnson and 
Lieut, of marines Benjamin Spencer, killed ; Lieuts. Joshua 
Johnson and William Goldfinch, Midshipmen Thomas Ga- 
hagan, William Whimper, James Ridge, Peter Proctor, and 
William Domett, wounded. Ardent : Midshipman George 
Hoare, killed. Glatton : Lieutenant William Tindall, 
Master's mate Robert Thompson, Midshipman John Wil- 
liams, wounded. Elephant : Captain James Bawden, of the 
rifle corps, and Master's mate Henry Yaulden, killed ; Mid- 
shipmen Robert Gill and Hugh Mitchell, wounded. Ganges : 
Master Robert Stewart, killed. Monarch : Captain Mosse, 
killed ; Lieutenant William Minchin, Boatswain "v^illiam 
Joy, Midshipmen Henry Swimmer, William Johnson Bowes, 
Thomas Harlowe, George Morgan, and Philip Le Vesconte^ 
Lieutenants James Marrie, of the marines, and James 
Dennis, of the 49th regt., wounded. Defiance : Lieutenant 
George Gray, killed ; Midshipman James Galloway, Boat- 
swain Lewis Paterson, Clerk Harry Niblet, wounded. 
Amazon : Captain Riou, Midshipman Hon. George Tucket, 
Clerk Joseph Rose, killed ; Master's mates James Harvey 
and Philip Horn, wounded. Alcmene : Acting Lieutenant 
Henry Baker, Lieutenant of marines Charles Meredeth, 
Boatswain Charles Church, Master's mate George A. Spear- 
ing, wounded. Dart : Lieutenant Richard Edwin Sandys, 
wounded. 

The above is the official return, and does not include the 
slightly wounded, which amounted to a great many. Of 
those numbered amongst the wounded a large proportion were 
dangerously, and many mortally ) and Mr. James estimates 

that on the whole the British loss may be thus stated : 

killed and mortally wounded, 350 j recoverably and slightly, 
850. It is quite evident that so heavy a loss could only 
have resulted from cool and steady firing on the part of 
the Danes, who did not aim at dismasting the British ships ; 
indeed only one ship (the Glatton) lost a topmast. Several 
ships had guns disabled. The loss on board the Danish 



36 



DISPOSAL OF THE DANISH FLEET 



[1801. 



ships, according to the very lowest estimate, amounted to 
between 1,G00 and 1,800 men killed and wounded, and pro- 
bably far exceeded the highest of these numbers. 

The following table shows in what manner the Danish 
force was disposed of : — 



Name. 



Whether Burnt or Captured, &c, and by what 
Ships principally engaged. 



Provesteen, ) 

Wagner ) 

Kensburg 

Ny burg 

Jutland, Suer- 
sishen, Cron- 
berg, Hagen . . 

Dannebrog .... 

Elwen, Grenier's 

float 

Aggerstans ..... 

Zealand 

Charl. Amelia 
Sobesten .... 

Holstein 

Indosforethen . . 

Hielpern 



Taken and burnt, having been aban- 
doned by the Danes when tbe guns 
were useless. (Desiree, Russell, Bel- 
lona, and Polyphemus.) 
Driven on shore and burnt by the Bri- 
tish. (Isis.) 
Escaped, afterwards sunk. (Edgar.) 

Taken and burnt by the British. (Ed- 
gar and Ardent.) 

j Caught fire, and blew up after the action. 
I (Glatton.) 

Escaped. (Glatton.) 

Ditto ; afterwards sunk. (Elephant.) 
Driven under the Trekroner battery, and 
taken, afterwards burnt. (Elephant.) 

Taken, and burnt. (Ganges.) 

Ditto ; carried away. (Monarch.) 
Ditto ; burnt. (Monarch.) 

{Escaped. (The whole were flanked by 
Defiance, Amazon, Blanche, Alcmene, 
and Dart.) 



After despatching to England tiie Monarch, Isis, and 
Holstein prize, the fleet quitted Copenhagen on the 12 th of 
April, and taking out their guns, which were put on board 
merchant ships, all, except the St. George, entered the 
Baltic through the channel of the Grounds, to the great 
astonishment of the Swedes. Learning that a Swedish 
squadron of nine sail of the line was at sea, Sir Hyde Parker 
steered for the northern extremity of the island of Born- 
holm ; but the Swedish admiral took refuge under the forts 
of Carlscrona. Here a negotiation was opened, which ended 



1801.] ANECDOTE OF NELSON. 37 

on the 22nd by his Swedish majesty s agreeing to treat for 
all existing differences. 1 

On the 23rd, a lugger joined the fleet from the Russian 
ambassador at Copenhagen, containing pacific overtures, 
also, from Alexander the First, who by the death of Czar 
Paul had succeeded to the imperial crown. The thanks of 
both houses of parliament were voted to the admirals, cap- 
tains, officers, seamen, and marines, under the command of 
Sir Hyde Parker ; but the only mark of royal approbation 
bestowed upon those actively engaged, was the investment 
of Rear- Admiral Graves with the order of the Bath. Com- 
manders Devonshire, Brisbane, and Birchall were posted, 
and the following senior lieutenants of the ships engaged 
promoted to the rank of commander : — Samuel Bateman 
(Russell), David Mudie (Defiauce), Andrew Mott (Ardent), 
John Yelland (Monarch), Robert Tinklar (Isis), Robert 
Brown Tom (Glatton), Edward Hodden (Polyphemus), John 
Delafons (Bellona), Joseph Ore Masefield (Amazon), William 
Morce (Ganges), William Wilkinson (Elephant), William 

1 Mr. Alexander Briarly, master of the Bellona, relates the following 
anecdote of Nelson : — "The St. George, in which Lord Nelson's flag 
was flying, although ready to proceed over the shoals, was delayed by 
contrary winds at Copenhagen ; but intelligence being received by his 
lordship from the admiral, who with the fleet was at Bornholm, that a 
Swedish squadron was at Carlscrona, Lord Nelson instantly quitted the 
St. George in an open six-oared cutter to join Sir Hyde Parker. " With- 
out even waiting for a boat-cloak," says Mr. Briarly (although you may 
suppose the weather pretty sharp here at this season of the year, and 
having to row about twenty-four miles, with the wind and current 
against him), he jumped into the boat, and ordered me to go with him 
(I having been on board the St. George, to remain till the ship got over 
the Grounds). All I had ever seen or heard of him could not half so 
clearly prove to me the singular and unbounded zeal of this truly great 
man. His anxiety in the boat, for nearly six hours, lest the fleet should 
have sailed before he could get on board of one of them, and lest we 
should not catch the Swedish squadron, is beyond conception. I will 
quote some of his expressions in his own words. It was extremely cold, 
and I wished him tc put on a great-coat of mine which was in the boat. 
' No ; I am not cold : my anxiety for my country will keep me warm. 
Do you think the fleet has sailed?' ' I should suppose not, my lord.' 

' If they have, we will follow them in the boat, by .' The distance 

to Carlscrona was about 50 leagues. At midnight, however, Lord 
Nelson reached the Elephant, on board which ship he rehoisted his 



38 SPEEDY AND GAMO. [1801. 

Bolton (Arrow), George Langford (Jamaica), and Joshua 
Johnson (Edgar). 

On the 3rd of April, the 3G-gun frigate Trent, Captain 
Sir Edward Hamilton, while lying at anchor off the Isles of 
Brehat, discovered at daylight a French cutter and lugger, 
with a ship steering towards Plampoul. The boats of the 
Trent, under Lieutenants George Chaniberlayne, Robert 
Scallon, and John Bellamy, Thomas Hoskins, master, and 
Lieutenant of marines Walter Tait, were sent in pursuit ; 
on seeing which, many boats put off from the shore, and, 
assisted by the lugger, took the ship in tow. The French 
lugger, as well as the boats, were driven on shore under the 
batteries, and the ship boarded by Lieutenants Chamber- 
layne and Tait ; but the crew had deserted her. Two 
seamen were killed, and Lieutenant Tait lost his right leg. 

The 14-gun brig Speedy, Commander Lord Cochrane, 
having committed great depredations upon the Spanish 
coasting trade, several vessels were despatched to endeavour 
to capture her. One of the cruisers sent in search was the 
Gamo, a large xebeck, mounting twenty-two long 12-pounders 
on her main-deck, and eight long 8-pounders and two heavy 
carronades on her quarter-deck and forecastle, with a crew 
of upwards of 300 men. The force of the Speedy was only 
fourteen long 4-pounders, and her crew had been reduced to 
fifty-two men. Early in April, the Speedy fell in with this 
formidable vessel, and, allured by the deceptions practised, 
was drawn within hail, when the force of the enemy was 
discovered. Desirous of avoiding an engagement, Lord 
Cochrane ordered Danish colours to be hoisted, and an 
officer in Danish uniform answered the hail of the Spaniard; 
but the latter requiring some further proof of their national 
character, sent a boat alongside with an officer. But before 
the boat from the Gamo got fairly alongside, she was hailed, 
and the officer informed that the brig had lately quitted one 
of the Barbary ports, and that a visit from the Spanish boat 
would of course subject the Spanish vessel to a long qua- 
rantine. This was sufficient ; and after the interchange of 
a few courtesies, the vessels separated. 

On the 6th of May, when off Barcelona, the Gamo again 
hove in sight, standing towards her ; and as it would have 
been difficult to repeat the deception, and, moreover, as the 



1801.] GAMO BOARDED. 39 

Speedy 's officers and men were most anxious for the en- 
counter, Lord Cochrane determined on engaging. At 9h. a.m. 
the two vessels got within gun-shot, and the Speedy, being 
then to leeward of the Gamo, tacked, and opened her fire 
upon the enemy. The Gamo returned the Speedy's fire, 
and bearing up, endeavoured to board her ; but the inten- 
tion being perceived, the Speedy bore up also. A second 
attempt was also frustrated ; but the action having continued 
forty-five minutes, and the Speedy's loss becoming heavy 
from the fire of the Gamo, it was determined that the 
British crew should make a similar attempt. Accordingly 
the Speedy was laid alongside, and Lord Cochrane at the 
head of forty men (the remainder being disabled by wounds 
and sickness), sprang upon the deck of the Gamo, on which 
were near 300 men. For about ten minutes the struggle 
was desperate ; but the valour and impetuosity of the 
British was irresistible, and the Gamo became the Speedy's 
prize. In the boarding attack, only one seaman was killed ; 
and Lieutenant Richard W. Parker (severely, both from a 
musket-ball and the sword), the boatswain, and one seaman 
wounded ; making, with the loss previously sustained, four 
seamen killed, and the two officers and six men wounded. 
The Gamo had her commander (Don Francisco de Torris), 
the boatswain, and thirteen men killed, and forty-one 
wounded. When Lord Cochrane boarded the Gamo, the 
surgeon, Mr. James Guthrie, took the helm, and performed 
this duty in a very satisfactory manner. The Speedy, with 
her prize, arrived at Port Mahon. This action earned 
for the Speedy's commander a name which his subsequent 
brilliant services could hardly enhance. He was immediately 
posted, and Lieutenant Parker was promoted to be com- 
mander. A naval medal commemorates this gallant action. 
On the 25th of May, intelligence having reached Captain 
Thomas Rogers, of the 28-gun frigate Mercury, that the 
Bulldog, late British bomb-vessel, Commander Barrington 
Dacres (which had entered the port of Ancona, ignorant 
that the port was in possession of the French), was then 
lying in the Mole, laden with supplies for the army in 
Egypt, he determined to attempt her capture. At lOh. 30m. 
p.m., the boats of the Mercury, in command of Lieutenant 
William Mather, quitted the frigate, and entering the har- 



40 CUTTING-OUT EXPLOITS. [1801. 

bour at midnight, succeeded in gaining complete possession 
of the Bulldog, without having been hailed by the French 
sentinels on board or on shore. The seamen in the Mer- 
cury's boats then cut the cables of their prize, loosed her 
sails, and took her in tow ; but as the alarm had by this time 
spread, a heavy fire of great guns and small-arms was 
opened from the mole. A light air of wind meanwhile 
enabled the Bulldog to get beyond the reach of the bat- 
teries, but unfortunately the wind soon died completely away, 
and she drifted with the current along shore. A number of 
gun-vessels and boats were then observed coming out to attack 
her, and Lieutenant Mather finding it impossible to avoid 
being overpowered if he held possession any longer, for the 
Bulldog's French crew were with difficulty kept under 
hatches, determined on quitting the prize which his gal- 
lantry had won. This was effected ; the British loss 
amounting to one seaman and one marine killed, and four 
seamen wounded. The Bulldog was afterwards retaken by 
the 2 4 -gun ship Champion, Captain Lord William Stuart. 

On the 9th of June, the Speedy, still under the com- 
mand of Lord Cochrane, who had not then been superseded, 
having fallen in with the 1 8-gun brig Kangaroo, Commander 
George C. Pulling, received intelligence of a Spanish convoy, 
which was discovered under a battery in Old Castile, pro- 
tected by a 20-gun xebeck, three gun-boats, and a square 
tower, apparently mounting twelve guns. The two brigs 
stood in (the Speedy leading), and anchored within half 
gun-shot of the battery. Although reinforced by two other 
gun-boats, and a 12 -gun felucca, the fire of the brigs in the 
course of a few hours sank the xebeck and three of the gun- 
boats, and silenced the battery. The remaining felucca and 
gun-boats still resisting, the British boats proceeded in-shore 
at night to complete the business, under the orders of Lieu- 
tenant Thomas Foulerton, of the Kangaroo, and Benjamin 
Warburton, of the Speedy, assisted by the Hon. M. A. Coch- 
rane, William Dean, and Thomas Taylor, midshipmen. The 
boats succeeded in bringing out three brigs laden with wine, 
and on their return Lord Cochrane took the command, and 
proceeded a second time on this service, but found the 
remainder either scuttled or driven on shore. The ammu- 
nition of the brigs failing, they were unable to level the 



1801.] BATTLE IX ALGESIRAS BAY. 41 

battery, as they otherwise would have done. The loss con- 
sisted of Thomas Taylor killed, and Lieutenants Foulerton 
and Thomas Brown Thompson, and seven seamen wounded. 

On the 23rd of June, Lieutenant Mather, in the Mer- 
cury's boats, assisted by Lieutenant of marines James Wil- 
son, and by the boats of the brig El Corso, Commander 
William Eicketts, captured a piratical tartan, which had 
taken refuge among the small islands of Tremiti, in the 
Gulf of Venice, and dispersed the pirates. 

On the 24th of June, the British 74-gun ship Swiftsure, 
Captain Benjamin Hallo well, was captured by a division of 
the Toulon fleet under M. Ganteaume, after making every 
possible effort to escape, and having two men killed, and 
Lieutenant Lewis Davis and seven men wounded. The 
Swiftsure was carried into Toulon. 

On the 13th of June, Rear- Admiral Linois, with the 
80-gun ships Indomptable and Formidable, 74-gun ship 
Desaix, and 38-gun frigate Muiron, put to sea from Toulon, 
bound to Cadiz, intending to join a French squadron of six 
sail of the line; but, delayed by adverse winds, did not 
arrive in sight of Gibraltar until the 1st of July. On the 
3rd, the Speedy, Captain Lord Cochrane, was fallen in with, 
and after a long and skilfully-conducted retreat, captured. 
Having learned that Cadiz was blockaded by a superior force, 
Linois bore up for Algesiras ; and at 5h. p.m. on the 4th, 
anchored in front of the town. The British squadron off 
Cadiz at this time consisted of — 

Guns. Ships. 

80 Ctesar . j Rear - A( lm. Sir Jas. Saumarez (blue) 

\ Captain Jahleel Brenton 
Charles Sterling 
Henry D'Esterre Darby 
Samuel Hood 
Eichard Goodwin Keats 
Solomon Ferri§ 
Shuldham Peard 
Askew Paffard Hollis 
Brig Pasley ; and hired armed lugger Plymouth, Lieut. Eobert Elliot. 

On the 5th of July, at 2h. a.m., Lieutenant Richard 
Janvrin, who had been despatched for that purpose in a 
boat from Gibraltar, by Captain G. H. L. Dundas, of the 
Calpe, arrived on board the Caesar with intelligence of the 



' Pompee . 
Spencer . 
Venerable 
Superb . . . 
Hannibal . 
„ Audacious 
Frigate Thames 



74 



42 ACTION IN ALGESIRAS BAY. [1801. 

arrival of the French squadron at Algesiras. Sir James 
Saumarez, after despatching the Pasley to recall the Superb, 
employed blockading the river Guadalquivir, immediately 
proceeded in search of the enemy. 

The wind being very light on the 6th, the admiral was 
drifted out of sight of the Superb, Thames, and Pasley; 
and at 4h. A.M., on the 7th, the squadron was standing 
into Algesiras Roads, in the following order : — Venerable, 
Pompee, Audacious, Caesar, Spencer, and Hannibal. At 7h., 
the Venerable having rounded Cabrita Point, descried the 
enemy's squadron, and a signal was then made from the 
Caesar, directing the ships to engage the enemy as they ar- 
rived up. Linois had moored his ships in line ahead thus : — 
Formidable, abreast the battery of San Jago ; mounting five 
long 18-pounders; Desaix, about 500 yards astern, and 
Indomptable, about the same distance from the latter ship. 
The Muiron was a little within the Isle of Verda ; three 
gun-boats were anchored to the south-west of that island, 
four others between Fort San Jago and the Formidable, and 
seven off a point of land about half a mile to the northward 
of the tower of Almirante. 

At 7h. 50m., the battery on Cabrita Point fired at the 
Pompee, then running in with a fine breeze, while the 
Venerable, from the partiality of the wind, lay becalmed at 
some distance on her starboard bow. The Venerable was 
also passed by the Audacious ; but the Caesar, and two 
remaining ships, were a long distance astern, striving hard 
to get up. At 8h. 30m., the Muiron opened her fire on the 
Pompee, as did the other ships successively ; and as it was 
by this time nearly calm, the Pompee, after firing her 
broadside at the enemy's ships as she passed, anchored at 
8h. 45m. close on the Formidable's starboard bow ; but the 
latter, soon afterwards slipping her outer cable, hauled 
further towards the shore. A little before 9h., the Au- 
dacious, and shortly after, the Venerable, dropped their 
anchors ; the first, from the baffling winds, being abreast, 
but much further from the Indomptable than the captain 
intended, and the second, at a still greater distance on the 
quarter of the Formidable. The engagement now com- 
menced, and was maintained with great fury between the 
four French ships (materially assisted by the gun-boats and 



1801.] ACTION IN ALGESIRAS BAY. 43 

batteries) and the three British ships, which had reached 
the anchorage. In about half an hour the Ponipee, owing 
to the strength of the current— others say from a slant of 
wind — canted with her bow towards the broadside of the 
Formidable, and while in this position suffered much. At 
9h. lorn., the Caesar anchored ahead of the Audacious, 
and opened her broadside upon the Desaix, and the Han- 
nibal, in a few minutes afterwards, anchored within hail of 
the Caesar, and on her starboard bow. The Spencer was 
so far to leeward, that she could only get within reach 
of the Spanish batteries, from which hot shot and shells 
were fired. 

At 10h., Captain Ferris having been hailed and ordered 
to proceed in-shore and rake the Formidable, the Hannibal's 
cable was cut, and all sail made accordingly, and having 
stood to the northward until she could fetch the Formidable, 
the Hannibal tacked, and, about llh. a.m., as she was in the 
act of hauling up to cross the hawse of the French ship, 
unfortunately took the ground. A signal was instantly 
made to the admiral, and boats were despatched to her 
assistance ; but Captain Ferris, finding all exertion to get 
the ship off unavailing, sent them away again. A light 
breeze about this time springing up from the north-east, 
Linois made the signal for his ships to cut and run ashore. 
The Formidable cut, but brought up again with her larboard 
broadside to the enemy. The Desaix grounded upon a shoal 
facing the town, and the Indomptable upon one to the 
north-east of the Isle of Verda, with her larboard bow 
towards the sea. 

Sir James Saumarez ordered his ships to follow the 
French admiral's example, and the Caesar immediately cut, 
and wearing round, hove to and brought her broadside to 
bear upon the bows of the Indomptable, and about noon 
shot away her fore-topmast. The Caesar then let go her 
anchor, and was soon joined by the Audacious. The 
Venerable and Spencer, in spite of every exertion, were 
prevented by the variable winds and calms from getting 
near enough to attack the other French ships and the 
battery on the Island of Verda ; and the Pompee, after 
remaining an hour without being able to take any part in 
the second attack, her captain waiting for orders, was at 



44 SURRENDER OF THE HANNIBAL. [1801, 

length recalled, and, cutting her cables, was towed out of 
the bay by her boats. The Audacious and Csesar, 1 having 
drifted near the island batteiy, were much cut up by it, 
and, at lh. 30m. p.m., a light air coming off the land, the 
Csesar and Audacious, Venerable and Spencer, made sail on 
the starboard tack, leaving the dismasted and shattered 
Hannibal in the hands of the enemy. At 2h. p.m. the 
Hannibal's colours were hauled down, and presently re- 
hoisted with the Union down wards, which induced Captain 
Dundas, of the Calpe, which had approached from Gibraltar, 
to send his boats under the command of Lieutenant Thomas 
Sykes to her assistance, but they were detained by the 
French, who by tins time had gained possession of the 
British ship. 

The following diagram may probably make the affair 
clearer. 

1 " When in the hottest part of the action, the Csesar broke her sheer, 
and could not get her guns to bear, when the captain ordered a cutter to 
be lowered down to convey a warp to the Audacious, but the boat was 
found to be knocked to pieces. Before other means could be resorted 
to, Michael Collins, a young sailor belonging to the mizen-top, seized 
the end of a leaddine, and exclaiming ' You shall soon have a warp,' 
darted from the taffrail and swam with the line to the Audacious, where 
it was received, and by means of it a hawser run out." — Brenton. 



1801.] 



KILLED AND WOUNDED. 



45 



TftPREDEL VGUNI3UATS 

ALMJKANTO [J \ f \ \ 



EAT 

SARJACO. 




I f SPANISH GUN BOATS 



The British loss was as follows : — Caesar : William Grave, 
master, six seamen, and two marines, killed ; G. W. Forster, 
boatswain, eighteen seamen, and six marines, wounded ; and 
Richard Best, mate, and seven seamen missing, pro- 
bably drowned. Pompee : Robert Roxburgh, master, Mid- 
shipman — Steward, ten seamen, and three marines, killed ; 
and Lieutenants Richard Cheeseman, Arthur Stapledon, and 
Thomas Innes, Curry and Hillier, master's mates, J. Hib- 
berd, midshipman, fifty-three seamen, and ten marines, 
wounded. Spencer : — Robert Spencer, volunteer, and five 
seamen, killed; and Joseph Chatterton, midshipman, tweDty- 
three seamen, and three marines, wounded. Venerable : 
William Gibbons, midshipman, and seven seamen, killed ; 



46 JUNCTION OF A SPANISH SQUADRON. [1801. 

and Silvester Austen and Martin Collins, midshipmen, 
twenty seamen, and three marines, wounded. Hannibal : 
Lieutenant of marines James D. Williams, David Lindsey, 
captain's clerk, and sixty-eight seamen, and five marines, 
killed ; and Lieutenant John Turner, John Wood, master, 
Lieutenant of marines George Durnford, William Dudgeon, 
midshipman, forty-four seamen, and fourteen marines, 
wounded ; and six seamen missing, who probably fell over- 
board with the masts. Audacious : eight seamen killed ; 
and Lieutenant of marines B. J. W. Day, and twenty-five 
seamen, and six marines, wounded ; total, 121 killed, 240 
wounded, fourteen missing. The Caesar and Pompee — par- 
ticularly the latter — received much damage in masts, sails, 
and rigging ; and the Venerable lost her mizen-topmast, but 
the other ships did not materially suffer in that respect. 
The French loss amounted to 306 killed, including Cap- 
tains Moncousu and Lalonde, and about the same number 
wounded. 

Linois, having got his ships afloat, applied to Admirals 
Dumanoir and Masseredo, at Cadiz, to send a squadron to his 
relief ; and on the 8th, Yice- Admiral Joachim de Moreno, 
with six sail of the line and some frigates, was ordered to 
repair to the outer road, to be ready for a start with the 
land wind on the next morning. This movement was how- 
ever observed by that vigilant officer Captain Keats, who, 
in the Superb, with the Thames and Pasley, continued watch- 
ing the port. 

On the 9th, at daylight, the Spanish squadron put to sea 
from Cadiz, and, preceded by the Superb, Thames, and Pasley, 
steered towards the Straits. In the afternoon of the same 
day, the Pasley stood into Gibraltar with the signal flying 
for an enemy ; and, at 3h. p.m., as the Spanish squadron 
hauled round Cabrita Point, the Superb and Thames anchored 
in the bay. The Spanish squadron soon afterwards anchored 
in Algesiras Bay. 

Immediately all was bustle on board the ships at Gibraltar, 
and nothing could surpass the exertions of the British officers 
and men to get their ships refitted. The Pompee being 
found in too bad a state to be got ready in time, her men 
were turned over to assist in refitting the other ships ; and 
Sir James Saumarez, on the supposition that the Caesar's 



1801.] EXTRAORDINARY DESPATCH. 47 

damages were so great that it would be impossible to get her 
ready without great delay, shifted his flag to the Audacious ; 
but the crew, anxious to share in the expected fight, declared 
their willingness to work night and day until the ship was 
ready. At this time her lower masts were out ; but by 
working all hands during day, and watch and watch at night, 
the Caesar was warped into the mole, and on the 10th got in 
her lower masts. On the 11th preparations for sailing were 
observed among the ships of the enemy, and on Sunday, the 
12th, at daybreak, they loosed sails while the Caesar was still 
refitting in the mole, at the same time receiving shot, powder, 
and stores, and making preparations to haul out. At noon 
the enemy began to move with the wind fresh from the east- 
ward, and at one they were all underweigh, and the two 
Spanish three-deckers off Cabrita Point. 

" The day was clear," says Captain Brenton ; " the whole 
population of the rock seemed to be in motion ; the line wall, 
mole-head, and batteries were crowded; and the Caesar 
warped out while her band was playing, ' Come, cheer up, 
my lads, 'tis to glory we steer,' the music of the garrison 
answering with ' Britons strike home.' The scene was 
animating beyond description ; and the enthusiasm was so 
great among the seamen, that even the wounded men desired 
to be taken on board their ships to share in the honours of 
the approaching conflict." 

At 3h. p.m., just as the Caesar, in her way out of the mole, 
had passed the stern of the Audacious, the flag of Sir James 
Saumarez was rehoisted, and the signal made for the squadron 
to weigh and to prepare for battle. Having cleared the rock, 
the squadron formed a line ahead on the larboard tack, with 
the wind easterly, the Caesar leading, followed by the 
Venerable, Superb, Spencer, and Audacious, of the line, and 
32-gim frigate Thames, Captain Askew Paffard Hollis, and 
polacre sloop Calpe, Captain the Hon. George H. L. Dundas, 
brig Louisa, Captain Crawford Duncan, and Portuguese 
frigate Carlotta. At 7h. the ships wore together, and stood 
on the starboard tack under easy sail. 

About 7h. 50m. the combined squadron cleared Cabrita 
Point, with the exception of the Hannibal, which ship was 
jury-rigged (having topmasts for lower masts), but, although 
taken in tow by the Indienne frigate, was eventually obliged 



48 SUPEKB AND SPANISH THREE-DECKERS. [1801. 

to return to Algesiras. Their squadron then consisted of 
the following : — 



FRENCH. 
Guns. Ships. 

oq j Formidable 

( Indomptable 
„ < j Saint Antoine 
'* j Desaix 
Frigates Libre and Muiron 
Lugger Vantour 



SPANISH. 
Guns. Ships. 

, , 9 j Real Carlos 
( Hermenegildo 
96 San Fernando 
80 Argonauta 
74 San Augustin 
Frigate Sabina 



Admiral Moreno's flag was flying on board the Sabina, on 
board which frigate Rear-Admiral Linois also repaired. 

Soon after 8h. p.m. the British squadron bore away in 
chase, and at 8h. 40m. Captain Keats, having obtained leave 
to attack the rear of the enemy, crowded all sail. The 
Superb being an exceedingly fine, fast-sailing ship, and the 
breeze having freshened, had gained at llh. three or four 
miles upon the Caesar, and was out of sight of the rest of the 
squadron. At llh. 20m. Captain Keats observed the Real 
Carlos about one point before the larboard beam, and another 
three-decker, the Hermenegildo, and the Saint Antoine, nearly 
abreast of the Real Carlos, on the larboard beam. The 
Superb immediately shortened sail, and luffing up, ranged 
close alongside the Real Carlos, into which she commenced 
firing her larboard guns. At the third broadside the enemy's 
fore-topmast was shot away, and she was observed to be on 
fire. Captain Keats then ordered the firing to cease, and 
suffered the Spanish ship, by this time in evident confusion, 
and firing her guns at random, to make sail before the wind. 
The destruction of this ship being inevitable, the Superb 
proceeded in chase of the Saint Antoine, which at a little 
before midnight she closed with and spiritedly engaged. 
After an action of about thirty minutes' duration, in the 
course of which both ships hauled to the wind, the Saint 
Antoine ceased firing, and hailed to say she had surrendered. 
At a little past midnight the Hermenegildo, having also bore 
up, taking the Real Carlos for an enemy, fired into her, 
although the latter was in flames fore and aft ; and the two 
ships getting foul, the Hermenegildo also took fire, and both 
in a short time blew up with all on board. Out of near 
2,000 men, two officers and thirty-six men were saved in a 
boat which came alongside the Superb, and a few others 



1$01.] PURSUIT OF THE FORMIDABLE. 49 

reached ships of their own squadron, but the remainder 
perished. 

Just as the Saint Antoine had struck to the Superb, the 
Caesar and Venerable arrived up, and, as the broad pendant 
of the French ship still remained at the masthead, the hal- 
yards being shot away, the two ships fired into her ; but 
finding she had already struck, they made sail ahead. The 
Superb, with the Calpe, remained to remove the prisoners 
and seeure the prize ; while the Caesar and Spencer made 
sail after the Formidable, then at some distance to the west- 
ward, standing towards the shoals of Conil. 

All sail was made by the Caesar and her three consorts, 
Venerable, Spencer, and Thames ; and as the Formidable 
was under jury-topmasts, the Venerable and Thames over- 
hauled her very fast ; and at 5h. a.m. on the 13th, the 
French ship hoisted her colours, and fired her stern-chasers 
upon her pursuers. At 5h. 10m. the Venerable got within 
musket-shot of the Formidable ; and at 5h. 30m. the 
Venerable's mizen-topmast was shot away. At 5h. 45m. 
the Thames hauled up under the stern of the Formidable, 
and raked her, receiving in return an ineffectual fire from 
the stern-chasers of the latter. The Venerable and For- 
midable continued to engage within hail ; but, at 6h. 45m., 
the mainmast of the Venerable went by the board, and she 
dropped astern. The Formidable continued to stand on to 
the northward, in the hope of reaching Cadiz, keeping up for 
some time a very galling fire upon the Venerable from her 
stern guns. At 7h. 50m. the Venerable's foremast went 
over the side ; and "at about the same time she struck on a 
reef of rocks off San Pedro, distant about twelve miles from 
Cadiz. At 8h. her mizenmast fell ; soon afterwards a boat 
from the Caesar came alongside with Captain Brenton, who 
brought discretionary orders to Captain Hood to destroy his 
ship in case of an attack — apparently then meditated — from 
the combined squadron, and the Thames was ordered to 
remain by her to receive her crew ; but the Audacious and 
Superb appearing to the southward, induced the enemy to 
forego any such intention, and to enter Cadiz. 

The Venerable and Superb were, as we have seen, the only 
two British ships, except the Thames frigate, which were 
engaged. The former had her master, John Williams, fifteen 

VOL. II. E 



50 CUTTING OUT THE CHEVRETTE. [1801. 

seamen, and two marines, killed ; and Lieutenant Thomas 
Church, John Snell, boatswain, George Hessey and Charles 
Pardoe, midshipmen, seventy-three seamen, and ten marines, 
wounded. On board the Superb, Lieutenant Edmund 
Waller (lost a leg), and fourteen seamen and marines, were 
badly wounded. At 2h. p.m. the Venerable, by the assistance 
of the boats of the squadron, was hove off, and the Thames 
took her in tow. She eventually got into Gibraltar, and in 
a few days was again equipped, and ready for sea. 

The captains, officers, and crews of the squadron received 
the thanks of Parliament. Sir James Saumarez was created 
a knight of the Bath, and had a pension of £1,200 per 
annum conferred upon him • and Lieutenants Philip Duma- 
resq, of the Caesar ; Samuel Jackson, of the Superb ; and 
James Lillicrap, of the "Venerable, being the seniors, were 
promoted to the rank of commander. The meritorious con- 
duct of Captain Keats gained for him no especial mark of 
favour ; neither was he prominently named in the public 
letter of Sir James Saumarez. The Saint Antoine was an 
old ship, and, although added to the list of the British navy, 
never quitted Portsmouth after her arrival. 

In the early part of July, while the frigates Doris, Beau- 
lieu, and Uranie, Captains Charles Brisbane, Stephen Poyntz, 
and William Hall Gage, were lying at anchor about three 
miles to the southward of Point St. Matthew, watching 
Brest harbour, the French 20-gun corvette Chevrette was 
observed at anchor under the batteries in Camaret Bay. 
The French deemed their position perfectly secure ; but the 
British, holding a contrary opinion, determined to cut her 
out ; and on the 20th, the boats of the Beaulieu and Doris 
(the Uranie having parted company), manned by volunteers, 
and under the command of Lieutenant Woodley Losack, of 
the Yille de Paris, sent by Admiral Cornwallis purposely 
for this service, proceeded on the enterprise. The boats not 
pulling alike, and the headmost being over-anxious to near 
the object, separated ; one division returning to the ship, 
while the other reached the entrance of Camaret Bay, where 
the boats remained until daylight, expecting to be joined by 
their companions. They were, therefore, discovered by the 
corvette ; and the latter, being thus made acquainted with 
the intention of the British, set about making preparations. 




// r 



1801.] CUTTING OUT THE CHEVRETTE. 51 

The Chevrette was observed to get underway and proceed 
a mile nearer the harbour, where she was moored close 
under the guns of some heavy batteries. In addition to 
this precaution, she embarked a body of soldiers, which 
augmented her crew to 339 men. Temporary redoubts 
were thrown up upon every eligible point of land, and a 
guard-boat, with two 36-pounders, was stationed in advance, 
to give notice of an enemy's approach. The Chevrette, as a 
signal of defiance, then displayed a large French ensign over 
an English one. 

About 9h. 30m. p.m., on the 21st of July, the boats of 
the three frigates (the Uranie having rejoined), to which 
were added two boats from the 74-gun ship Bobust, num- 
bering in all fifteen, containing 280 men and officers, under 
the command, as before, of Lieutenant Losack, assembled 
alongside the Beaulieu, and proceeded a second time on this 
service. But, soon after they had put off, a boat was seen 
near the shore, which was supposed to be a look-out boat, 
and Lieutenant Losack, desirous of securing her, proceeded 
in chase with his own and five other boats. The remainder 
waited some time for the return of Lieutenant Losack ; but 
as he did not rejoin, Lieutenant Keith Maxwell, of the 
Beaulieu, the next senior officer, bearing in mind that they 
had six miles to pull, and that the night was already far 
advanced, determined to proceed with the boats then with 
him, in which he had about 180 officers and men. Having 
signified his intention, and appointed to the different officers 
and men their several duties — ordering some to fight their 
way aloft and loose the sails, a quarter-master to take the 
helm, others to cut the cables, and providing for every 
exigency which could possibly arise — the nine boats hastened 
to the attack. 

At lh. a.m. on the 22nd, the boats arrived in sight of the 
Chevrette, which, after hailing, opened a heavy fire of grape 
and musketry, and her firing was immediately followed by 
volleys from the shore ; but the boats gallantly dashed on. 
The Beaulieu's boats, under Lieutenant Maxwell, with 
Lieutenants James Pasley and Lieutenant of marines James 
Sinclair, boarded on the starboard bow and quarter; and 
the Uranie's, under Lieutenant Martin Neville, one from 
the Kobust, under Midshipman Bobert Warren, and one 

e2 



52 CUTTING OUT THE CHEVRETTE. [1801. 

from the Doris, under Lieutenant "Walter Burke, on the 
larboard bow. They were gallantly resisted by the French- 
men, armed with muskets, pistols, sabres, tomahawks, and 
pikes, who in their turn boarded the boats. The assailants, 
armed with cutlasses only, overcame this formidable oppo- 
sition, and at length gained a footing on the corvette's deck. 
This being obtained, the topmen fought their way aloft ; 
and although several were killed and others wounded in the 
attempt, the daring fellows carried their point. Laying out 
on the yards of the corvette, notwithstanding the foot-ropes 
were cut or stopped up, and everything done to impede the 
execution of then object, in less than three minutes after 
the ship was boarded her three topsails and courses were 
let fall. In the meau time the cable had been cut. and 
Henry Wallis, the quarter-master of the Beaulieu, appointed 
to this duty, having taken the helm, the Chevrette was 
drifting out of the bay before a light breeze. Many of the 
Frenchmen, perceiving the corvette linger sail, ran below, 
others jumped overboard ; and although only live minutes 
had elapsed, the British had gained entire possession of the 
upper deck, and those who had lied below were soon com- 
pelled to surrender. In her course out. the Chevrette was 
exposed to a continual lire of round and grape from the 
batteries ; but the breeze freshening, she was soon out of 
their range. Just at this time Lieutenant Losack and his 
division arrived up. and took command of the prize which 
Lieutenant Maxwell and his intrepid band had so nobly 
won. 

The British loss, considering the fearful odds against 
which they had contended, was very slight. Lieutenant of 
marines James Sinclair, Robert Warren, midshipman, seven 
seamen, and two marines, were killed ; and Lieutenants 
Martin Neville and Walter Burke (the latter mortally), 
William Phillips, master's mate. Edward Crofton, Edward 
Byrn. and Robert Finnis, midshipmen, and forty-two sea- 
men and nine marines, wounded : and one marine drowned 
in the barge of the Beaulieu. which was sunk by the shot of 
the enemy : total, eleven killed, fifty-seven wounded, and 
one drowned. The Chevrette's loss amounted to her captain, 
six officers, and eighty-live seamen and soldiers killed ; and 
live officers and fifty-seven seamen wounded : total, ninety- 



1801.] HENRY WALLIS. 53 

two killed and sixty-two wounded. The cutting out of the 
Chevrette was a deed bordering on rashness ; and yet, where 
the honour of the British flag was concerned, and the 
courage of British sailors taunted, the abandonment of the 
attempt would have been attended with consequences of the 
utmost importance to both. It was to be put to the test 
what degree of security was proof against British valour ; 
and the result was most glorious. The capture of the 
Chevrette, therefore, may be pointed at with pride by every 
British sailor, as a proof of what has been done ; and at the 
same time he will remember, that that which has been once 
effected may be repeated. We must not, however, omit 
paying a just tribute in particular to one of the many gallant 
tars engaged in this perilous undertaking — Henry Wallis, 
who took the helm of the Chevrette. This fine seaman 
fought his way through numerous foes to the station to 
which he had been appointed ; and, although bleeding from 
many and severe wounds, he remained at his post, and 
steered the corvette until she was beyond the reach of the 
batteries. " Henry Wallis," says the author of the narrative 
in the Naval Chronicle, from which the foregoing has been 
collected, " had been seven years in the Beaulieu, and was 
ever among the foremost in a service of danger. If a man 
fell overboard, he was always fortunately in the way, and 
either in the boat or the water. During the time he 
belonged to the ship, nearly a dozen men were indebted to 
him for their lives, which he had saved by plunging over- 
board, sometimes even in a gale of wind, at the utmost 
hazard of his own." 

Lieutenant Losack was immediately promoted to the 
rank of commander ; but it was some time afterwards, and 
then only in consequence of a court of inquiry held on board 
the Mars, in reference to the real statement of the affair, 
that Lieutenant Maxwell received a similar advancement, to 
which his services so justly entitled him. The naval medal 
has been granted to the surviving participators in this 
exploit. 

On the 27th of July, in lat. 43° 30' K, long. 11° 40' W., 
the 18-pounder 36-gun frigate Immortalite, Captain Henry 
Hotham, captured, after a chase of seven hours, the French 
26-gun privateer Invention. The Invention had four 



54 SYLPH AND FRENCH FRIGATE. [1801. 

masts, her length was 147 feet, while her breadth of beam 
was only twenty- seven feet; her armament consisted of 
twenty-four long 6-pounders on a flush-deck, and two 
12-pounder carronades on a top-gallant forecastle. Her 
four masts were at nearly equal distances : the first and 
third of the same height, the second stouter and taunter, 
and the mizen much smaller ; but she had four top-gallant 
yards rigged aloft, and was accounted a good sailer and 
sea-boat. Having only been a month launched, however, 
these points had not been well ascertained. 

On the 31st of July, the 18-gun brig Sylph, Captain 
Charles Dashwood, was cruising off Santander, on the north 
coast of Spain, and in the evening chased a large schooner 
which stood towards a frigate observed to windward under 
the land. At sunset, the hull of the frigate (which made 
sail after the Sylph) was visible from the deck, and the brig 
hove to and prepared for action. At llh. p.m., the frigate 
having arrived within half gun-shot of the Sylph without 
answering the private signal, the latter opened fire, which 
was returned by the enemy's ship, the two vessels gradually 
nearing until they approached within hail. The action was 
continued for one hour and twenty minutes ; but at 
12h. 30m. a.m., the Sylph having had her rigging much cut 
up, a carronade dismounted, and some shot between wind 
and water, edged off the wind to repair her damages. At 
daybreak on the 21st, the frigate was again seen about seven 
miles to windward, with her foreyard- upon deck, and the 
brig made sail in chase ; but, from her own disabled state 
being unable to carry much sail, before she could get within 
reach, the frigate swayed up her foreyard, and stood in for 
the land. As the Sylph's mainmast was badly wounded, 
and as she was making eighteen inches water an hour, 
Captain Dashwood deemed it his duty to wear, and stand to 
the northward ; having sustained a loss of one seaman killed, 
and Mr. Allward, master, Lionel Carey, midshipman, and 
eight seamen wounded (three dangerously). The Sylph, on 
ioining Admiral Cornwallis, was ordered to Plymouth ; and, 
after undergoing a complete refit, rejoined the commander- 
in-chief off Ushant, and was ordered to repair to her old 
crui sing-ground on the north coast of Spain. 

On the 28th of September, when about forty leagues to 



1801.] CAPTURE OF CARRERE. 55 

the northward of Cape Pinas, the Sylph discovered at sunset 
a large ship, apparently of similar force to her former 
opponent. All sail was instantly set upon the Sylph, and 
endeavours made to obtain the weather gage, which the 
frigate seeming determined to dispute, several tacks were 
made by both, and smart broadsides exchanged in passing. 
At 7h. 30m. p.m., the Sylph succeeded in placing herself on 
the weather bow of the frigate, and an action commenced, 
which continued for two hours, when the frigate wore, and 
made sail on the opposite tack, leaving the brig very much 
disabled in her sails and rigging, and her main-topmast 
badly wounded ; but, singular to relate, the only person 
hurt was the same gentleman before mentioned, Lionel 
Carey, midshipman, who was again wounded. The frigate, 
thus twice engaged by an 1 8-gun brig, was supposed to have 
been the French 40-gun frigate Artemise ; and it was 
stated in Captain Dashwood's official letter, that in the first 
action she had twenty men killed and forty wounded, and 
was obliged to return to Santander to refit ; but her loss on 
the second occasion is not stated. The real name and force 
of the enemy, however, are still involved in mystery. Captain 
Dashwood was posted ; but Iris first lieutenant, Samuel 
Burgess, remained a lieutenant for fifteen years afterwards. 

On the 3rd of August, the frigates Phoenix, Pom one, and 
Pearl, Captains Lawrence W. Halsted, Edward L. Gower, and 
Samuel Ballard, cruising off the Isle of Elba, fell in with 
the French 3 8-gun frigate Carrere, having under her charge 
a convoy laden with ordnance stores. The Pomone having 
arrived up with the chase, after an action of ten minutes, 
compelled the French ship to surrender. The boatswain of 
the Pomone and one seaman were killed, and Lieutenant 
Charles Douglas, of the marines (with the loss of a leg), and 
three seamen wounded. The prize was added to the British 
navy. 

On the 10th of August, Francis Smith, midshipman, in 
command of the six-oared cutter of the 1 6-gun brig Atalante, 
Commander Anselm J. Griffiths, gallantly boarded and 
captured, in Quiberon Bay, the French national lugger 
Eveille, of two long 4-pounders and four swivels. Although 
performed in the face of a heavy fire, no casualty occurred 
in the British boat. 



5G ATTACK OX THE BOULOGNE FLOTILLA. [1801. 

On the night of the 15th of August, Lord Nelson, whose 
flag was hoisted for the occasion on board the Medusa 
frigate, Captain John Gore, determined that an attack 
should be made on the Boulogne flotilla, by the boats of the 
squadron under his orders. They were accordingly formed 
into four divisions, under the respective commands of Cap- 
tains Philip Somerville, Edward T. Parker, Isaac Cotgrave, 
and Robert Jones, accompanied by a division of mortar-boats 
under Captain John Conn. At llh. 30m. p.m., the boats 
put off from the Medusa ; but, owing to the strength of the 
current and extreme darkness of the night, the divisions 
separated. Captain Somerville's division was drifted to the 
eastward ; and at daylight some of the leading boats got up 
with and attacked a brig, lying close to the pier-head, and 
after a sharp resistance, carried her ; but she was found to 
be secured to the shore by a chain under her bottom. The 
British boats' crews then became exposed to so heavy a fire 
of musketry opened upon them from the shore, and from 
the vessels near her, that they were compelled to retreat, 
after sustaining a loss of Alexander Rutherford, mate, and 
fourteen seamen, killed ; and Lieutenants Thomas Oliver, 
Prancis Dickenson, Jeremiah Skelton, and William Basset, 
Captain of marines George Young, Francis Burney, mate, 
Samuel Spratley, midshipman, twenty-nine seamen and 
nineteen marines, wounded : total, eighteen killed, and fifty- 
five wounded. 

The second division, under Captain Parker, reached the 
shore about midnight, and a subdivision of the boats, led by 
Captain Parker, ran alongside the brig Etna, bearing a com- 
modore's pendant, moored off the mole-head. Their frequent 
and gallant attempts at boarding were, however, frustrated 
by a strong boarding-netting, triced up all round her, and 
by 200 soldiers, who kept up an incessant fire of musketry. 
The assailauts, in the end, were beaten off with considerable 
loss. The second subdivision, under Lieutenant Edward 
Williams, of the Medusa, boarded and carried a lugger, which 
was brought off ; but in attacking a brig was repulsed, and 
compelled to retreat, as well as that part of the division 
under Captain Parker. Their loss together amounted to 
William Gore and William Bristow, midshipmen, fifteen 
seamen, aud four marines, killed ; and Captain Parker (mor- 



1801.] SIBYLLE AND CHIFFONNE. 57 

tally), Lieutenants Charles Pelly and Frederick Langford, 
William Kirby, master, the Hon. Anthony Maitland, mid- 
shipman, Richard Wilkinson, master of the Greyhound 
cutter, thirty seamen, and six marines, wounded ; total, 
twenty-one killed, and forty-two wounded. Captain Cot- 
grave led on his division with equal gallantry, and the boats 
under his orders attacked with great bravery, but unfor- 
tunately with no better success ; and they were also obliged 
to retire. Their loss amounted to Mr. Berry, midshipman, 
and four seamen, killed ; and a gunner, twenty-three seamen, 
and five marines, wounded : total, five killed, and twenty- 
nine wounded. The fourth division, under Captain Jones, 
was prevented by the rapidity of the tide from reach- 
ing the scene of action, and that of Captain Conn did not 
act. The total loss sustained in this ill-timed expedition 
amounted to forty-four killed and 126 wounded. It must, 
however, be borne in mind, in reference to the want of success 
which attended the gallant efforts of the British boats at 
Boulogne, that the vessels they were ordered to act against 
were in every way prepared to resist a boarding attack. 
The flotilla was composed of vessels purposely built, and 
intended for the conveyance of troops ; they were, gene- 
rally speaking, vessels of from 250 to 200 tons, very broad, 
with high, strong bulwarks, and flat-bottomed, drawing no 
more than three or four feet of water. The area of deck 
they possessed enabled a large body of troops to act on the 
defensive ; and although ill calculated to compete with a ship 
of war underweigh, they could scarcely fail, if defended with 
any degree of determination, in beating off as many boats as 
could have been brought against them. The attack was 
ordered by Earl St. Yincent, the first lord of the Admiralty, in 
the hope of appeasing popular clamour ; and its failure cannot 
be attributed to the vice-admiral, or to the parties engaged. 

On the 19th of August, the 38-gun frigate Sibylle, Cap- 
tain Charles Adam, having been despatched by Yice- Admiral 
Peter Bainier to the Seychelle Islands, was off the island of 
St. Ann's, when she discovered lying in Mahe Boads a French 
frigate without a foremast. Having cleared for action, and 
got all ready for anchoring, with springs on her cables, the 
Sibylle stood towards the enemy. By an extraordinary 
change of wind (which almost constantly blows off the land, 



58 SIBYLLE AND CHIFFONNE. [1801. 

the island being within the range of the trade-winds), the 
British frigate was enabled to steer as direct for the enemy 
as the intricate nature of the channel would permit ; through 
which the Sibylle, having no pilot, was conducted by the 
master, who, stationed on the foreyard-arm, and guided by 
the colour of the water, gave instructions to the man at the 
helm. The Sibylle, under French colours, continued her course 
unmolested ; but having arrived within about 200 yards of 
the frigate's larboard bow, a shoal was observed extending on 
both hands, upon which the Sibylle's anchor was let go, and 
shifting her colours, she immediately became exposed to a 
heavy fire from the enemy, and also from a battery erected 
on shore, and several small vessels at anchor. At 
lOh. 25m. a.m. the Sibylle commenced firing in return, and 
in seventeen minutes compelled her adversary to haid down, 
her colours, and cutting her cables, she drifted on a reef of 
rocks. A boat was despatched, under the orders of Lieu- 
tenant Nicholas Mauger, to take possession of the prize, 
which proved to be the French 36-gun frigate Chiffonne, Cap- 
tain Pierre Guieysse, mounting twenty-six long 12-pounders 
on her main-deck, six 6 -pounders and four brass howitzers 
on her quarter-deck and forecastle. In the battery were 
mounted four long 12-pounders, taken from the Chiffonne's 
disengaged side ; it was well constructed, and provided with 
a furnace for heating shot. The fire from the battery being 
continued after the frigate had surrendered, Lieutenant 
Joseph Corbyu and a boat's crew landed and silenced it, the 
men, as well as a great part of the crew of the Chiffonne, 
making their escape into the country. The loss sustained by 
the French frigate amounted to twenty-three killed, and 
thirty wounded ; and the Sibylle's loss was two seamen 
killed, and George Phillimore, midshipman, slightly wounded. 
The fortunate circumstance of the wind, doubtless, preserved 
the Sibylle from a much heavier loss. The skill displayed 
on this occasion, which in a short time brought about a 
successful termination, reflected much credit upon Captain 
Adam, his officers, and crew. The Chiffonne, a fine ship of 
945 tons, was purchased into the British navy, and under 
the same name was commissioned in 1802 by Captain Adam. 
There having been no promotion granted for this capture, 
the naval medal is not granted for it. 



1801.] BOATS OF FISGARD OFF CORUNNA. 59 

On the night of the 20th of August, Captain Thomas 
Byam Martin, having under his orders the Fisgard, Diamond, 
and Boadicea, cruising off Corunna, despatched the boats of 
the different frigates, under the command of Lieutenant 
Philip Pipon, to attack the shipping at anchor in that port. 
The Neptune, a ship pierced for twenty guns, a gun-boat, 
and a merchant vessel, were boarded and carried, under a 
heavy fire of musketry from the shore and the guns of the 
batteries under which they were moored; and the three 
vessels were brought out, the British sustaining no loss what- 
ever. Lieutenant Pipon, in the early part of the ensuing 
year, was promoted to the rank of commander. 

On the 2nd of September, the squadron, under the orders 
of Captain Lawrence Halstead, in the Phoenix, consisting of 
the Minerve and Pomone, Captains George Cockburn and 
Edward Leveson Gower, employed in the blockade of Porto 
Ferrajo, fell in with the French frigates Succes (late British), 
of thirty-two, and Bravoure, of thirty-six guns, which after a 
short chase were driven on shore near Vasa. The Bravoure 
was destroyed ; but the Succes was got off, and restored to 
her place in the British navy. 

On the 2nd of September, the 18-gun corvette Victor, 
Commander George Balph Collier, while cruising off the 
Seychelle Islands, discovered to leeward the French 8-pouncler 
18-gun brig Fleche, Lieutenant Bonnavie. At 5h. 30m. p.m. 
the Victor brought her to close action ; but the Fleche, after 
a few broadsides, crossing the Victor's stern, hauled to the 
wind, and made sail away. The Victor's running rigging 
was much cut ; but as soon as new gear could be rove, she 
tacked and pursued her opponent, but by that time the brig- 
had got half a mile to windward. The Victor continued the 
chase during the night and two succeeding days ; but the 
sailing qualities of the vessels were far from equal, and at 
daylight on the 5th the Fleche was not in ^ sight. Captain 
Collier then proceeded to the Seychelle Islands, and at 
3h. 30m. p.m. the French brig was observed standing in for 
the anchorage of Mahe. At 7h. p.m. the night closed in, and 
the Victor, having no pilot, was under the necessity of 
anchoring in eleven fathoms. 

The entrance to the roads, as already stated, is exceedingly 
intricate ; but the master, James Crawford, though ill of 



CO VICTOR AND FLKCHE. [1801. 

fever, volunteered to sound and endeavour to find the channel, 
and, assisted by James Middleton, mate (who had been 
wounded in the action of the 2nd instant), succeeded in per- 
forming that service, although repeatedly fired at by a boat 
from the brig. At daylight on the 6th, the Fleche was 
seen at the mouth of the inner harbour, with springs on her 
cables, and as the wind was off the land, the Victor, from 
the narrowness of the channel, was obliged to warp a great 
part of the distance under her staysails, exposed to the fire 
of the brig. By great perseverance, however, the Victor, 
after a hard day's work, gained the requisite position, and at 
llh. 45m. p.m. let go her anchor, with two springs on her 
cable, and opened fire. At 2h. 10m. a.m., on the 7th, the 
the Fleche was reduced to a sinking state, and having cut 
her cable, drifted on a coral reef. The boats of the Victor 
were sent to take possession of the prize ; but before they 
could board she fell over on her larboard side into deep water 
and sank. In this highly creditable affair the Victor did 
not lose a man, although very much cut up in her rigging, 
and several shot had struck her hull. In her previous con- 
test, she had only Mr. Middleton and one seaman wounded. 
The loss of the Fleche, out of a crew of 145, was supposed to 
have been very heavy,. but the number is not stated. 

On the 13th of September, the 18-gun ship-sloop Lark, 
Acting Commander James Johnstone, being close in with 
Cuba, chased the Spanish privateer schooner Esperanza, 
which took shelter behind the Portilla reefs. The yawl and 
cutter of the Lark, under the orders of Lieutenant James 
Pasley and — M'Cloud, midshipman, proceeded to cut her 
out, and after a desperate resistance succeeded, but lost in 
effecting it one man killed, and Mr. M'Cloud and twelve men 
wounded. On board the privateer twenty-one men were 
killed, and six wounded, including among the former the 
captain and all the officers. 

On the 14th of September, 450 marines and 240 seamen, 
commanded by Captain George Long, of the Vincego, with ft 
party of Tuscans, amounting altogether to about 1,000 men, 
were landed at daybreak from the 7*-gun ships Genereux 
and Dragon, under the orders of Captain John Chambers 
White, of the Renown, and an attack was made on several 
French batteries near Porto Ferrajo, some of which were 



1601.] PASLEY AND SPANISH POLACRE. CI 

destroyed, and fifty-five men made prisoners, including three 
officers ; but the allied force was ultimately obliged to retire, 
with a loss of thirty-two killed, sixty-one wounded, and 105 
missing. Captain Long, while gallantly leading his men to 
storm a narrow bridge, together with two seamen and twelve 
marines, were killed, and one officer, seventeen seamen, and 
twenty marines, wounded ; also one officer, twelve seamen, 
and sixty-four marines, missing. Total naval loss ; fifteen 
killed, thirty-three wounded, and seventy-seven missing. 

On the 28th of October, the hired armed 14-gun brig 
Pasley, Lieutenant William Wooldridge, when about twenty 
leagues from Cape de Gata, was chased by the Spanish 
polacre ship Virgin del Rosario, pierced for twenty guns, but 
having only ten mounted, eight of which were long twelves 
and two long 24-pounders, with a crew of ninety-four men. 
After an hours engagement, the Pasley's rigging being much 
cut, and her gaff shot away, the brig, in order to prevent her 
adversary's escape, ran the polacre athwart hawse, lashing her 
bowsprit to the capstan. The British crew then jumped on 
board, and the polacre, after a sharp struggle of fifteen 
minutes, was carried. The Pasley's gunner and two seamen 
were killed, her commander shot through the left shoulder, 
her master, Ambrose Lions (mortally), George Davies, mate, 
and five seamen, wounded. The Rosario had her captain, 
six officers, and fifteen seamen killed, and thirteen wounded. 
Lieutenant Wooldridge was deservedly promoted to the rank 
of commander. Pringle H. Douglas served as lieutenant 
of the Pasley under Lieutenant Wooldridge, and contributed 
to the favourable result of the action. The naval medal is 
granted for this exploit. 

Preliminary articles of peace were signed in London on 
the 1st of October between Great Britain and France, and 
on the 12th a cessation of hostilities was ordered ; the 
definitive treaty was concluded at Amiens on the 25th of 
March, 1802. By the terms of the treaty, Malta, Goza, and 
Comino were to be restored to the order of St. John of 
Jerusalem ; the French troops were to evacuate Naples and 
the Roman territory ; and the British to quit Porto Ferrajo. 
To France was restored all which had been taken from her in 
the East and West Indies and Africa. Holland regained all 
her West India possessions except Dutch Guiana, and also 



62 PEACE OF AMIENS. [1801. 

the Cape of Good Hope ; and in the East Indies — Malacca, 
and the islands Amboyna, Banda, and Ternate ; but lost 
Trincomale, and other Dutch settlements in Ceylon. To 
Sweden and Denmark were restored the few colonies which 
had been taken from them. Spain lost Trinidad, which 
was retained by the English. 

" Whatever grounds," says Mr. James, " politicians might 
have for auguring from the terms of this solemn compact a 
short-lived peace, certain it is that the activity which reigned 
on the ocean, an activity much greater than any which had 
been witnessed during the last two or three years of the war, 
gave to the treaty the air of a truce, or suspension of arms, 
in which each of the belligerents — some of whom signed it 
for no other purpose — was striving to gain an advantageous 
position, in order, when the tocsin should again sound, to be 
ready for the commencement of hostilities. French, Dutch, 
and Spanish fleets were preparing to put to sea, and English 
fleets to follow them and watch their motions. Who then 
could doubt that, although the wax upon the seals of the 
treaty concluding the last had scarcely cooled, a new war 
was on the eve of bursting forth 1 " x 

The losses sustained by the British navy during the preced- 
ing war may be thus briefly summed up : — 





Lost 
through 
enemy. 


Lost by Accident. 


Total. 


•6 

<D 
H 

s 

1 


>6 
p 

| 

in 


<u 

■8 


Foundered. 




Brit. 

built. 


For. 
built. 


pq 


5 

37 


9 


9 
73 


8 


14 


6 

4 


20 
145 


Frigates and smaller vessels . . 
Total loss 


42 | 9 


82 


8 


14 


10 


165 



> Vol. iii. p. 235. 



1801.] 



ENEMY S LOSSES. 



63 



Abstract of the Losses sustained by the different Belligerent Powers in 
the course of the War with Great Britain, commencing in 1793 and 
ending October 12, 1801 ; also showing the Number of Prizes pur- 
chased into the British Navy. 



( French 

Ships of the \ Dutch 

Line. 1 Spanish .... 
' Danish 

Total 


Lost 

through the 

British. 


Lost by- 
Accident. 1 


Total 
Loss. 


Added 
to the 
British 
Navy. 


T3 

6 


1 

t/J 


■d 

■8 


3 

m 


34 

18 
5 
2 


11 
'5 


9 


1 


55 

18 

10 

2 


28 

17 

4 

1 


59 
82 
33 
11 


16 
14 

4 


9 
6 


1 


85 

102 

33 

15 


50 
62 

25 

7 

144 


( French 

Frigates. . ... < Dutch 

( Spanish .... 

Grand Total 


185 


34 


15 


1 


235 



1 This enumeration cannot be termed wholly correct, as, from want of 
local information, many wrecks, not being known, are not included in 
the above. With respect to the British, however, there can be no 



04 



RECOMMENCEMENT OF HOSTILITIES. 



[1803. 



1803. 

The duration of the peace of Amiens was short ; and on 
the 16th of May, 1803, war was again formally declared. 

On this recommencement of hostilities, although the num- 
ber of ships of the line in the British navy had undergone 
very little augmentation since the former war, yet that 
number consisted of ships in better condition, and for the 
most part larger. The following will show the available 
force of the British navy at the commencement of the year 
1803. 



For Sea Service. 


- to 

"S ° 
.is ^ 


id 


Third 
Rates. 

Fourth 
Rates. 

Fifth 
Rates. 


5 M 

'<« si 


Bombs, 
a Gun-brigs, 
§ , Cutters, 
53 | &c. &c. 


"5 
o 


In commission . . 
In ordinary .... 

Total .... 


*6 


i 

14 
15 


31 

59 


7 I 66 
4 | 36 


11 
11 


58 ! 36 

20 ' 28 


210 
178 


6 


90 I 11 J102 | 22 

1 1 1 


7S ! 64 


38S 



By the 1st of June, sixty sail of the line were in com- 
mission, together with a proportionate number of frigates 
and smaller vessels. The exertions of France in the mean- 
while in building new ships had been very great, and on the 
resumption of hostilities, the line-of-battle force at her 
disposal amounted to upwards of sixty sail. 

The first open act of hostility on the part of the British 
took place in the Channel on the day on which the decla- 
ration of war appeared in the Gazette. The British 
18-pounder 3G-gun frigate Doris, Captain Richard Henry 
Pearson, chased the French national 14-gun lugger Affron- 
teur, and after a determined resistance on the part of the 
latter, by which she had her captain and eight men killed 
and fourteen wounded, the lugger surrendered. 

On the 28th of .May, the French 36-gun frigate Franchise 
captured by the 74-gun ship Minotaur, Captain John 



1803.] CUTTING OUT THE VENTEUX. 65 

CM. Mansfield, belonging to the Channel fleet cruising off 
Brest. 

On the 14th of June, the 18-pounder 36-gun frigate 
Inimortalite, Captain E. W. C. R. Owen, and 18-gun brigs 
Cruiser and Jalouse, Commanders John Hancock and Chris- 
topher Strachey, chased the two French gun-vessels Inabord- 
able, schooner, and Commode brig, each mounting four long 
18 and 24-pounders. The gun-vessels ran ashore near Cape 
Blanc Nez ; but after a spirited cannonade between the bat- 
teries under which they had grounded and the British 
squadron, they were brought off' by the boats of the three 
ships. Charles Adams, master's mate of the Jalouse, who 
was the only person injured, was badly wounded. 

On the 27th of June, the 38-gun frigate Loire, Captain 
Frederick L. Maitland, cruising off the Isle of Bas, sent her 
three boats, under the orders of Lieutenants Francis Temple 
and James Bowen, with Philip Henry Bridges, midshipman, 
to attack the French national 10-gun brig Venteux, Lieu- 
tenant Montfort, which was moored under the batteries. 
Owing to the heavy rowing of one of the boats, only two 
reached the brig, which was perfectly prepared for the 
attack ; but these gallantly boarded, and, after a resistance 
of ten minutes, carried her. The Venteux's second officer 
and two seamen were killed ; and her commander, four offi- 
cers, and eight seamen wounded. The British loss amounted 
to — McGwier (boatswain), four seamen, and one marine 
wounded. Lieutenant Temple was made a commander for 
this service, and Mr. Bridges promoted to be a lieutenant. 
The Patriotic Fund voted Lieutenants Temple and Bowen 
swords of the value of fifty guineas each ; and the naval 
medal has also been awarded. 

On the 30th of June the French 18-pounder 40-gun 
frigate Creole was captured off Cape Nicolas Mole, by the 
74-gun ships Cumberland and Vanguard, Captains Henry W. 
Bayntun and James Walker. The Creole, in command of 
Captain Austen Bissell, foundered on her passage to England. 
On the 2nd of July, the British 38-gun frigate Minerve, 
Captain Jahleel Brenton, during a thick fog, grounded at 
the entrance of Cherbourg. Notwithstanding every effort 
which it was possible for ability to suggest, or courage and 
perseverance to execute, to get ' the ship afloat — and after 

VOL. II. f 



6 6 ANECDOTE OF A, BRITISH SAILOR. [1803. 

being exposed for ten hours to the fire of numerous and 
heaw batteries, and some gun-vessels, Captain Brenton 
ordered the colours to be hauled down. The Minerve sus- 
tained a loss of 11 men killed and 16 wounded before she 
surrendered. 1 

On the 24th of July, the French 74-gun ships Duquesne 
and Duo-uay Trouin, Commodore Querangal and Captain 
Touffet, Accompanied by the 40-gun frigate Guerriere, Cap- 
tain Beaudouin, taking advantage of a dark squall, put to 
sea from Cape Francois, in the hope of evading a British 
squadron blockading the port, consisting of the 74-gun ships 
Bellerophon, Elephant, Theseus, and Vanguard, Captains 
John Loring, George Dundas, John Bligh, and James Walker 
The French ships having separated at night, the Elephant 
o-ave chase to the Duguay Trouin, while the Bellerophon and 
other ships pursued the Duquesne, which latter was on the 
following day overtaken and captured, after receiving a few 
shot from the Yanguard. The loss of the Vanguard con- 
sisted of one man killed and one wounded The prize was 
a fine ship; but, having been run on the Morant Keys, was 
broken up on reaching England. The Duguay Trouin and 
Guerriere escaped; but, on the 31st of August when oft 
Ferrol the former was fallen in with and gallantly engaged 
by the 38-gun frigate Boadicea, Captain John Maitland, and 
both the Duguay Trouin and Guerriere were eventually 
chased into Corunna, on the 2nd of September, by the 74-gun 
ship CuUoden, Captain Barrington Dacres. In this latter 
engagement the Culloden had four men wounded, and the 
Guerriere six killed and fifteen wounded. 

On the 11th of July, the 18-gun brig Racoon, Commander 

« An anecdote of one of the crew of the Minerve, related in Brenton's 
Naval History, must not be forgotten. The exertions of the crew had 
been snccessM in getting the ship off the rocks ; and one of he , sulog 
who had had both his legs shot off, lying in the cockpit waiting ^to be 
Ittended to by the surgeon, hearing the cheers of the men on deck in 
consequence, eagerly demanded what it meant. When told that the 
shk was off he shoal, and would soon be clear of the forts he is reported 

to have exclaimed, "Then the legs !" and, taking his knffe from 

his pocket, he cut the remaining muscles which attached them ^to him 
and joined his shipmates in the cheer. After the ship was taken the 
poor fellow was placed in the boat .to be conveyed to the hospital but, 
determined not to outlive his loss of liberty, he slacked his tourniquet, 
and bled to death. 



1803.] RACOON WITH LODI, ETC. 67 

Austen Bissell, discovered the French 10-gun brig Lodi, 
Lieutenant Pierre J. Taupier, at anchor in Leogane Roads, 
St. Domingo. The Racoon stood towards, and brought up 
within thirty yards of the brig; and, after a cannonade of 
thirty minutes, the Lodi cut her cables, and endeavoured to 
make off ; but she was closely pursued, and after a second 
encounter of ten minutes' duration, hauled down her colours. 
The Lodi had one man killed and fourteen wounded. Thomas 
Gill, master's mate, had his left arm shot away, but he was 
the only person wounded on board the British brig. 

On the 17th of August, the Racoon drove ashore, near 
St. Jago de Cuba, the French national 18-gun brig Mutine. 
The Mutine was totally lost ; but her crew succeeded in 
reaching the land. Captain Bissell continuing to cruise off 
Cuba, on the 13th of October, observed several vessels run- 
ning along close to the shore, all of which, before sunset, 
hauled towards Cumberland Harbour. The Racoon anchored 
in the night, in the expectation that the vessels would 
endeavour to pass; and at daylight, on the 14th, discovered 
eight or nine sail lying becalmed at some distance. The 
Racoon, having a fine land wind, proceeded in chase, and 
succeeded in getting within gun-shot of a brig, which on 
receiving a few broadsides hauled down her colours. The 
prize was the French national gun-brig Petite-Fille, and 
had on board 180 troops. A prize crew was put on board, 
which was scarcely effected before an armed schooner and 
cutter stood towards the Racoon, and commenced firing 
upon her ; and having a breeze, at Uh. a.m., bore up with 
the intention of boarding her on the bow and quarter. The 
two vessels had arrived within pistol-shot, when the Racoon 
opened her broadside on the cutter; then -wearing round, 
she fired the other broadside into the schooner, and continued 
to manoeuvre in this manner so effectually, that the vessels, 
whose decks were crowded with men, were prevented from 
executing their project. After engaging for an hour, the 
cutter, being reduced to a sinking state, surrendered. The 
Racoon having taken possession of the cutter, proceeded 
after the schooner, which she also captured. The loss on 
board the latter vessels, out of .near 250 people, including 
150 troops, amounted to about forty men killed and wounded. 
The Racoon sustained no loss; and the only person wounded 

p2 



G8 BOATS OF HYDRA AT HAVRE. [1803. 

was James Thompson, the master, by a severe contusion. 
Her first prize, the brig, was recaptured by the French crew 
while the Racoon was engaging the cutter and schooner, and 
ran ashore upon the rocks. Commander Bissell and Lieu- 
tenant James A. Gordon, first of the Racoon, were promoted 
shortly afterwards. The Patriotic Fund voted Commander 
Bissell a sword, value 100 guineas, in approbation of his 
conduct on this occasion, and the naval medal has lately been 
awarded to the surviving participators. 

On the 1st of August, the boats of the 38-gun frigate 
Hydra, Captain George Mundy, commanded by Lieutenant 
Francis McMahon Tracy, having under his orders Midship- 
men John Barclay and George French, were despatched to 
bring off or destroy the French armed lugger Favori, which 
the frigate had driven ashore near Havre. The lugger was 
defended by her crew, which had landed and taken post 
behind some sand-hills, assisted by a party of soldiers ; but 
notwithstanding their unremitting fusilade, the vessel, under 
cover of a steady fire of musketry from the Hydra's marines, 
was brought out. One seaman killed was the extent of the 
British loss. 

On the 14th of August, in lat. 48° 1ST., long. 16° W., the 
H.E.I.C. ship Lord Nelson, of twenty-six guns, Captain 
Robert Spottiswood, homeward bound, was captured after a 
gallant action by the French 34-gun privateer frigate 
Bellone. The crew of the privateer numbered 260, and were 
repulsed in one attempt to board ; and the Lord Nelson was 
not surrendered until, out of a crew of 102 men, five were 
killed and thirty -one wounded. The Lord Nelson Avas 
recaptured on the 25th by the British 18-gun brig Seagull, 
Commander Henry Burke, after an action in which the brig 
had two men killed and eight wounded. 

On the 9th of September, at daylight, the hired armed 
cutter Sheerness, Lieutenant Henry Rowed, being off Brest, 
observed two chasse-marees coming out. Lieutenant Rowed 
despatched a boat with seven men, under the command of a 
master's mate, in chase of one, while the Sheerness pursued 
the other. At lOh. a.m. it fell calm, and the only boat now 
left to the Sheerness was a small dingy, which was hoisted 
up astern. With this small boat, however, Lieutenant 
Rowed determined to proceed to the attack of the chasse- 



1803.] CAPTURE OF A CHASSE-llAREE. 60 

maree, then about four miles distant ; and calling for 
volunteers, John Marks, boatswain, and three men came 
forward, and with this crew, which was as many as the boat 
would contain, she put off from the cutter. The chasse- 
maree, meantime, was making use of her sweeps, and before 
the boat, after a two hours' pull, could overtake her, had run 
ashore under a battery. As a further protection to the 
French vessel, thirty soldiers were drawn up on the beach. 
Nothing daunted by the formidable array, Lieutenant Rowed 
and his four followers boarded the chasse-maree — her crew 
offering very little resistance, and quitting the vessel with all 
speed ; but as soon as the French crew had left, the soldiers 
opened a fire of musketry. As a cover from this fire, the 
British crew hoisted the vessel's foresail, but the halyards 
were quickly shot away, and the crew exposed to the aim of 
the soldiers. After much exertion — the rising tide assisting 
— the prize was got off, and taken in tow by the boat ; but 
had scarcely cleared the land, when a French boat, containing 
an officer and nine armed men, suddenly made her appear- 
ance alongside. The boatswain, who, with the lieutenant 
and three men, was in the boat ahead towing, observing the 
French boat, dropped his oar, and in an instant was on the 
deck of the prize, unarmed ; but by his menacing attitude 
contrived to keep the French crew from boarding, until 
Lieutenant Rowed, with the remaining men, could come to 
his assistance with muskets. The French, finding they could 
not regain possession of the chasse-maree without more 
trouble than they anticipated, quitted her, and the vessel, 
notwithstanding she was repeatedly fired at by the battery, 
was carried off in triumph by the gallant captors. No less 
than forty-nine musket-balls were counted" in the sides and 
spars of the prize, and yet not one of the boat's crew was 
wounded. Lieutenant Rowed, with that generosity which 
is an attribute of bravery, stated the services of John Marks 
to the Admiralty ; but not receiving from thence any reward, 
he appealed to the committee of the Patriotic Fund, which, 
with its usual liberality, awarded the gallant fellow a silver 
call and chain, and to the lieutenant himself a sword of fifty 
guineas' value ; but the latter, although an officer of ten 
years' standing, did not meet with that promotion which 
his intrepidity so well merited. 



70 BOMBARDMENTS OF DIEPPE AND GRANVILLE. [1803. 

On the 14th of September, Captain Owen, in the Immor- 
tality with the bomb-vessels Perseus and Explosion, Com- 
manders John Melhuish and Robert Paul, bombarded the 
batteries protecting the town of Dieppe from 8h. a.m. till 
llh. 30m. a.m. The damage done was not considerable, and 
the British had five men wounded and one missing. A 
simultaneous attack was made upon Granville by Rear- 
Admiral Sir James Saumarez, whose nag was flying on board 
the 18-pounder 32-gun frigate Cerberus, Captain William 
Selby. The squadron in company consisted of the sloops of 
war Charwell and Kite, Commanders Philip Dumaresq and 
Philip Pipon, and Ealing schooner, Lieutenant William 
Archbold. The bomb-vessels Sulphur and Terror, Com- 
manders Donald McLeod and George N. Hardinge, subse- 
quently joined, and on the 15th of September the bombard- 
ment commenced, and lasted from 5h. till lOh. 30m. a.m., 
when the falling tide obliged the squadron to haul off. 

On the 20th of September, at 5h. p.m., the hired cutter 
Princess Augusta, armed with eight 4-pounders and twenty- 
six men, Lieutenant James Woodward Scott, being off the 
Texel, was attacked by the Dutch schooners Faust, of twelve 
guns and seventy men, and Wraak, of eight guns and fifty 
men. The largest schooner having closed with the cutter, 
fired her broadside, which killed the boatswain and gunner, 
and mortally wounded the commander of the Princess 
Augusta ; but the cutter returned the fire with great effect, 
and repulsed several attempts to board. The Wraak then 
ranged up to leeward and also endeavoured to board ; but 
being frustrated on each occasion, after an action of an hour, 
the schooners hauled off. Lieutenant Scott, in his dying 
moments, exhorted the master, Joseph Thomas, to fight the 
cutter bravely, and tell the admiral (Lord Keith) that he 
had done his duty. His last commands were obeyed, and 
the vessel preserved from capture. The total loss of the 
Princess Augusta amounted to the commander, boatswain, 
and carpenter killed, and two wounded. 

On the 27 th of September, in the evening, a division of 
sloops and bomb-vessels, under Commander Samuel Jackson, 
of the 16- gun ship-sloop Autumn, bombarded Calais for some 
hours ; but a north-easterly gale obliged them to haul off. 

On the 29th of September, the 3C-gun frigate Leda, Cap- 



1803.] BOATS OF ANTELOPE OFF THE TEXEL. 71 

tain Robert Honyman, drove on shore twenty-three sail of 
gun -vessels which were attempting to escape from Calais to 
Boulogne, and the whole were bilged upon the rocks. 

On the 29th of September, the launch, barge, and cutter 
belonging to the 50-gun ship Antelope, Commodore Sir 
Sidney Smith, were sent away to reconnoitre the enemy's 
fleet in the Texel. The boats were commanded by Lieut. John 
M. Hanchett, assisted by ¥m. C. C. Daly ell, midshipman. 
At daylight the boats were within half a mile of the Dutch 
admiral, when two schooners and five large gun-vessels put 
out to engage them. Lieut. Hanchett having succeeded in 
drawing the gun-vessels off the land and out of reach of the 
schooners, attacked the former, one of which he sank, and it 
is supposed killed and wounded a great many men. A 
breeze enabling the schooners to close the gun-boats, the 
Antelope's boats retreated, the enemy continuing a running 
fight until within three miles of the ship. On the 24th of 
October, the same officers attacked and drove ashore, under 
Sandfurt, sixteen vessels, and after dispersing the troops sent 
for the protection of the shipping, burnt three of the vessels. 
On the 28th and 30th of October, Lieut. Hanchett and 
Mr. Dalyell similarly distinguished themselves in the Ylie 
Passage ; but on the 7th of November, while serving in the 
Experiment schuyt, got aground in a gale of wind near the 
south-west end of Goree, and after a gallant defence were 
made prisoners. 

On the 9th of October, the 18-gun brig Atalante, Com- 
mander Joseph Ore Masefield, drove ashore three French 
merchant vessels, under the battery of the St. Gildas, at the 
mouth of the river Pennerf. The boats were then sent in 
under Lieutenant John Hawkins and Richard Burstal, the 
master, which succeeded in boarding the "vessels after much 
resistance from a party of soldiers. As the vessels were 
light, and of no value, their cables were cut, and they drifted 
on the rocks. The boats then returned to the brig, having 
had one man killed and two wounded. A sword of fifty 
guineas' value was presented to Lieut. Hawkins by the 
Patriotic Fund. 

On the 26th of October, Lieutenant Robert Henderson, 
of the 18-gun brig Osprey, in a boat with seventeen men, 
boarded the French cutter privateer Ressource, mounting 



72 BOATS OF BLANCHE IN MANCENILLE BAY. [1803. 

four guns, with a crew of forty-three men, notwithstanding 
the heavy fire which, on the approach of the boats, was kept 
up by the cutter. After a sharp but ineffectual resistance, 
the cutter was carried ; Lieutenant Henderson and four 
seamen being wounded. The Ressource had two men killed 
and twelve wounded. Lieutenant Henderson was compli- 
mented by the Patriotic Fund Committee with a sword of 
fifty guineas' value. 

On the 31st of October, the British hired armed cutter 
Admiral Mitchell, Lieutenant Alexander Shippard, fought a 
gallant action off Boulogne with a French 12 -gun brig and an 
armed sloop, having five vessels under convoy, and succeeded 
in driving the brig on shore. Four men were wounded on 
board the Admiral Mitchell, two badly. The Leda frigate, 
with the sloops of war Lark and Harpy, were in sight, 
endeavouring to beat up to the assistance of the cutter. 
A sword of fifty guineas' value was voted to Lieutenant 
Shippard by the Patriotic Fund, but he received also the 
more acceptable reward of promotion. 

On the 3rd of November, while the 36-gun frigate Blanche, 
Captain Zachary Mudge, was lying at anchor off the entrance 
of Mancenille Bay, St. Domingo, the French armed cutter 
Albion was discovered close under the guns of Monte 
Christi, where she was waiting with a cargo of bullocks for 
the use of the garrison at Cape Francois. The cutter 
mounted two 4-pounders, besides six swivels ; and her crew 
numbered forty-three, including officers. The fort mounted 
four long 24-pounders and three field-pieces, which entirely 
commanded the cutter. Captain Mudge, deeming the posi- 
tion of the cutter to be assailable, despatched the ship's 
boats, under the orders of Lieutenant William Braithwaite, 
in open day, to endeavour to cut her out ; but the attack 
was not made. 

A night expedition was then proposed, and Lieutenant 
of marines Edward Nicolls volunteered with one boat to 
make the attempt. This offer was accepted, and the red 
cutter, with thirteen men, himself included, put off from the 
frigate ; but Captain Mudge, fearing that the courage of 
Lieutenant Nicolls might induce him to overrate his 
strength, despatched after him the barge, in which were 
twenty-two men, under the orders of Lieutenant the Hon. 



1803.] GALLANTRY OF LIEUTENANT NICOLLS. 73 

Warwick Lake. The barge joined, but subsequently sepa- 
rated,, and Lieutenant Nicolls proceeded alone in the exe- 
cution of the project. At about 2h. 40m. a.m., on the 4th, 
the red cutter arrived within hail of the Albion, and was 
challenged, to which the daring crew responded with three 
hearty cheers, and dashed on at the enemy, round, grape, 
and musket shot ploughing up the water about the boat, 
and whistling over the men's heads. By the second volley 
of musketry, the coxswain and two others were severely 
wounded ; but before a third could be fired, Nicolls and his 
gallant band had gained a footing on the Albion's deck. 
A fierce struggle ensued. The lieutenant was badly wounded, 
and the French captain killed ; but in a short time the 
French crew was overpowered, and driven below. Hitherto 
not a shot had been discharged from the batteries, and in 
order to keep up the delusion that the victory was undecided, 
Lieutenant Nicolls ordered the marines with him to load 
and fire as rapidly as possible, while the seamen employed 
themselves in getting the cutter underway. The vessel was 
nearly under sail, when the barge, with Lieutenant Lake, 
came alongside, and took the command, and the marines 
having ceased firing, the battery immediately opened, by 
which two of the Blanche's crew were killed. Fortunately 
the breeze freshened off the land, and the cutter was 
quickly out of gun-shot, without suffering any further loss. 
The particulars of this gallant affair not having been fully 
stated, the committee at Lloyd's awarded two swords — one 
of £50 value to Lieutenant Lake, and the other of £30 to 
Lieutenant Nicolls — in reward for their gallantry. The 
wounds of Lieutenant Nicolls were both jmnful and 
dangerous. A musket-ball struck his belly, and, by the 
resistance of the integuments, was passed round, and came 
out at his right side, and lodged in the fleshy part of his 
arm ; and yet his name was not returned in the official 
letter as among the wounded. 

On the same morning the launch of the Blanche, with, 
twenty-eight men, under the command of John Smith, 
master's mate, attacked a French schooner mounting a long 
8-pounder and manned with thirty men, as she was coming- 
out of the Caracol Passage, and, after an obstinate resistance, 
carried her, after she had lost one man killed and five 



74 GALLANT CONDUCT OF A MIDSHIPMAN. [1803. 

wounded. The launch had one man killed and two 
wounded. Mr. Smith being promoted, the naval medal has 
been granted to the survivors of his boat's crew ; but no 
such mark of distinction has been conferred on those who 
served the same morning in the " red cutter." 

On the 7th of November, Edward Henry A'Court, mid- 
shipman, of the Blanche, was sent in a cutter, with seven 
seamen and marines, to obtain sand for the use of the ship. 
In the evening, on her return, the boat fell in with a 
schooner lying nearly becalmed, which she pulled towards, 
and apprehensive that she was a privateer, cautiously kept 
in her wake. Just as they got under her stern, a fire 
of musketry from the schooner mortally wounded one, and 
severely wounded another of the boat's crew. Mr. A'Court 
nevertheless pulled up alongside, and with his five remaining 
men, boarded and carried the schooner, although she had 
among her passengers a French colonel and thirty soldiers. 
A more gallant performance is not on record. 

On the 14th of November, a detachment of seamen and 
marines, numbering 134 men, under the orders of Com- 
mander "William Ferris, of the 14-gun brig Drake, with 
Lieutenants Thomas Cole and Thomas Furber, of the 74-giui 
ship Blenheim, Captain Thomas Graves, and Lieutenants 
of. marines Walter S. Boyd and George Beatty, accompanied 
by the Swift cutter, proceeded off Marine Harbour, Marti- 
nique, to attack the French privateer schooner Harmonie, 
at anchor within. The marines landed and surprised the 
fort, taking fifteen prisoners, when they dismounted and 
spiked the guns and blew up the magazine. The boats were 
fired upon as they approached the schooner, but she was 
boarded and carried in a few minutes. The Harmonie 
mounted eight guns, and out of her crew of sixty-six men, 
had two killed and fourteen wounded. The British loss 
amounted to one man killed and five wounded. Swords 
valued at fifty guineas each were presented by the Patriotic 
Fund to the officers employed on this service. 

On the 30th of November, the French squadron, with the 
troops under General Rocambeau, evacuated Cape Francois, 
-St. Domingo, and by the terms of their capitulation the 
French ships in that port were to be surrendered to the 



1803.] LIEUTENANT WILLOUGHBY AT CAPE FRANCOIS. 75 

British squadron 1 as soon as they quitted the harbour. The 
40-gun frigate Surveillante was taken possession of accord- 
ingly ; but the Clorinde, in coming out, grounded on the 
rocks under Fort St. Joseph, and beat off her rudder, and 
her situation became so desperate from the heavy sea 
breaking on the rocks, that the boats which had been sent 
to her assistance were returning to the squadron. At this 
time the Clorinde had on board nearly 900 souls. Among 
the boats present was the Hercule's launch, containing forty 
men, under Lieutenant, Nesbit Josiah Willoughby, who, 
anxious to rescue the unfortunate creatures from the certain 
death that awaited them, either by perishing in the ship, or 
being murdered by the blacks on shore, put back towards 
the Clorinde. As he approached, he found the side of the 
ship crowded with men, anxious to jump into the launch ; 
and knowing that if he approached nearer, this mass of 
human beings would leap into the boat and swamp her, he 
procured a small punt, in which he alone embarked, ordering 
the launch to lay off on her oars. Lieutenant Willoughby, 
having reached the Clorinde, proposed to General Lapoype 
to haul down the French flag, and surrender the ship to him. 
This, after some little hesitation, was acceded to, and the 
British colours hoisted. Lieutenant Willoughby then, with 
some difficulty, landed, and having obtained an interview 
with General Dessalines, gained from him a promise of 
assistance to enable him to get the ship afloat, or, in case of 
her destruction, protection for the crew, who were in that 
case to be considered as British prisoners. With the 
assistance from the shore, and the arrival of some boats 
from the British squadron, together with the falling of the 
wind, Lieutenant Willoughby succeeded in heaving the 
Clorinde off the rocks. Thus, by the humane and uncommon 
exertions of one officer, a great many lives were undoubtedly 
preserved. The Clorinde being a fine frigate, was, with the 
Surveillante, added to the British navy. 

1 See page 66. 



76 THE DIAMOND ROCK. [1804 



1804. 

Towards the close of the preceding year the British 
74-gun ship Centaur, Captain Murray Maxwell, bearing the 
broad pendant of Commodore Samuel Hood, was cruising 
off Fort Royal Bay, Martinique, watching the port and 
endeavouring to intercept vessels entering or comiug out. 
At the distance of rather less than a mile from the south- 
west end of Martinique, called Diamond Point, stands the 
Diamond Rock, the height of which is about 600 feet, the 
circumference less than a mile, and in shape very similar to 
a haystack. The west side of the rock is alone accessible, 
it presenting on the other sides a perpendicular surface from 
within a few feet of its summit, and on the west side a 
heavy surf breaks at most times, which renders landing 
impracticable. After landing, the difficulties are great, and 
the person has to creep through crannies and over dangerous 
steeps until reaching the north-west side of the rock, where 
the eye is suddenly relieved by a sloping grove of wild 
figtrees. Commodore Hood, finding that vessels frequently 
eluded him by passing between the Diamond Rock and the 
mainland, determined to take possession of and fortify it, 
making it at the same time a sort of depot or stationary 
ship of war, from whence boats could be detached to harass 
the enemy's trade. 

In the month of January, a landing was effected, and in 
an inconceivably short space of time, but after a work of 
unparalleled labour, five of the Centaur's guns — three 24 
and two 18-pounders — were mounted on different parts of 
this stupendous castle. One of the 24-pounders, fitted upon 
a circular carriage, commanded the landing-place, ranging 
almost to the Bay of Marin ; another was mounted upon 
the north-east side, and the third 24-pounder half-way up 
the rock. Upon the summit, which commands an extensive 
range, the 18-pounders were placed. The rock being thus 
fortified, and a sufficient store of ammunition supplied, Lieu- 



1804.] CUTTING OUT THE CURIEUX. 77 

tenant James Wilkes Maurice, of the Centaur, with the 
rank of commander, and a crew of 120 men and hoys, for 
which a four months' supply of provisions and water was 
landed, hoisted his pendant on the " British sloop of war 
Diamond Rock." 

On the evening of the 3rd of February, four of the 
Centaur's boats, containing sixty seamen and twelve marines, 
under the orders of Lieutenant Robert Carthew Reynolds, 
were sent to attempt the capture of the French 16-gun 
brig Curieux, Captain Cordier, lying at anchor near the 
entrance of Fort Royal, Martinique. Every precaution had 
been adopted to prevent a surprise, and at about lh. a.m. on 
the 4th, the Centaur's boats, on their approach, were hailed 
by the Curieux, and some guns and musketry discharged. 
The British marines quickly returned the fire, and the boats 
having got alongside, attempted to board. Lieutenant 
Reynolds, finding the brig's boarding-netting triced up fore 
and aft, which he was unable to surmount, dropped astern, 
but in defiance of a galling fire of musketiy and swivels, at 
length succeeded with his crew in getting on board. After 
a very determined resistance the Curieux was carried, and 
her cables being cut, she stood out of Fort Royal harbour, 
under a heavy fire from the batteries at the entrance. 
Lieutenants Reynolds and George E. B. Bettesworth, John 
Treacy, midshipman, and six seamen, were wounded ; but Lieu- 
tenant Reynolds was severely injured. This gallant officer, 
who was promoted and appointed to command the prke, 
did not survive to enjoy the honours he had won. The 
Curieux's loss, out of a crew of seventy men, amounted 
to ten killed and thirty wounded, including all but one of 
her officers. Swords, value fifty guineas, were voted by the 
Patriotic Fund to Lieutenants Reynolds and Bettesworth ; 
and the naval medal has been recently granted to the 
survivors. 

On the 5th of February, the 12-gun schooner Eclair, 
commanded by Lieutenant "William Carr, while cruising 
about sixty leagues to the northward of Tortola, fell in with 
the French 22-gun privateer ship Grand Decide, and after 
a very close and gallant action, which lasted thirty minutes, 
the ship made all sail away. The Eclair, out of about sixty 
men and boys, in this most unequal contest, had one killed 



78 



DANCE AND LINOIS. 



[1804. 



and four wounded, with her rigging cut ^ P^^ 
masts and yards damaged. The crew of the pnvateei 
numbered 220 ; but her loss, which must have been severe, 
"Tot known. 'The Patriotic Fund voted ^*^* ^ 
a sword valued at fifty guineas ; and a piece of plate of the 
same value was presented to Mr. Salmon, the master, for 
the gallant conduct evinced by him, in cuttrng out a French 
privateer on the 4th of the succeeding month 
1 On the 31st of January, the India fleet, of sixteen sail of 
first-class ships, sailed from China for Europe Th^ship 
were from 1,200 to 1,500 tons, mounting thirty or thirty-ax 
gun , w^n crews averaging 100 men each exclusive of Indian 
sailors. But although armed with thirty guns, few, if any 
of the ships were calculated to contend with a corvette , foi 
their ports were so small, that the guns could only be fired 
at an object immediately abeam, and these were short 
18-pounders, not much more effective than carronades of the 
sam P e calibre; in fact, the armament of the India* , sbrp 
served only to deter small privateers and piratical Malays 
from attacking them. But their appearan ce ^s v erv wart- 
like • for being lofty ships, well-rigged and painted with two 
tos of ports! they, at a distance, might easily have been 
taken for line-of-battle ships ; and, as we have already seen, 
a lar-e French frigate was so misled by this appearance, 
as to & strlke to one § without firing a shot.* The fleet con- 
sisted of the following :— 



Earl Camden Nat. Dance 

Warley Hen. Wilson 

Alfred • • Jas. Farqubarson 

Koyal George ...J. F. Timmins 

Coutts Robert Tounn 

Wexford .W. S. Clarke 

Ganges . . - ,Wm. Moffatt 

Exeter Hen. Meriton | 



Abergavenny J. Wordswortb 

Addington J. Kirkpatnck 

Bombay Castle . . Arcb. Hamilton 

Cumberland W. W. Fairer 

Hope J- Pendergrass 

Dorsetsbire B. H. Brown 

W Hastings Tbos. Larkms 

Ocean - .-.J- C. Lochner 



There were also eleven country ships, two other merchant 
ships, and the Company's armed brig Ganges. 

On the 14th of February, at 8h. a.m., the fleet being off 

Pulo Auro, discovered four strange sail to leeward, beating 

south-west ; and Captain Dance, who, as the senior captain, 

hoisted a commodore's broad pendant, directed the Alfred, 

1 See page 12, ante. 



1804.] EEPULSE OF LINOIS. 79 

Royal George, Bombay Castle, and Hope, to bear up and 
reconnoitre the strangers. The Ganges also stood towards 
the strangers, which in a short time were made out to be a 
squadron of one line-of- battle ship, three frigates, and a 
brig. These composed Rear-Adiniral Linois' squadron and 
were the 74-gun ship Marengo, 40-gun frigate Belle Poule 
36-gun frigate Semillante, 22-gun corvette Berceau, and 
16-gun brig Aventurier. This squadron had sailed from 
Batavia purposely to intercept the China fleet, and on per- 
ceiving the British ships, hauled close to the wind and made sail 
towards them. Having recalled his ships, Commodore Dance 
made the signal for a line-of-battle in close order, steering 
their proper course under easy sail, and by nightfall thS 
French squadron was on the weather quarter of the British 
fleet. Commodore Dance disposed his ships in the best 
possible order for defence, placing the country ships on the 
lee bow of the armed ships ; and then hove to for the night 
and hoisting lights, boldly awaited the approach of the 
enemy. The French admiral, however, appeared little in- 
clined to attack, probably fearing that among the East-India 
ships were ships of war ; and consequently, at daylight on 
the following morning, the French squadron was about three 
miles to windward, also lying to. Commodore Dance observ- 
ing, at 9h. a.m., that the French made no hostile demonstra- 
tion, filled and made sail on the starboard tack, and hoisted 
his colours, upon which the French squadron edged off the 
wind, and stood towards the British. 

At lh. p.m., observing that the intention of the French 
admiral was to cut off the rear of the British, Commodore 
Dance made the signal for his fleet to tack in succession, and 
to edge off the wind to windward of the British rear, and 
engage the enemy on arriving up. This skilful manoeuvre 
was performed with the correctness of a well-disciplined 
fleet, the Royal George leading, followed closely by the 
Ganges, Earl Camden, Warley, Alfred, and others. In this 
manner the British ships, with a light air of wind and top- 
gallant-sails set, approached the enemy. At lh. 15m. the 
xMarengo opened fire upon the Royal George and Ganges," 
which the latter returned in a very spirited manner. The 
Koyal George was engaged nearly forty minutes ; the Ganges 
and other ships were also engaged as they arrived up, but for 



80 BOATS OF THE BLENHEIM AT ST. PIERRE. [1804. 

a shorter period than the Royal George ; and after the action 
had lasted forty-three minutes, the Marengo and consorts 
ceased firing, hauled to the wind, and made sail away. Com- 
modore Dance immediately made the signal for a general 
chase, but without any prospect of success ; it, however, had 
the effect of scaring away the French admiral from the rich 
booty which a perseverance in the attack must have put into 
his possession. 

The Royal George, in her gallant encounter, had only one 
man killed and one wounded ; but several shot had struck 
her hull, and her sails and rigging were much cut. No other 
ship received any material damage, and the French squadron 
none. If ever a French admiral was frightened from his 
prey, it was Linois ; but it was only the great skill and bold 
front which Dance so wisely maintained throughout, that 
preserved every ship from capture. Commodore Dance 
received distinguished marks of approbation from all quar- 
ters ; not the least valued of which was the honour of 
knighthood, bestowed upon him by Ins sovereign. Lieutenant 
Robert M. Fowler, of the Royal Navy, who was taking 
a passage to England in the Royal George, afforded valuable 
assistance on the occasion. The Patriotic Fund voted him a 
sword, valued at fifty guineas, and to each of the captains of 
the East-Indiamen, swords of the same value, but to Com- 
modore Dance, a sword, value 100 guineas. 

On the 4th of March, two boats belonging to the 74-gun 
ship Blenheim, Captain William Ferris, containing fifty 
officers and men, under Lieutenant Thomas Furber, made a 
gallant attack upon the French national schooner Curieuse, 
which was moored under a batteiy at the town of St. Pierre. 
The schooner was fully prepared for resistance, having a 
boarding-netting triced up to her mastheads, and her sweeps 
rigged out on each side ; but the boats' crews, notwithstand- 
ing a heavy fire from the schooner and neighbouring forts, 
boarded and earned her, after a very hard struggle. As soon 
as the cables were cut, the schooner swang round, and 
orounded on the beach, and it was then discovered that shei 
was moored to the shore, by a chain under the bottom. 
Lieutenant Furber was therefore compelled to abandon the 
prize his gallantly had won, and returned to the ship with 



1804.] CAPTURE OF THE MOSAMBIQUE, ETC. 81 

the loss of three killed, five officers and fourteen men 
wounded;, and three missing. 

On the 13th of March, Lieutenant Thomas Forrest, with 
thirty volunteers from the 36-gun frigate Emerald, Captain 
James O'Brien, embarked on board the armed sloop Fort 
Diamond, and proceeded to attack the French 10-gun priva- 
teer schooner Mosambique, lying under some guns at Seron, 
just within the Pearl Rock, at the western extremity of 
Martinique. The sloop ran the schooner aboard with such 
violence, that the chain by which the latter was secured to 
the shore was broken ; Lieutenant Forrest and his men then 
sprang on board, and most of the schooner's crew, sixty in 
number, fled to the shore. Mr. Hall, master's mate, and one 
seaman were wounded. A sword, valued at fifty guineas, was 
presented to Lieutenant Forrest by the Patriotic Fund, in 
acknowledgement of his gallantry. 

On the 14th of March, two boats of the 14-gun brig- 
Drake were sent under the orders of the master, William 
Robson, to board a ship, mounting eighteen guns, which had 
been chased and driven on shore by the Drake, near some 
batteries at the Hayes, Guadaloupe. As the boats approached, 
the vessel was deserted by the crew, and half an hour after- 
wards (having been treacherously set on fire previously to 
her crew leaving), blew up, killing a master's mate, three 
seamen, and one marine, and mortally wounding Mr. Robson, 
besides severely injuring several of the boat's crew. This 
was the third occasion, within less than a month, on which 
Mr. Robson and his gallant companions had distinguished 
themselves. 

On the 17th of March, the 1G -gun brig Penguin, Commander 
George Morris, drove on shore, on the bar'of Senegal, the 
French privateer schooner Renommee, of twelve guns and 
eighty-seven men, winch, on the 24th, was totally destroyed 
by Lieutenant Charles Williams and a boat's crew. 

On the 23rd of March, the boats of the 3 2 -gun frigate 
Magicienne, 1 Captain Adam Mackenzie, in command of 
Lieutenant James Boxer, assisted by Lieutenant Daniel 

1 We have been unable to meet with any other record of this capture 
than is to be found in a list of the votes of the Patriotic Fund Com- 
mittee. 

VOL. II. G 



82 CAPTURE OF EGYPTIENNE, ETC. [1804. 

Barber, cut out the Dutch gun-boat Schrik : the Patriotic 
Fiuid Committee voted to each a sword, value fifty guineas. 

On the 23rd of March, the 18-gun ship-sloop Osprey, Com- 
mander George Younghusband, cruising on the Windward 
Island station, chased the French 12-pounder 36-gun privateer 
Egyptienne, and arriving within hail commenced an action, 
which was continued with the utmost gallantry for one hour 
and twenty minutes, when the Egyptienne sheered off, and 
before dark was out of sight. The Osprey had one man 
killed and sixteen wounded. The privateer, out of 248 men 
and boys, had eight killed and nineteen wounded. Two days 
afterwards, the Egyptienne was chased by the 12-pounder 
14-gun ship-sloop Hippomenes, Commander Conway Shipley, 
and after a pursuit of fifty- four hours, and a running fight 
of three horns and twenty minutes, hauled down her colours 
and was taken possession of. On board the Hippomenes, 
John Lloyd, master's mate, was wounded. The Egyptienne 
had formerly been the national frigate Railleuse, and measured 
850 tons. Captain Shipley, with his accustomed liberality, 
stated in his official account of the capture, that he attributed 
his easy victory to the dread entertained on board the Egyp- 
tienne of being as severely beaten as she had previously been 
by the Osprey. Both commanders were deservedly noticed 
by the Patriotic Fund, and a sword of the value of 100 
guineas presented to each. 

On the 24th of March, the 13-gun bark Wolverine, Com- 
mander Henry Gordon, on her way to Newfoundland, with 
eight sail of convoy, was chased by the French 30-gun 
privateer Blonde. Captain Gordon, directing the merchant 
vessels to make the best of their way into port, stood towards 
the stranger, and at 4h. p.m., arrived within half gun-shot, 
and hove to on the starboard tack. The Blonde soon after- 
wards ranged up alongside to windward, and commenced the 
action, then wore with the intention of raking the Wolverine ; 
but the latter, to avoid this, wore also. The two vessels 
then came to the wind on the larboard tack, and the action 
continued uninterruptedly for fifty minutes. The Wolverine, 
being in that time much shattered, her wheel shot away, and 
her hold filled with water, hauled down her colours. Out of 
a complement of seventy men and boys, one midshipman 
and four seamen were killed, and ten wounded. The Blonde 



1804.] BOARDING THE AT AL ANTE. 83 

was a frigate-built ship of 600 tons, and mounted twenty-four 
long 8-pounders on the main-deck, and six cannonades on the 
quarter-deck and forecastle, with a crew of 240 men. Her 
first lieutenant was mortally, and five men slightly, wounded. 

The prisoners were scarcely removed from the "WolveriDe 
ere she sank, affording a convincing proof of her having been 
defended to the last extremity. Commander Gordon, on his 
return to England, was tried by court-martial, and most 
honourably acquitted, and shortly afterwards promoted. 

On the 28th of March, the 18-gun brig Scorpion, Com- 
mander George Nicholas Hardinge, cruising off the Dutch 
coast, discovered two brig-corvettes lying in the Ylie Passage, 
at the entrance of the Texel. On the 31st, the 14-gun sloop 
Beaver, Commander Charles Pelly, joined company, and it 
was decided on to attempt the cutting out one of the brigs. 
Accordingly, at 9h. 30m. p.m., five boats, containing sixty 
officers and men, headed by the two commanders, quitted the 
Scorpion. About half-past ten they got alongside the outer- 
most, which was the Dutch national brig Atalante, mounting 
sixteen long 12-pounders, with a crew of seventy-six men, 
and fully prepared for defence, having her boarding-nettings 
triced up. 

Commander Hardinge was the first man on her deck, but 
was quickly supported by his boats' crews. The impetuosity 
of the assault was such, that many of the Dutch crew ran. 
below ; those who remained, however, fought desperately, and 
did not surrender until the captain 1 and three seamen were 

1 Captain Hardinge, in a private letter, furnishes several interesting 
details. "The decks," he writes, "were slippery in consequence of 
rain, so that, grappling with my first opponent, a mate of the watch, I 
fell ; but, recovering my position, fought him upon ^ equal terms, and 
killed him. I then engaged the captain, as brave a man as any service 
ever boasted : he had almost killed one of my seamen. To my shame 
be it spoken, he disarmed me, and was on the point of killing me, when, 
a seaman of mine" (as Captain Hardinge thought at the time, but it was 
Mr. Williams, the master) " came up and rescued me, and enabled me to 
recover my sword. At this time all the men from the boats had boarded, 
and were in possession of the deck. Two men were going to fall upon 
the captain at once. I ran up, held them back, and then adjured him 
to accept quarter. With inflexible heroism he disdained the gift, kept 
us at bay, and compelled us to kill him. He fell covered with honour- 
able wounds." Captain Carp was buried with all the respect which his 
bravery merited, and the prisoners were all put on shore. — Naval 
Chronicle, vol. xx. 

g2 



84 WILHELMINA AND PSYCHE. [1804. 

killed, and three officers and eight seamen wounded. Lieu- 
tenant Buckland S. Bluett, Woodford Williams, master, 
Edmund Jones, midshipman, and two seamen, all of the 
Scorpion, were wounded. A heavy gale coming on the next 
morning, the British were obliged to remain forty-eight hours 
before they could weigh ; but at length, after three days' 
perseverance in the intricate channel, the Atalante was 
brought off. Captain Hardinge was for his gallantry posted 
into the Proselyte, and Lieutenant Bluett made a commander. 
Swords, each of 100 guineas' value, were presented by the 
Patriotic Fund to Commanders Hardinge and Pelly, and of 
fifty guineas' value to Lieutenants Bluett, William Shields, 
and Edward White. Robert Fair, master of the Beaver, and 
James Puckinghorn (or Polkinghorn), master's mate, were 
similarly noticed for their gallantry. This is a naval medal 
action. 

On the 3rd of April, the hired armed cutter Swift, Lieu- 
tenant William M. Leake, was captured after a severe 
struggle (in which the commander and several men were 
killed) by the French xebeck privateer Esperance, of greatly 
superior force. The Swift had despatches from England for 
Lord Nelson off Toulon, but which were destroyed prior to 
the cutter's capture. 

On the 9th of April, the Wilhelmina, armed en-flute, 
mounting eighteen long 9 -pounders, one 12 -pounder car- 
ronade, and two long G-pounders, Commander Henry Lam- 
bert, bound to Madras, and accompanied by a country ship 
valuably laden, discovered a large sail in chase. Captain 
Lambert immediately directed the merchant ship to part 
company, and make the best of her way to Trincomale. 
The stranger was the French 3 2 -gun frigate privateer 
Psyche, Captain Trogoff, and on the 11th, at daylight, the 
Wilhelinina hoisted her colours and tacked towards her, and 
passing on opposite tacks, the Wilhelmina to windward, an 
engagement commenced. The Wilhelmina then wore, and 
passed under the stern of the Psyche, raking her with effect ; 
but after much clever manoeuvring on both sides, and a close 
and spirited action, which lasted one hour and a half, the 
Psyche made sail away, leaving the British ship with her 
main-topmast gone, and otherwise too disabled for pursuit. 
Out of a complement of 134 men and boys, the Wilhelmina 



1804.] VINCEGO AND FRENCH FLOTILLA. 8-5 

had her boatswain and three men mortally, and six seamen 
slightly, wounded. The crew of the Psyche numbered 250, 
of whom her second captain and ten men were killed, and 
her captain (dangerously) and thirty-two men wounded. 
Captain Lambert was deservedly posted, and appointed to the 
32-gun frigate Terpsichore. 

On the 1st of May, the boats of the troop-ship Thisbe, 
Commander Lewis Shepheard, in charge of Lieutenant 
Eobert Corner, captured the privateer Veloce, the circum- 
stances attending which were considered by the committee 
of the Patriotic Fund to merit a reward of fifty guineas ; but 
no official report of the affair is to be met with. 

On the 8th of May, the 18-gun brig Vincego, Commander 
John Westley Wright, lying becalmed at the entrance of 
the Morbihan, on the coast of Bretagne, and while endea- 
vouring to sweep out against the current, was attacked by a 
French flotilla, commanded by Lieutenant Tourneur, consist- 
ing of six brigs, each mounting two long 18 and one 
24-pounder, with seventy men ; six luggers, mounting each 
two 18-pounders, with from forty to fifty men; and .five 
luggers, each armed with a brass 36 lb. howitzer, and from 
twenty to thirty men : total, thirty-five guns, and 700 men. 
At 8h. 30m. a.m. the gun-vessels opened their fire, gaining 
rapidly on the Vincego. At 9h. 30m., the brig opened her 
broadside upon her numerous and powerful foes, which she 
continued to engage nearly two hours within musket-shot. 
By this time the Vincego was very much disabled aloft, had 
three guns dismounted, and out of fifty-one men and twenty- 
four boys, two were killed, and twelve wounded, including 
the captain. Finding further resistance unavailing, the 
British colours were hauled down. 1 

On the 16th of May, a division of prames and gun-boats, 
under Rear- Admiral Ver Huell, from Flushing, bound to 
Ostend, mounting together upwards of 100 guns, long 28, 

1 The French commander, on receiving the sword from Captain 
Wright, thus addressed him: — "You have nobly defended the honour 
of your nation and the reputation of your profession. We love and 
esteem the brave ; and you and your crew shall be treated with every 
possible attention." The subsequent murder of Captain Wright, in the 
Temple, at Paris, served as a melancholy answer to the French officer's 
speech. 



36 HIPPOMENES AND BONAPARTE. [1804. 

24 and 36-pounders and mortars, having about 5,000 men, 
was attacked by a squadron of frigates and sloops under Sir 
Sidney Smith. The 18-gun brig Cruiser, Commander John 
Hancock, and 16-gun sloop Rattler, Commander Francis 
Mason, particularly distinguished themselves, and were 
chiefly instrumental in driving on shore the flag-prame Yille 
d'Anvers and four schooners. The Cruiser had one seaman 
killed, and George Ellis, captain's clerk, and three seamen, 
wounded ; the Rattler, two men killed, and three wounded j 
and the Aimable, Mr. Christie, master's mate, Mr. Johnson, 
midshipman, and five men, killed ; and Lieutenant William 
Mather, William Shadwell, purser, Mr. Connor, midshipman, 
and eleven men, wounded. 

On the 21st of June, the 14-gun ship-sloop Hippomenes, 
Commander Kenneth Mackenzie, cruising off Antigua, dis- 
covered to windward the French 8-pounder 18-gun privateer 
Bonaparte, which, deceived by her appearance, hoisted 
English colours, and chased. At lh. 50m. p.m., having 
arrived within gun-shot of the Hippomenes, the latter 
opened her fire, which the privateer returned. In a short 
time the Bonaparte, being much cut up in sails and rigging, 
fell on board the Hippomenes ; and Captain Mackenzie, 
having caused the privateer's bowsprit to be lashed to the 
mainmast of his ship, called to his crew to follow him, and 
gallantly rushed on the enemy's forecastle. The French 
were driven aft, where they rallied ; but, instead of having 
been followed by his crew, Captain Mackenzie found only 
eighteen men with him, and after a desperate struggle nine 
were driven back to their vessel, their loss having amounted to 
five men killed, and Lieutenant William Pierce, and William 
Collman, purser, with two seamen, who were left prisoners 
on board the French vessel. Of the nine who returned to 
the Hippomenes eight were wounded, including the captain 
and master's mate severely. The lashing having parted, the 
two ships separated, and the Bonaparte, leaving the Hippo- 
menes in a disabled state, made sail and escaped. Captain 
Mackenzie received no less than fourteen wounds, and was 
so exhausted, that he fell senseless into the main chains of 
his own ship. 

On the 11th of July, at lOh. p.m., ten boats belongmg to 
the frigates Narcissus, Seahorse, and Maidstone, under the 



1804.] BOAT-ACTION, AND CAPTURE OF LILY. 87 

orders of Lieutenant John Thompson, of the Narcissus, with 
Lieutenants John Richard Luniley, Ogle Moore, and Hyde 
Parker, mates, and Midshipmen Robert Maunsell, Samuel 
Spencer, William Walker, John George Victor, and — Ha- 
milton, attacked twelve settees, lying at La Vandour, in 
Hieres Bay, moored with chains to the beach, and covered 
by a battery of three guns. About midnight, under a very 
heavy fire from the settees and the troops on shore, the vessels 
were gallantly boarded, and all, except one, which was brought 
off, set on fire. In this affair Thomas Owen Roche, midship- 
man, two seamen, and one marine, were killed ; and Lieu- 
tenant Lumley (lost an arm), Robert Maunsell, mate, Thomas 
W. Bedingfield, Thomas A. Watt, and John G. Victor, mid- 
shipmen, fifteen seamen, and three marines, wounded. Most 
of the above officers received swords or other testimonials 
of their gallantry from the Patriotic Fund. 

On the 12th of July, the 36-gun frigate Aigle, Captain 
George Wolfe, drove on shore and destroyed the French 
20-gun ship Charente and S-gun brig Joie, close under Cor- 
douan lighthouse. 

On the 15th of July, at 2h. 30m. a.m., the 14-gun ship- 
sloop Lily (12-pounder carronades and two 4-pounders), 
Commander William Compton, was chased, when off Cape 
Roman, in the United States, by the French privateer Dame 
Ambert, mounting sixteen long 6-pounders, commanded by 
Captain Charles Lamarque. As the Lily was kept at long- 
shot distance, her carronades were of little use, and being 
soon disabled in her rigging, the privateer closed, and taking 
up a position under her bows, after lashing the bowsprit of 
the Lily to her tanrail, made several attempts to board. In 
this raking position, the British crew, originally about seventy 
men, suffered severely, and among the killed were the cap- 
tain, the first lieutenant, and several other officers. The 
remainder, many of whom were severely wounded, and 
among them Michael Head, master's mate, nobly defended 
the ship ; but two hours and ten minutes from the commence- 
ment of the action, the ninth assault of the French crew was 
successful, and the Lily was boarded and carried. The loss 
on board the Dame Ambert is stated in the French accounts 
at five men killed, and eleven wounded. 

On the 19th of July, the squadron under Commodore 



88 BOULOGNE FLOTILLA. [1804. 

Owen, in the 38-gun frigate Immortalite, consisting besides 
of the 38-gnn frigate Leda, Captain Robert Houyman, and 
a great many small vessels, attacked a division of gun-vessels 
off Boulogne, and drove on shore three brigs and a lugger, 
disabling several others. 

On the 31st of July, the 32 -gun frigate Tartar, Captain 
Keith Maxwell, being at daybreak to leeward of the island 
of Saona, in the West Indies, chased a schooner, which, in 
order to escape, made for the narrow passage between Saona 
and St. Domingo. At Sh. a.m. the Tartar had gained con- 
siderably in the pursuit ; but although repeatedly fired at, 
the chase, which was the French privateer schooner Hiron- 
delle, mounting ten long 4-pounders, refused to bring to, and 
persisted in entering the channel, where she anchored, under 
cover of a reef of rocks. The frigate being unable to follow 
the schooner, Captain Maxwell permitted three boats to 
attempt her capture ; and these, commanded by Lieutenants 
Henry Muller and Nicholas Lockyer, and manned by volun- 
teers, proceeded on this service. Although exposed to a 
severe fire, and in the face of a strong sea-breeze, the boats 
accomplished their purpose with the utmost gallantry, and 
only one seaman and one marine were wounded. The Hiron- 
delle, out of a crew of fifty men, had fifteen killed and 
wounded, and three missing. The Patriotic Fund voted to 
each of the lieutenants a sword of fifty guineas' value. 

On the 26th of August, a flotilla of sixty brigs and up- 
wards of thirty luggers was attacked off Cape Grinez by the 
Immortalite frigate, Commodore Owen ; 18-giui brig Harpy, 
Commander Edmund Hey wood ; 12-gun brig Adder, Lieu- 
tenant George Wood ; and Constitution cutter, Lieutenant 
J. S. A. Denis, within shot of their numerous batteries. Several 
gun-vessels ran ashore, and the remainder bore up for Bou- 
logne. The Constitution was sunk by a shell, and one seaman 
killed and six wounded was the total loss of the British 
squadron. This action was performed in sight of Napoleon, 
to whose hopes for an invasion of England by means of the 
flotilla this defeat was a heavy blow. 

On the 13th of August, Captain Henry Heathcote, com- 
manding the 3 2 -gun frigate Galatea, learning that the Lily — 
the name of which had been changed to General Ernouf — 
was lying in the Saintes, near Anse a Mire, despatched four 



1804.] ATTACK OX THE GENERAL ERNOUF. 89 

boats, containing about ninety men, under the command of 
Lieutenant Charles Hayman, and Michael Birbeck, master, 
assisted by Lieutenant of marines Robert Hall, and other 
officers, to attempt her recapture. Every means of defence 
had been adopted for her protection ; an armed schooner was 
placed across her bows, the ship lay close under the batteries, 
and a boat rowed guard at the entrance of the harbour, to 
give timely intimation of the approach of boats. Not a shot 
was fired until Lieutenant Hayman, in the barge, at about 
lh. a.m., got nearly alongside, when, notwithstanding a tre- 
mendous cannonade, the boats pulled in. Lieutenant Hay- 
man was mortally wounded, and out of twenty-six men in 
his boat more than twenty had received dangerous wounds. 
The three remaining boats, after enduring a heavy fire of 
grape and musketry for nearly an hour, were under the 
necessity of retreating, leaving the barge to her fate, and 
after repassing the Imtteries, reached the Galatea at 
3h. 30m. a.m. The loss in this unfortunate affair amounted 
to Lieutenant Hayman, who fell covered with wounds, the 
master, and Mr. Wall, midshipman, killed. Lieutenant 
Hall lost his right arm, and was made prisoner, and several 
other officers were wounded. The total loss in killed, 
wounded, and prisoners, was sixty-five. 

On the 17th of August, the 38-gun frigate Loire, Captain 
Frederick L. Maitland, cruising off the French coast, fell in 
with the 30-gun privateer Blonde ; and after a twenty 
hours' chase, and running fight of fifteen minutes, in which 
the Loire had Ross Connor, midshipman, and five seamen 
wounded, and the Blonde two killed and five wounded, the 
French ship surrendered. The Blonde was the same which 
captured the Wolverine. 

On the 15th of September, as the 50-gun ship Centurion, 
under the command of Lieutenant James Robert Philips 
(Captain James Lincl being ashore on duty), was lying at 
anchor in Yizagapatam Roads, in company with two India- 
men, three ships, known to be the French 74-gun ship 
Marengo, Rear- Admiral Linois, with the frigates Atalante 
and Semillante, were observed standing into the anchorage. 
At lOh. a.m., the Atalante having arrived within gun-shot, 
the Centurion cut her cable, and making sail, stood out 



90 CENTURION WITH MARENGO AND SQUADRON. [1804. 

towards her, and at 200 yards' distance gave her a broadside. 
The Marengo and Semillante, ten minutes afterwards, being 
on the larboard quarter of the Centurion, also opened fire 
upon her, and the latter gallantly sustained the unequal 
combat till lOh. 45m., when the Marengo, having sustained 
much injury to her sails and rigging, hauled to the wind, 
and was followed by the two frigates. A 3-gun battery had 
alone been able to co-operate with the British ship. Un- 
able to manoeuvre properly, owing to her damaged sails and 
spars, the Centurion soon after anchored in six fathoms, 
to the north-east of the town, where Captain Lind joined. 
At llh. 30m. the French ships made another unsuccessful 
attack upon the British 50-gun ship, after which they took 
quiet possession of the Princess Charlotte Indiaman, and left 
the Centurion without further molestation. The Centurion's 
damages were extensive, and her loss amounted to one man 
mortally and nine slightly wounded. The Marengo had two 
men killed, and one wounded ; and the Atalante, two killed, 
and six (one mortally) wounded. Captain Lind was knighted, 
and a sword of 100 guineas' value presented by the Patriotic 
Fund ; but the lieutenant had to wait a year for his pro- 
motion, although complimented with a sword of fifty guineas' 
value by the Patriotic Fund Committee. The naval medal 
is granted for this action. 

On the 3rd of October, a squadron, consisting of the 
44-gun frigate Indefatigable, Captain Graham Moore ; 32-gun 
frigates Medusa and Ampliion, Captains John Gore and 
Samuel Sutton; and 38-gun frigate Lively, Captain Graham 
E. Hamond, were despatched off the coast of Spain to inter- 
cept a Spanish squadron expected from Monte Video, laden 
with treasure. On the 5th of October, at 6h. a.m., being off 
Cape Santa Maria, with the wind from north-east, the Medusa 
discovered four sail to leeward, to which chase was imme- 
diately given ; and at 8h. a.m. the strangers, which were the 
Medea, of forty guns, Pear- Admiral Bustamente, and 34-gun 
frigates Fama, Clara, and Mercedes, formed the line of battle 
ahead, on the larboard tack, in the following order : — Fama, 
Medea, Mercedes, Clara. At 9h. 15m. the Medusa arrived 
within pistol-shot on the weather beam of the leading ship, 
the Indefatigable, Amphion, and Lively taking their stations 



1804.] CAPTURE OF TREASURE-SHIPS. 91 

to windward of the Spaniards ; but the Amphion ran to 
leeward of the Mercedes. The Indefatigable having fired a 
shot across the Medea, the Spanish ship hove to, and Captain 
Moore sent a boat alongside with Lieutenant Thomas Arscott, 
to explain to the admiral the nature of his orders, and to 
express a hope that their execution might be unattended 
with bloodshed ; but an unsatisfactory reply was returned. 
A shot was then fired from the Indefatigable ahead of the 
Medea, and the Indefatigable ran down upon her weather 
bow. The Mercedes, upon this, fired into the Amphion, and 
the Medea into the Indefatigable. The signal was then 
made for close action, and after nine minutes' smart firing, 
the Mercedes took fire and blew up. The Fama having 
been closely engaged by the Medusa, struck her colours, but 
rehoisted them, and endeavoured to escape. In a few minutes 
the Medea and Clara surrendered, and the Lively having 
joined the Medusa in the pursuit of the Farua, the latter, 
after receiving a few shot from the Lively, hauled down her 
colours. The loss of the British squadron amounted to two 
men killed, and seven wounded. The Medea had two killed, 
and ten wounded; the Fama, eleven killed, and fifty wounded ; 
and the Clara, seven killed, and twenty wounded. The Mer- 
cedes sank with the whole of her crew and passengers, except 
the second captain and about forty men, who were taken off 
a part off the wreck. The prizes were very valuable. 

On the 5th of May, Surinam surrendered to a British 
squadron, under Commodore Samuel Hood, and 2,000 troops 
under Major-General Sir Charles Green. The naval force 
consisted of the 74-gun ship Centaur, Captain Murray Max- 
well, bearing the commodore's pendant; three 44-gun ships, 
armed en-fiute ; 36-gun frigate Emerald, ..Captain James 
O'Brien; 14-gun ship Hippomenes, Captain Conway Shipley 
(who had charge of the disembarkation of the troops); 
14-gun ship-sloop Drake, Commander William Ferris ; and 
schooner Unique, Lieutenant George R. Brand. This im- 
portant conquest was achieved with the loss to the navy 
of Lieutenant James Edward Smith (Centaur), William 
Shuldham, midshipman, one boatswain, and two men, killed ; 
and Lieutenants William King, Robert Henderson (both of 
the Centaur), and George Brand (Unique), and five men, 



92 



CAPTURE OF GORES. [1804, 



wounded ; and of the troops a still slighter loss ; the total 
being eight killed and twenty-one wounded, many by an 
explosion. 

On the 4th of March, Gorge was recaptured (it having 
been taken in the month of January) by a small force under 
Captain Edward Sterling Dickson, in the 36-gun frigate 
Inconstant. 




JXMmm 



1805.] BOATS OF BATTLER AT ST. VALERY. 93 



1805. 

The capture of the Spanish frigates, just related, was 
made the plea for a declaration of war. This declaration 
was signed at Madrid, on the 12th of December, 1804, but 
it is more than probable that it would have been issued, had 
the attack on the Spanish sliips not been made. The 
Spaniards possessed extensive fleets in Ferrol, Cadiz, and 
Carthagena, and their intention was to unite these with the 
Rochefort, Brest, and Toulon fleets, and, in conjunction with 
the invasion flotilla, annihilate England. Thanks to the 
valour and ability of a Nelson, and to the wooden bulwarks 
of England, their plans were frustrated. The force which 
Spain placed at the disjDOsal of the French was thirty-seven 
large sail of the line, manned and ready for sea at a moment's 
notice. 

On the 4th of January, the 16-gun sloop Rattler, Com- 
mander Francis Mason, cruising off the French coast, took 
possession of a fishing-boat belonging to Dieppe. At the 
time, there was lying in the Bay of St. Valery en Caux, 
close under a 4-gun battery, the French 14-gun privateer 
Yimereux, having a crew of seventy-eight men, including 
fifteen grenadiers chosen from the camp at Boulogne. As 
this vessel had committed great depredations upon British 
shipping, it was considered desirable to attack her; and 
Lieutenant William C. C. Dalyell 1 volunteered to endeavour 
to bring her out. Lieutenant Dalyell was accompanied by 
Acting-Lieutenant Augustus Donaldson, Edward Bourne, 
and William Richards, midshipmen, and twenty-seven men. 
Eleven men and a Frenchman embarked in the captured 
fishing-boat, commanded by Lieutenant Dalyell ; eight were 
in the Folkstone's boat, under Lieutenant Donaldson ; and 
eight in the Rattler's cutter, in charge of Mr. Bourne. The 

1 This gallant officer, whose capture is noticed at p. 71, after under- 
going a series of privations and sufferings, had effected his escape and 
rejoined his ship. 



94 ATTACK ON THE VIMEREUX. [1805. 

fishing vessel taking the boats in tow, on closing the 
Vimereux, was hailed, and it became evident that the visit 
was expected. 1 The attack commenced with a heavy fire of 
small-arms from the privateer. Lieutenant Dalyell boarded 
on the larboard side, accompanied by Mr. Donaldson ; and 
after a severe struggle the defenders were driven below. The 
tide of victory, however, suddenly changed. It appears that 
a chest full of arms and loaded muskets, usually kept upon 
deck, had been put below the day preceding the combat, 
to ease the vessel in a gale of wind ; and the enemy was 
thus placed in possession of increased means of resistance. 
The sentinels placed to guard the hatchways, while the cap- 
tors were getting the lugger underweigh, were shot down ; 
and the Frenchmen in a body rushed upon deck. A fearful 
slaughter ensued. The British fought, notwithstanding the 
odds against them, and with varied success ; but, after twenty 
minutes' conflict, Dalyell and his brave companion Donald- 
son fell, covered with desperate wounds. 2 Mr. Bourne, not 

1 It was a fine clear moonlight night. The sky was serene, and the 
firmament, gloriously studded, shed a silvery lustre over the rippling 
waves. When they arrived within hail, the watch on the deck of the 
lugger called out to know who came there. The Anglo-Frenchman 
answered that the hoat was No. 78, and belonged to Fecamp. " What 
is the master's name?" rejoined the wary sentinel. The unfortunate 
fellow gave a name which some of his countrymen on board the vessel 
knew to be a false one. " Come on, come on, my lads !" said the foe ; 
"we know you are English. You will find us prepared." — Marshall. 

2 The enemy seeing the boats of the Rattler retreat, yet not daring 
to remain outside the harbour, now prepared to take their lugger over 
the bar. Already they had begun to throw into the sea the bodies of 
the slain ; and two men taking hold of Lieut. Dalyell round his legs and 
shoulders, were in the act of heaving him overboard also, when one of 
them slipped, betrayed by the clotted gore, and fell on his side amongst 
the mingled mass of French and British blood. To this accident was 
the gallant officer indebted for his life ; for just at that moment the 
Battler was seen working into the bay and making signals with blue 
lights, which so much alarmed the enemy, that instead of consigning 
him to a watery grave, he was pitched headlong down the main hatch- 
way. At this time he was quite senseless, in which state he lay, without 
the least attention being paid to him, for a couple of hours. From the 
hold of the privateer he was conveyed to a dark dungeon on shore, the 
floor of which was in a very humid state, scantily covered with straw. 
When the French military surgeons had dressed their wounded country- 
men, they examined Lieut. Dalyell, and considered his case so desperate 
that they were inclined to pass him over as one already dead, — his head 
seemed hacked asunder, having received no less than nine sabre-cuts ; 



1805.] NELSON AND VILLENEUVE. 95 

having boarded with the others, had taken the lugger in tow, 
and was shot dead in his boat ; and out of the whole thirty- 
one persons, only six escaped unhurt. Mr. Richards and ten 
or eleven wounded seamen regained the ship, but three of 
their number died before reaching Portsmouth. The Patriotic 
Committee voted Mr. Dalyell a sword of fifty guineas' value 
and a grant of £100. 

Lord Nelson, with eleven sail of the line, was blockading 
twelve sail in Toulon ; but being driven from his station for 
the purpose of watering his ships, the French fleet, under 
Vice- Admiral Villeneuve, sailed from Toulon on the 17 th of 
January. Intelligence of this event having reached Lord 
Nelson at Sardinia, he searched every port in the Mediter- 
ranean in the hope of meeting the enemy ; but the French 
fleet, having been damaged in a gale of wind, returned to 
Toulon, and Lord Nelson resumed the blockade. A second 
escape, however, took place on the 29 th of March, when 
Villeneuve succeeded in effecting a junction with a Spanish 
squadron of six sail of the line, at Carthagena, with which 
he passed the Straits of Gibraltar, and sailed for the West 
Indies. Nelson, with ten sail of the line, followed him with 
unexampled vigour and decision, and the French admiral, 
learning by some means that he was pursued, quitted the 
West Indies in haste, having done nothing beyond capturing 
the Antigua convoy and the Diamond Pock. Finding that 
Villeneuve had left the West Indies, Lord Nelson returned 
homewards with the fleet, and joined Admiral Cornwallis off 
Ushant in July, from whence he proceeded to Gibraltar. 

On the 21st of January, the 10-gun schooner Gipsey, 
Lieutenant Michael Fitton, while lying to off Cape Antonio, 
waiting to deliver despatches to the Priiicess Charlotte 
frigate, was chased by two schooners and three felucca-rigged 
privateers, which stood out from under the land. In order 
to draw one or more within reach, the lieutenant ordered all 
sail to be made, as if to escape ; but by towing the bight of 

his left foot was lacerated by a pistol-ball, and in addition he had three 
other severe and two slight wounds. They therefore contented them- 
selves with binding a napkin round his head, which was all they could 
be prevailed upon to attempt on his behalf." — Marshall. This gallant 
officer survived his desperate wounds, but remained a prisoner in France 
till 1813. He is now (1851) a commander of Greenwich Hospital, and 
inheritor of a baronetcy. 



96 DESTRUCTION OF ARROW AND ACHERON. [1805. 

the cable under the vessel's bottom, the Gipsey's progress 
was retarded. One of the privateers having arrived within 
shot of the Gipsey, the latter hauled to the wind. The 
privateer, finding the mistake, endeavoured to escape, but 
was so closely pursued and warmly attacked, that she ran on 
the Colorados reef, and went to pieces. The four remaining 
privateers, observing the fate of their companion, wisely 
regained the shore. 

On the 3rd of February, a fleet of merchant ships, bound 
from Malta to England, under convoy of the 30-gun corvette 
Arrow, and bomb-vessel Acheron, Commanders Richard 
Budd Vincent and Arthur Farquhar, being off Cape Caxine, 
was chased by the French 40-gun frigates Hortense and 
Incorruptible. After an action gallantly maintained for the 
best part of two days, the British ships were captured ; but 
by the skilful manoeuvring of their commanders, thirty-one 
sail of valuable merchant ships were preserved. Out of a 
crew of 125 men and boys, the Arrow had thirteen killed 
and twenty-seven wounded, and the Acheron, out of sixty- 
seven, three killed and eight wounded. The loss on board 
the French ships is not stated. Scarcely were the survivors 
of the Arrow's crew removed, ere the well-defended ship 
proved that she had been fought to the last extremity, as she 
almost immediately sank. The Acheron also had received so 
much damage that it was found necessary to set her on fire. 
Both commanders received the just meed of their gallantry — 
promotion; and swords of 100 guineas' value were presented 
to each by the Patriotic Fund. The first lieutenant of the 
Arrow, Cuthbert F. Daly, was promoted in June, 1806, and 
the naval medal has been awarded to those present in the 
captured ships, in testimony to the good service rendered by 
the preservation of the convoy. 

On the 8th of February, at daylight, the 16-gun brig 
Curieux, Commander George E. B. Bettesworth, when about 
twenty leagues to the eastward of Barbadoes, discovered a 
brig on her lee bow, which she overtook, after a chase of 
twelve hours. The stranger having shortened sail, and 
hauled up on the starboard tack, opened fire upon the 
Curieux, and the latter being on the weather and starboard 
quarter of the stranger, commenced a close action, which 
lasted forty minutes. The enemy was the French privateer 



1805.] SAN FIOBENZO AND PSYCHE. 97 

Dame Ernoufiand either deeming the defence desperate, or 
considering the fire of the Curieux slackening, her crew 
cheered, and putting her helm down, endeavoured to lay the 
latter on board on her larboard quarter. Captain Bettes 
worth, however, ordered the helm to be put a-starboard and 
catching the jib-boom of the privateer between the fore-stay 
and the foremast, a most animated fight took place. The 
rakmg fire of the Curieux soon cleared the decks of her 
opponent and just as the British were about to conclude the 
business by boarding, the Dame Ernouf fell clear of the 
Curieux, and after a trifling further resistance, hauled down 
her colours. Both bngs mounted sixteen long G-poundera 
The Curieux, out of sixty-seven men and boys, 'lost Mr 
Maddox (purser), who was killed at the head of the sinal 
arm men, and five seamen, killed; and Captain Bettesworth 

D BosH tS m the head ' Acti 4Lieutenant John 
D. Boswall, and three seamen, wounded. The enemy out of 
120 men, had thirty killed and forty wounded * 

On the 13th of February, the 18-pounder 36-gun frigate 
San Fiorenzo Captain Henry Lambert, being off Viza^pa- 
tani, discovered the French 32-gun frigate Psyche,' 5SS, 
Bergeret, lying at anchor with two prizes, which im media e y 
got underweigh. The wind being light and variable^ 
British frigate could not get near them until 5h. 30m pm 
on the 14th and at 7h. 30m. she took possession of the 
sternmost, which was the Thetis, late country ship. From 
her, Captain Lambert learnt that the other prize' was the 
Pigeon, now named the Equivoque, mounting ten guns, with 
forty men, and commanded by a lieutenant of the Psyche 
At oh. p.m. a running fight commenced between the San 
Fiorenzo and Psyche and in a quarter of an horn- afterwards, 
a close action which was continued until 9h., when the 
Psyche fell on board the San Fiorenzo. After fifteen minutes' 
severe fighting with musketry, the ships separated, and the 
tang of great guns was renewed, the Equivoque occasionally 
taking part m it. At 9h. 40m. the Psyche's mainyard was 
sho away, and at 111, 30m. the San Fiorenzo haulS off to 

taken up a position, and was about to re-open her broadside 
^LWeVrclt;/?^ aCti0 " <~ W84), had been pu. 



VOL. II. 



a 



98 CLEOPATRA AND VILLE DE MILAN. [1805. 

a boat came on board "with a message to Captain Lambert an- 
nouncing that the Psyche had surrendered. The San Fiorenzo 
had Christopher H. B. Lefroy, midshipman, eight seamen, 
and three marines, killed ; and Lieutenant "William Dawson, 
James Finlayson, master, Lieutenant of marines Samuel 
Ashmore, Samuel Martingale, midshipman, thirty seamen, 
and two marines, wounded : total, twelve killed, and thirty- 
six wounded. The Psyches loss amounted to three lieu- 
tenants and fifty-four men killed, and seventy officers and 
men wounded. The defence of the Psyche (a 12-pounder 
frigate only) was highly creditable to Captain Bergeret ; but 
the skilful chase and well-conducted attacks of the British 
frigate likewise merit the highest praise. The Psyche was 
added to the British navy as a 12-pounder 32-gun frigate. 
The Equivoque effected her escape. Lieutenant Bentinck 
C. Doyle, first of the San Fiorenzo, was promoted to the 
rank of commander. This officer received his former step 
for his gallantry when midshipman of the Dart, in 1801, on 
the occasion of the attack upon and capture of the Desiree. 
The Patriotic Fund voted a sword of 100 guineas' value to 
Captain Lambert. The naval medal has been awarded for 
this action. 

On the 16th of February, at daylight, in lat. 20° N., long. 
67° W., the 12-pounder 32-gun frigate Cleopatra, Captain 
Sir Robert Laurie, Bart., came in sight of a ship standing to 
the eastward, with the wind at north-west. All sail was 
made in chase ; but it was not until lOh. 30m. a.m. on the 
17th that the Cleopatra could overtake the stranger, which 
was the French 18-pounder 40-gun frigate Ville de Milan. 
At llh. 30m. the latter, having shortened sail and hauled to 
the wind, hoisted her colours, and the Cleopatra, having also 
shortened sail, fired her bow guns, and commenced a running 
fight. At 2h. 30m. p.m. the Cleopatra, being within 100 
yards of her antagonist, the Ville de Milan luffed across the 
bows of the British ship, and opened her broadside. The 
Cleopatra, passing under her adversary's stern, returned the 
fire, and ranging up within musket- shot on the starboard 
side of the enemy, a determined fight took place, both ships 
running parallel to each other, sometimes nearly before the 
wind, and at others close-hauled. At 5h., having shot away j 
the main-topsail-yard of the Ville de Milan, the Cleopatra i 



1805.] CLEOPATRA CAPTURED. 99 

forged ahead, and her running rigging being so much cut 
that she could neither shorten sail nor back her main-topsail, 
her captain determined to endeavour to cross the bows of the 
enemy. Just as the Cleopatra was putting her helm down 
for this purpose, a shot disabled her wheel. The French 
frigate observing the ungovernable state of her antagonist, 
bore up, and ran her on board, the bowsprit and figure-head 
passing over the quarter-deck, abaft the main rigging. From 
the commanding position of her adversary, owing to the 
strong wind and heavy sea running, the Cleopatra was in 
danger of being sunk by her heavy opponent. The French 
crew, in their attempts to board, were at first repulsed with 
loss ; but about 5h. 15m. the overpowering numbers of the 
assailants overcame all opposition, and the British colours 
were hauled down. Shortly afterwards, the Cleopatra's fore 
and main masts went over the side, and the bowsprit soon 
followed. In this desperate action the Cleopatra had only 
200 men at quarters, and of this number, sixteen seamen, 
three marines, and one boy, were killed ; and Lieutenants 
William Balfour, James Crooke, Charles Mitchell (acting), 
and William Bowen (supernumerary), John Bell, master, 
Lieutenant of marines Thomas Appleton, John McCarthy, 
boatswain, Robert Standly, midshipman, and twenty-three 
seamen and seven marines (two mortally), were wounded : 
total, twenty-two mortally wounded or killed, and thirty-six 
wounded, Captain Benaud, of the Yille de Milan, was 
killed by the last shot fired from the Cleopatra, and her loss, 
although not stated, was also heavy. The Ville de Milan 
was a ship of 1,100 tons; mounted forty-six heavy guns, — 
long 18 and 8-pounders ; and had on board 350 men ; 
whereas the Cleopatra measured 690 tons -only, and was 
armed with long 12-pounders and 24-pounder carronades. 
The gallant and persevering chase and unsuccessful attack 
upon the Yille de Milan, confer lasting credit upon Sir 
Robert Laurie, his officers, and crew ; and the Cleopatra's 
capture, far from being an unfortunate issue, adds to the 
lustre of the affair, by proving the determination with which 
the action was conducted. 

Having removed the prisoners, and put on board forty- 
nine officers and men, the prize and Ville de Milan (whose 
main and mizen masts having fallen during the night, she was 

h2 



100 RECAPTURE OF CLEOPATRA, ETC. [1805. 

consequently also jury-rigged) continued their course home- 
ward, but on the 23rd of February were descried by the 
50-gun ship Leander, Captain the Hon. John Talbot, which 
ship immediately chased. The weather coming on thick, the 
Leander lost sight of the frigates, but at 2h. 30m. p.m. again 
obtained a view of them. The Ville de Milan and Cleopatra 
closed for mutual support, and having fired a gun to leeward, 
each hoisted a French ensign upon the mainstay. At 4h. 
the Leander arrived within gun-shot, and the frigates sepa- 
rated, the Cleopatra running before the wind, and the Ville 
de Milan hauling up with the wind on the larboard quarter. 
At 4h. 30m. the Leander fired a shot at the Cleopatra, upon 
which the French colours were hauled down, and the ship 
hove to. Those of the original crew of the Cleopatra who 
remained on board then rushed upon deck, and took possession 
of the ship, and Captain Talbot, directing the Cleopatra to 
follow, immediately pursued the Ville cle Milan. Before 
6h. p.m. the Leander having got alongside the Ville de Milan, 
that ship surrendered without firing a shot. The French 
ship was added to the British navy under the name of the 
Milan, and classed as an 18-pounder 38-gun frigate. Sir 
Robert Laurie was appointed to command her, and the 
senior lieutenant of the Cleopatra, William Balfour, was pro- 
moted to the rank of commander. A sword of 100 guineas' 
value was presented to Sir Thomas Laurie by the Patriotic 
Fund, as a well-merited compliment to his great bravery and 
skill. 

On the 20th of March, the 18-gun corvette Renard, com- 
mander Jeremiah Coghlan, being off the north-east end of 
Cuba, brought to action the French privateer General Ernouf 
(late the British sloop-of-war Lily). After thirty-five mi- 
nutes of close engagement, the General Ernouf took fire, and 
in a few minutes blew up. Out of a crew of 160 men, only 
fifty-five were saved, who were picked up by the boats of 
the Renard. 1 

On the 23rd of March two boats, belonging to the 18-gun 
ship-sloop Stork, Commander George Le Geyt, were sent into 

1 It is said that the Renard, on closing the General Ernouf, was hailed 
in English, and ordered " to strike," to which summons Captain Coghlan 
replied, he would, " and strike d — d hard too f — a promise he fully 
kept. This witticism, however, is of remote origin. See vol. i. p. 238. 



1805.] BOATS OF STORK AND BACCHANTE AT MARIEL. 101 

the port of Roxo, in the island of Porto Eico, to bring off an 
armed schooner, which was lashed alongside a brig. Lieu- 
tenants George Robertson and James Murray, with eighteen 
men, boarded both the vessels, which were defended by forty 
men, and they were carried without loss ; but Lieutenant 
Murray with one seaman were slightly wounded. 

On the 5th of April, two boats, containing thirty-five 
seamen and marine^ under the command of Lieutenants 
Thomas Oliver and John Campbell, belonging to the 22-gun 
ship Bacchante, Captain Charles Dashwood, were despatched 
with orders to enter the harbour of Mariel, which lies a little 
to the westward of the Havannah, and effect the capture or 
destruction of three French privateers which had taken 
refuge therein. The harbour was. protected by a round 
tower forty feet in height, on the summit of which three 
long 24-pounders were mounted, and the tower was also 
provided with loopholes for musketry. In the evening the 
boats quitted the ship ; and as it was necessary to master the 
tower, the party determined on landing to make this attack 
first. As the first boat, under Lieutenant Oliver, neared, it 
became exposed to a smart fire from the fort, which badly 
wounded one man. Upon this, Lieutenant Oliver, without 
waiting for the second boat, gallantly pulled for the shore, 
and, leaving the Hon. Almeira de Courcy, midshipman, and 
three men, including the wounded man, in charge of the 
boat, dashed on with the remaining thirteen to the foot of 
the tower. By means of a ladder brought by the seamen, the 
fort was scaled in most gallant style, and, although garrisoned 
by a Spanish captain and thirty soldiers, obtained possession 
of without further loss. Leaving the tower in charge of a ser- 
geant and six private marines, Lieutenant Oliver, having in 
the meanwhile been reinforced by the other boat, proceeded 
to attempt the further task assigned him; but the privateers 
had sailed the day previously, and two schooners, sugar- 
laden, were all the spoil which fell to the share of the gallant 
jmrty. Lieutenant Oliver was presented with a sword, value 
fifty guineas, by the Patriotic Fund, and in January, 1806, 
promoted to the rank of commander. 

On the 9th of April, the 12-gun schooner Gracieuse (tender 
to the flag-ship at Jamaica), T. B. Smith, midshipman, in 
command, captured a Spanish schooner, into which Edward 



102 GRACIEUSE AND FRENCH NATIONAL SCHOONER. [1805. 

James Huggins, midshipman, was sent as prize-master. In 
company with the prize, the Gracieuse chased a vessel nnder 
the forts of St. Domingo, and at 4h. 30m. p.m. a large French 
national schooner was seen coming out of port steering 
directly for the tender. The Gracieuse stood off the land for 
better sea-room, but at 8h. p.m. shortened sail, and hove to, 
with the prize schooner to leeward. At 8h. 30 m. the enemy, 
hauling up to windward, commenced an action with her long 
gun and musketry ; but the return was so vigorous that, 
after making several attempts to board, the enemy hauled 
to the wind, and endeavoured to escape. At llh. the 
French schooner tacked in-shore, but was closely followed by 
the Gracieuse, firing grape and canister, and the chase con- 
tinued during the night. At 8h. 15m. a.m. on the 10th, the 
schooner was observed to take the ground under Point 
Selina, from whence the crew were enabled to land from the 
bowsprit-end. The Gracieuse and her prize anchored (the 
latter considerably inside the tender), and Mr. Huggins suc- 
ceeded in getting a hawser on board the stranded vessel, 
hoping to heave her off, but she was found full of shot-holes, 
and so fast aground, that the attempt was abandoned. The 
boats were then despatched in charge of Mr. Huggins and 
Mr. McGill, and they succeeded in bringing away the long 
brass 12 -pounder and great part of the stores ; but the vessel 
was quickly destroyed by the islanders. Robert Marley, 
midshipman, and two men, were wounded. The enemy's 
crew consisted of ninety-six men, but her loss in the action 
was never ascertained. 

On the 15th of April, while the 14-gun brig Papillon, 
Commander William Woolsey, was lying at Savannah le Mar, 
intelligence was received of a felucca privateer which was 
cruising off the coast. Having hired a shallop, which he 
disguised as a drogger, he placed Lieutenant Peter J. Prieur, 
with John Christie, the purser, and twenty-four men in her, 
and sent them in quest of the privateer. At 8h. p.m., Lieu- 
tenant Prieur discovered the privateer under the land, 
which made sail, and in a short time was alongside the 
shallop, to which she made herself fast. The crew then 
jumped up from below, and after a volley of musketry, 
boarded and carried the felucca. The British had only two 



1805. J BOAT ACTIONS. 103 

men wounded. The Spaniards had seven men killed and 
eight badly wounded. 

On the 4th of May, intelligence reached Captain Cour- 
tenay Boyle, of the 38-gun frigate Seahorse, while cruising 
off Cape de Gata, respecting a Spanish convoy, which, at 
2h. p.m., was got sight of from the masthead of the frigate, 
hauling in for the anchorage of San Pedro. Lieutenant 
George Downie, in a six-oared cutter, and Thomas Napper, 
midshipman, in a four-oared boat, being sent away, gallantly 
boarded and carried an ordnance brig, laden with 1,170 
quintals of powder ; and in the meanwhile the Seahorse 
opened fire upon the convoy, and it is supposed sunk several 
vessels ; but night closing in, was compelled to haul off out 
of range of the batteries and gun-boats. One seaman was 
killed on board the frigate. 

On the 6th of May, after a long pull, four boats belonging 
to the 3 2 -gun frigate Unicorn, Captain Lucius Hardy man, 
captured, off St. Domnigo, the French privateer cutter 
Tape-a-borcl, of four long 6-pQunders and forty-six men. 
The Unicorn's boats were commanded by Lieutenant Henry 
S. Wilson, assisted by Lieutenants James Tait and Henry 
Bourchier, Lieutenant of marines Walter Powell, the purser, 
Charles Eundle, and Thomas Tuder Tucker (midshipman 
of the Northumberland), all of whom were highly spoken of. 

On the night of the 1st of June, the boats of the 38-gun 
frigate Loire, Captain Frederick L. Maitland, were des- 
patched, under the command of Lieutenant James Lucas 
Yeo, with Lieutenant of marines Samuel Mallock, Master's 
mate Charles Clinch, and Midshipmen Massey H. Herbert 
and Matthew Mildridge, to cut out a privateer which had 
taken shelter in the Bay of Camarinas, near .Cape Finisterre. 
The boats did not reach the vessels until break of day on the 
2nd, when the privateer was discovered, together with another 
privateer, moored under a 10-gun battery. Mr. Clinch, with 
the launch, was directed to board the smaller vessel, while 
Lieutenant Yeo, with the cutters, attacked and carried the 
Spanish felucca Esperanza, armed with three long 18- 
pounders and four 4-pounder brass swivels and fifty men. 
The launch also carried the object of her attack, which was 
a lugger, mounting two 6-pounders, with a crew of thirty- 



104 LIEUTENANT YEO AT MUROS. [1805. 

two men, without loss. Several Spaniards were killed, and 
many swam to the shore. Lieutenant Yeo was obliged to 
abandon the lugger, but the felucca and three small vessels 
laden with wine were brought out. 

Learning from the prisoners that a French 26-gun pri- 
vateer was fitting out at Muros, Captain Maitland deter- 
mined to attempt her capture ; and on the 4th, at 9h. A.M., 
the Loire stood into the bay with the sea breeze, having the 
boats in tow, containing fifty officers and men, under Lieu- 
tenant Yeo, assisted by Lieutenants of marines Samuel Mal- 
lock and Joseph Douglas, and Charles Clinch, mate. As 
the Loire hauled round the point of Muros Road, a battery 
of two 1 8-pounders fired at her ; a few guns were fired in 
return, and Lieutenant Yeo was directed to push for the 
shore and spike the guns of this battery. As the Loire 
stood on and opened the bay, a corvette with thirteen ports 
of a side, and a brig pierced for ten guns, were discovered, 
apparently refitting, but neither had any guns on board. 
At this time a fort, mounting twelve long 1 8-pounders, 
distant only a quarter of a mile from the frigate, opened 
a well-directed fire upon her, almost every shot taking effect 
in her hull. Captain Maitland then ordered the anchor to 
be let go, and with a spring on the cable brought the Loire's 
broadside to bear, and commenced firing on the fort ; but 
the embrasures afforded the Spaniards so much protection, 
that the Loire's fire was comparatively harmless. In a few 
minutes nine seamen were woimded ; when suddenly the 
firing in the fort ceased, and the British colours were 
observed rising above the walls. The cause of this circum- 
stance was as follows : — Lieutenant Yeo, having spiked the 
two 1 8-pounders, observed the fort in question, at no great 
distance, open fire upon the frigate, and although aware of 
the nature of this formidable battery, which was. a regular 
ditched fort, gallantly determined on an attack. Intent on 
firing at the Loire, and not suspecting an attack from the 
land side, the outer gate had been left open ; but the 
approach of the British party was observed by a French 
sentinel, who gave the alarm. Lieutenant Yeo, however, at 
the head of his men, dashed on, and arriving at the inner 
gate, found the governor, with a party of soldiers, ready to 
oppose his entry. After a personal conflict between Lieu- 



1805.] CAPTURE OF CONFIANCE. 105 

tenant Yeo and the governor, the latter was killed, the 
lieutenant's sword being broken by the force of the blow. 
The struggle was continued, and several Spanish officers fell • 
many of the Spaniards, also, jumped out of the embrasures' 
and after a few minutes the fort was in possession of the 
British. Lieutenant Yeo, Mr. Clinch, and three seamen, 
were wounded. The loss on the part of the garrison was 
severe. The governor, a Spanish volunteer, the second 
captain of the Confiance (the corvette at anchor in the road), 
and nine others, were killed, and thirty wounded. The 
twelve guns having been spiked, their carriages destroyed, 
part of the fort blown up, and forty barrels of powder and 
two brass guns embarked, the boats returned to the Loire. 1 
The two privateers were in the meanwhile taken possession 
of by Captain Maitland. The Confiance measured 490 tons, 
and was fitted to carry twenty-four long 8-poimders on a 
flush deck. The brig was the Belier, whose guns were also 
on shore. Captain Maitland sent a flag of truce to the town, 
to say, that if the inhabitants would deliver up the stores of 
the privateers, no further molestation should be offered 
them; which proposition was agreed to, and the stores, 
with the exception of the guns, were all brought off! 
Immediately on his arrival in England, Lieutenant Yeo was 
promoted, and appointed to command the Confiance; and 
on the 21st of December, 1807, obtained post rank as a 
reward for his skill and bravery, continuing in command of 
the same ship. A sword of 100 guineas' value was presented 
to Captain Maitland, and others of fifty guineas' value to 
Lieutenants Yeo and Mallock, by the Patriotic Fund ; and 
the naval medal has been awarded to those present in the 
boats on the occasion. 

On the 13th of June, Captain John Poo Beresford, of the 
40-gun frigate Cambrian, on the Halifax station, sent the 
boats to attack the Spanish privateer schooner Maria, of 
fourteen guns and sixty men. Lieutenants George Pigot, 

1 i^t P" otes( l ue appearance of the men in the boats as they returned 
to the ship caused much amusement. After performing their arduous 
labours several of the men taking a fancy to the grenadier caps of the 
bpamsh soldiers, exchanged them for their own tarpaulins. The effect 
upon men whose faces were begrimed with smoke and dirt can easily be 
imagined. 



106 BOATS OF CAMBRIAN IN ST. MARY'S RIVER. [1805. 

in the launch, and the Hon. George A. Crofton, in the barge, 
the marines in charge of Lieutenant William H. Masterman, 
orallantly boarded and carried the schooner, in spite of a 
determined resistance, by which the British had two seamen 
killed and two wounded. 

On the 3rd of July, the Cambrian captured the French 
privateer schooner Matilda, of ten long 8-pounders and 
ninety-five men j and Lieutenant Pigot, with a party oi 
seamen and marines, were put on board the prize, and 
despatched by Captain Beresford to St. Mary's River, m 
search of a Spanish schooner privateer and two captured 
merchant ships at anchor therein. On the 6th of July, 
the Matilda arrived off, and on the 7th proceeded twelve 
miles up the river, continually fired at by the American 
militia along the banks. The three vessels were moored 
in line across the river ; the privateer, armed with six 
guns and seventy men ; the ship Golden Grove, of London, 
with eight 6-pounders, six swivels, and fifty men ; and the 
bri" Ceres, with swivels and small-arms. The Matilcia 
opened fire as she approached, and continued it for an 
hour, when she grounded.; Lieutenant Pigot then took to 
his boats, and boarded and carried the merchant ship in 
spite of an obstinate resistance. With her guns he com- 
pelled the enemy to abandon the brig and schooner, and 
having taken possession of them, turned the fire of the three 
vessels on the militia drawn up on the bank with a field- 
piece, whom he completely routed. Owing to adverse winds, 
it was not until the 21st that the lieutenant could descend 
the river with his prizes, and rejoin the Cambrian. Two 
seamen were killed; Lieutenant Pigot was wounded in 
three places by musket-balls, and William Lawson, mate. 
Andrew Mitchell, midshipman, and twelve seamen, were 
also wounded. Thomas S. Griffinhoofe, Henry Bolman, and 
George Williamson, midshipmen, were, as well as the above 
spoken of by Captain Beresford, in his despatch, in terms o: 
high approbation. The Spaniards had twenty-five mer 
killed and twenty-two wounded. Lieutenant Pigot was 
promoted to the rank of commander in the course of th< 
following year. Swords of fifty guineas' value were presentee 
to Lieutenants Pigot, Crofton, and Masterman, by th< 
Patriotic Fund. 



1805.] CAPTURE OF THE BLANCHE. 107 

On the 19th of July, the 36-gim frigate Blanche, Captain 
Zachary Muclge, while carrying despatches from Jamaica to 
Barbadoes for Lord Nelson, being at 8h. a.m. in lat. 20° 20' N., 
and long. 6Q° 44' W., close-hauled with a fresh breeze at 
east, discovered on her weather bow three ships and a brig, 
on the opposite tack, under easy sail. The strangers being 
indistinctly seen through the prevailing haze, were at first 
taken for a part of an expected convoy from Grenada, and 
the Blanche continued to stand towards them, until finding 
the private signal unanswered, it was suspected they were 
enemies. The Blanche then kept more away, and made sail. 
At 8h. 30m. a.m., the strangers, being about three miles 
distant, were discovered to be a large frigate and two 
corvettes, and proved to be the French 40-gun frigate 
Topaze, Captain Baudin ; 22-gun corvette Departement des 
Landes, Lieutenant Desmontils ; and 18-gun corvette Torch, 
Lieutenant Dehen ; together with the 1 6-gun brig Faune, 
Lieutenant Charles Brunet ; all of which bore down under 
English colours. At 9h. 45m., the pursuing squadron hoisted 
French colours, and the Topaze having obtained a station 
at 500 yards' distance from the Blanche, fired her larboard 
broadside. The Topaze having got within pistol-shot, the 
Blanche opened her fire, and the action was continued, both 
ships running large, under easy sail, and within hail. The 
Departement des Landes was on the starboard quarter, 
occasionally firing, and the other two vessels close astern. 
The British frigate continued the action until llh., when, 
having her masts badly wounded, seven guns dismounted, 
and six feet water in her hold, Captain Mudge, deeming a 
further defence unavailing, ordered the colours to be hauled 
down. Out of 215 men, the Blanche had seven seamen and 
one marine killed, and William He wet t, boatswain, and 
twelve seamen (three mortally), and Lieutenant of marines 
Thomas Peebles, and one private, wounded. The Topaze, 
out of her crew of 410 — including seventy soldiers — had 
only one man killed and eleven wounded. Not a man was 
hurt on board the other vessels. The Blanche was a small- 
class 18-pounder 3 6-gun frigate, of 951 tons ; and the 
Topaze a fine ship of 1,132 tons, and heavily armed. This, 
together with the assistance received by the Topaze from 
her consorts, rendered the defence of the Blanche at the 



108 



SIR ROBERT CALDER S ACTION 



[1805. 



best but desperate. She was fought as long as a prospect 
of escape remained, and a proof of this is afforded by the 
fact, that the night the ship was taken possession of, she- 
was found in such a battered and sinking state, that her 
captors set her on fire. 

In the month of July, Vice- Admiral Sir Robert Calder 
was cruising off Cape Finisterre, in the hope of intercepting 
the Franco-Spanish fleet, on its return from the West 
Indies. Sir Robert's fleet consisted of the undernamed fifteen 
sail of the line, which ships had formed the squadrons 
blockading Rochefort and Ferrol : — 



Guns. 



98 



80 



74 



64 



Frigate 

Lugger 
Cutter 



Ships. 

I Prince of Wales 
Glory 
Barfleur 
Windsor Castle 

Malta 

Thunderer .... 

Hero 

Repulse 

Defiance 

Ajax . . 

Warrior 

Dragon 

^Triumph 

Agamemnon . . 
Raisonnable . . 
Egyptienne .... 

Sirius 

Nile 

Frisk 



| Vice-Adm. Sir R. Calder (blue) 

| Captain William Cuming 

\ Rear- Admiral Chas. Stirling (blue) 

| Captain Samuel Warren 
„ George Martin 
„ Charles Boyles 

,, Edward Duller 
„ William Lechmere 
„ Hon. Alan Hyde Gardner 
,, Hon. Arthur Kaye Legge 
„ Philip Charles C. Durham 

„ William Brown 
,, Samuel Hood Linzee 

Edward Griffiths 
; , Henry Inman 
„ John Harvey 
,, Josias Rowley 
„ Hon. Charles E. Fleming 
,, William Prowse 
Lieut. John Fennell 
,, James Nicholson 



On the 19th, Sir Robert Calder received a copy of Lord 
Nelson's despatch, stating that the French fleet had quitted 
the West Indies, and was probably on its way to Europe ; 
and on the 22nd, in the forenoon, the combined fleet, with a 
recaptured galleon, was discovered to windward by the 
Defiance and Sirius, coming down before a light breeze from 
north-west. Sir Robert immediately made the signal to 
prepare for battle. At noon, Ferrol bearing east-south-east, 
distant forty-nine leagues, and Cape Finisterre south-east, 
distant thirty-nine leagues, the signal was made to form the 
line ; and at lh. 15m. p.m. for close order. The British ships 



1805.] WITH VICE-ADMIRAL VILLENEUVE. 109 

on the starboard tack were thus formed : — Hero, Ajax, 
Triumph, Barfleur, Agamemnon, Windsor Castle, Defiance, 
Prince of Wales, Repulse, Raisonnable, Dragon, Glory, War- 
rior, Thunderer, Malta. Most ships had top-gallant-sails set, 
and all except the Dragon (which was to leeward, and carry- 
ing sail to get into her station) had their courses hauled up. 
The combined fleet also hauled up on the starboard tack, and 
formed in line of battle, thus : — Argonauta, Terrible, America, 
Espaua, San Rafael, Firme, Pluton, Mont Blanc, Atlas, Ber- 
wick, Neptune, Bucentaure, Formidable, Intrepide, Scipion, 
Swiftsure, Inclomptable, Aigle, Achille, Algesiras. 

A thick fog occasionally veiled the two fleets from each 
other's view, and this, with the light air of wind, prevented 
Sir Robert from effecting any very decisive movement. At 
3h. 20m. p.m. he made the signal to engage, and at 3h. 22m. 
to tack in succession ; and (probably observing that the 
enemy had tacked), at 3h. 26m. the signal was made for the 
leading division to make all sail and steer south-west. At 
4h. 20m., being abreast the enemy's rear, the signal was 
again made to tack in succession, and about the same time 
the signal to tack was made by Villeneuve, but the fog which 
prevailed concealed this evolution from the British admiral. 
The fleets were three miles apart, when the enemy wore, in 
consequence of the Sirene (which ship had the galleon in tow) 
making signals, by firing guns in quick succession, that the 
rear was in danger of being cut off. This signal was princi- 
pally occasioned by the bold approach of the Sirius, which, 
having by tacking reached the wake of the enemy, tacked 
again with the intention of boarding the galleon. While 
making preparation to effect this object, Captain Prowse dis- 
covered through the haze the Argonauta om the starboard 
tack, with the wind nearly abeam, and the Sirius accordingly 
bore up to avoid being cut off by the enemy's line, which 
was perceived approaching. The Argonauta, Terrible, *and 
America passed the British frigate without firing ; but by 
the time she had got abreast the Espana, which was at about 
5h. 15m., the Hero, the van ship of the British, then with 
royals set, hove in stays, and came round on the starboard 
tack. Instantly the Spanish ships, which also had royals and 
courses set, hoisted their colours and commenced the action, 
the Argonauta firing her larboard guns at the Hero, and the 



110 SIR ROBERT CALDER's ACTION.. [1805. 

Espana at the Sinus, wliich latter ship had two men killed 
and three wounded. 

At oh. 20m. the Hero opened her fire, and at 5h. 45m. 
the Ajax tacked astern of the Hero, but instead of seconding 
Captain Gardner in his gallant attack, bore away to speak 
the admiral. The ships astern of the Hero also tacked in 
succession, and by 6h. the action became pretty general, 
though distant, and not very effective, for the fog was so 
thick that it was impossible to distinguish any object much 
beyond a ship's length, and in the confusion thus occasioned, 
several ships in both fleets had to contend with more than 
one opponent. The San Rafael, Firme, and Espana, having 
dropped somewhat to leeward, became very much exposed to 
the fire of the British ; but the Pluton — the Firme's second 
astern — gallantly bore up, and for some time covered the 
Spanish ship ; but being too powerfully opposed by the lead- 
ing British ships, the Pluton with some difficulty regained 
her station. Being, however, supported by the Mont Blanc 
and Atlas, the Pluton again bore up, and the Espana was 
preserved from capture. The Atlas suffered severely in this 
affair, and, but for the assistance of the Neptune, would have 
been in jeopardy. About 8h. the Firme, having lost her 
main and mizen masts, struck, and, in a few minutes after- 
wards, the Rafael, with her main-topmast shot away, also 
surrendered. At 8h. 25m. the combined fleet was barely 
within gun-shot to windward, and the British ships being 
much scattered, Sir Robert Calder made the night signal to 
discontinue the action ; but, as very few ships could distin- 
guish the signal, the firing did not cease until 9h. 30m. The 
British ships soon afterwards brought to upon the starboard 
tack to repair their damages. 

The loss sustained by the British fleet amounted to forty- 
one killed and 162 wounded. No ship, except the Windsor 
Castle and Agamemnon, lost a mast. The loss in the com- 
bined fleet amounted to 476 in killed and wounded, and a few 
of their ships had received some trifling damage in masts and 
yards. The following table will show the loss sustained in 
both fleets ; — 



1805.] 



KILLED AND WOUNDED. 



Ill 



British. 


Killed. 


Wounded. 


Franco- Spanish. 


Killed. Wounded. 


Hero 


1 

2 
5 
3 

10 
1 
3 

1 

1 

7 
5 

2 


4 

16 

6 

7 
3 

35 
7 

20 
4 
1 
4 
1 


11 

40 

3 


Argonauta .... 

Ten-ible 

America 

Espana 


4 

1 

3 

3 
53 
41 

8 

6 
10 

2 " 

1 

3 

4 

5 





1 

4 






3 

4 

8 

6 

114 

97 I 
22 

ii ! 

32 J 
8 
7 
3 
6 
5 


1 







Triumph 

Barfleur 

Agamemnon 
Windsor Castle 

Defiance 

Prince of Wales 

Repulse 

Eaisonnable .... 

Dragon 

Glory 

Warrior 

Thunderer .... 

Malta 

Egyptienne .... 
Sirius 

Total 


San Rafael .... 

Firme 

Pluton 

Mont Blanc .... 
Atlas 


Berwick 

Neptune 

Bucentaure .... 
Formidable .... 

Intre'pide 

Scipion 

Swiftsure 

Indomptable . . 


41 


162 


Achille 

Algesiras 

Total 


149 


327 



At daybreak on the 23rd, the two fleets were about seven- 
teen miles apart, reckoning from the centre of each, but the 
weather was still so hazy that the enemy was only occasionally 
seen by a few ships. The British fleet was on the starboard, 
and the enemy was on the larboard tack, with a light breeze 
from north-west by west. About five miles to windward of 
the main body of the British were the Barfleur, Triumph, 
Hero, and Agamemnon ; and six miles to windward of these 
the leewardmost ships of the combined fleet, consisting of 
four sail of the line and some frigates; to windward of which, 
distant about five or six miles, was the main body of the 
combined fleet. About five miles to leeward of the Prince of 
"Wales, was the Windsor Castle, with fore-topmast and part 
of the head of her foremast gone, in tow of the Dragon, ajad 
still further to leeward the Malta, Thunderer, and prizes, all 
of which were out of sight of the admiral. It of course 
became necessary for Sir Robert Calder to collect his fleet 
into something like order, and this could only be done by 
bearing up to close the ships to leeward. Having effected 



112 BOULOGNE SQUADRON. [1805. 

this in some measure, at 9h. a.m., the fleet hauled to the 
wind on the larboard tack, keeping between the enemy and 
the disabled ships. The San Rafael and Firme, both by this 
time totally dismasted, were in tow of the frigates Sirius and 
Egyptienne. 

Light variable airs prevailed throughout the 23rd and 
24th, which must have rendered useless any effort to renew 
the action. With a fleet manifestly inferior, previously by 
five, but now by three sail of the line (or, taking the disabled 
state of the Windsor Castle into the calculation, four sail), 
within a few hours' sail of powerful fleets in Ferrol and 
Rochefort, which Sir Robert had been only recently block- 
ading, an old and well-tried officer ought not to have been 
condemned for not destroying his trophies, and with fourteen 
sail of the line, rashly chase a superior fleet. But such was 
the expectation and popular excitement of the period, that 
nothing short of a complete victory would suffice. 1 The two 
prizes to the fleet arrived at Plymouth on the 31st of July. 
They were purchased into the navy, but being old ships, were 
never fitted for sea. 

During the summer of this year, actions between the 
blockading squadron, under Commodore Edward C. W. R. 
Owen, and the Boulogne flotilla, were of daily occurrence. 
The untiring energy, skill, and intrepidity displayed by the 
British commodore, did much towards disappointing the ex- 
pectations of Napoleon ; and served to convince him of the 
absolute necessity for a line-of-battle fleet to convoy his 
flotilla. The ships most actively engaged were the follow- 



Immortalite. . . 

Hebe 

Leda 

ChifFonne 


, Commodore E. W. C. R. Owen 
. Captain M. Malbon 

,, Robert Honyman 

,, Charles Adam 



J In consequence of the rumours and remarks afloat in the public 
prints, Sir Robert, on his return to England, demanded a court-martial. 
A court accordingly assembled on the 23rd of December, on board the 
Prince of Wales, and continued sitting till the 26th, when the conclusion 
was arrived at that Sir Robert Calder was deserving of censure, and he 
was severely reprimanded accordingly, for not having, as it was said, 
done his utmost to renew the action on the 23rd of July. 



1805.] INVASION FLOTILLA. 113 

Corvettes. 

Arab Commander Keith Maxwell 

Calypso „ Matthew Forster 

Ariadne „ Bobert H. Bromley- 
Harpy „ Edmund Heywood 

Champion „ Hon. Edw. King 

Gun-brigs. 

Plumper Lieutenant Jas. H. Garrety 

Teaser „ Geo. L. Ker 

Bloodhound „ Henry Bichardson 

Archer „ John Price 

The Plumper and Teaser, on the 16th of July, were 
captured by a division of gun-boats in Granville Bay. Lieu- 
tenant Garrety lost an arm in defending his brig. 

The prames and gun- vessels at this time in Boulogne, 
comprising the invasion flotilla, numbered 578, and 526 
transports. The vessels at the ports of Ambleteuse, Calais, 
Dunkirk, and Ostend, amounted to 1,339 armed, and 954 
unarmed vessels, making a total of 2,293, intended to carry 
163,645 men, including 16,783 sailors, and 9,059 horses. 
But for the successful exertions of the navy, no reasonable 
doubt can exist that an invasion of the most formidable kind 
would have taken place. 

On the 2nd of August, the 38-gun frigate Phaeton, Cap- 
tain John Wood, and 18-gun sloop Harrier, Commander 
Edward Batsey, made a gallant but unsuccessful attack upon 
the French frigate Semillante, moored under a battery at 
Jacinta, one of the Philippine Islands. Each ship had two 
men wounded, and sustained some trifling damage. 

On the 6th of August, the 74-gun ship Blenheim, Captain 
Austin Bissell, bearing the flag of Rear-Admiral Sir Thomas 
Troubridge, being in lat. 19° S., long. 81° E, while convoying 
a fleet of homeward-bound East-India ships, gallantly re- 
pulsed the French 74-gun ship Marengo, Rear-Admiral 
Linois, and 40-gun frigate Belle Poule. 

On the 10th of August, at 5h. a.m., the 18-pounder 36-gun 
frigate Phoenix, Captain Thomas Baker, in lat. 43° 20' N., 
long. 12° W., standing to the northward on the starboard 
tack, came in sight of a large ship in the south-west quarter. 
Although the bearer of despatches, Captain Baker imme- 
diately wore and stood towards the stranger, which proved 
to be the French 18-pounder 40-gun frigate Didon, 1 Captain 

1 This same ship was, on the 7th of August, fallen in with by the 
VOL. II. i 



114 



PHCENIX AND DIDON. [1805. 



Milius. At 7h. a.m. the Didon was observed to be on the 
larboard tack, with royals set, with her main-topsail to the 
mast On the preceding day, the Phoenix had communicated 
with an American brig, the master of which had been on 
board the British frigate, but who, not being very sober, had 
not exerted much clearness of sight. This brig was boarded 
bv the Didon early on the morning of the 10th, when the 
American captain stated to Captain Milius that the ship in 
sight to windward was a British 20-gnn ship, but that the 
captain and officers were so much in conceit with the powers 
of their ship, that he doubted not they would engage the 
Didon To give colour to this report, the Phoenix was a 
small-looking ship, and every means had been used to favour 
her deceptive appearance. 

At 8h. a.m. the Didon hoisted French colours, and fired a 
gun, but the Phoenix did not get within range till nearly 9h. 
The Phoenix then commenced firing ; but, anxious to pre- 
vent the escape of the enemy, Captain Baker determined to 
en^ao-e to leeward. In order to frustrate this design, the 
Didon filled, and wore round upon the starboard tack, and, 
after much skilful seamanship on both sides, the Phoenix 
rano-ed up to windward of her adversary within pistol-shot, 
both ships being on the larboard tack two or three points off 
the wind. The Phoenix, however, having too much way, 
shot ahead, and the Didon, taking advantage of this, luffed 
across her stern, and fired a few ineffectual shot, then bearing 
up, she passed close under the stern of the Phoenix a second 
time firing the larboard broadside with great precision. The 
Didon attempted to repeat the evolution ; but the crew of 
the Phoenix having rove new braces, her sails were thrown 
aback, and gathering stern-way, her starboard quarter took 
the larboard bow of the Didon. The French then made 
several attempts to board, but the marines were found com- 
petent to repel them, and in the meanwhile the sailors were 
employed in bringing a gun to bear out of an extra port cut 
through the stern windows and quarter gallery. Great loss 
was sustained while the gun was being brought into this 

18-pounder 32-gun frigate Mollis, Captain Lord William Fitzroy ; but 
no action took place, his lordship considering the despatches with which 
he was charged by Admiral Cornwallis to be of too great importance to 
permit his seeking an engagement. 



1805.] PHCENIX AND DIDON. 



115 



position, but its effects ultimately rewarded the labour 
Twenty-four of the Didon's crew were laid low by its first dis- 
charge. The only gun which, owing to the absence of bow-ports 
the Didon could bring to bear, was a 36-pound carronade on 
the forecastle ; but this was rendered comparatively useless 
by the accuracy of the fire of the British marines, who shot 
down every man attempting to load or fire it. 

The two ships had remained foul about half an hour, when 
the Didon, getting a breeze, began to forge ahead, enabling 
the British to bring the aftermost gun on the starboard side 
to bear, the discharge from which cut away the gammonino- 
of the Didon's bowsprit. In a short time the two ships^ 
having separated, were again abreast of each other, and the 
fight proceeded upon more equal terms, but with evident 
advantage to the Phoenix, which fired three broadsides to 
two of the Didon. Having shot away the Didon's main- 
topmast, the Phoenix ranged ahead clear of her adversary, 
and the breeze dying away, a suspension of firing necessarily 
took place. At noon a breeze again sprung up, and the 
Phoenix, having repaired damages, closed the Didon on. her 
larboard quarter, and again opened fire, which was feebly 
returned, and the foremast of the French frigate havino- 
fallen, her colours were hauled down at 12h. 15m. p.m. 

Out of 245 men and boys which the Phoenix mustered at 
quarters, Lieutenant John Bounton, George Donalan, mas- 
ter's mate, and ten seamen, were killed; and First Lieutenant 
of marines Henry Steele (dangerously in the head), Aaron 
Tozer (dangerously) and Edward B. Curling, 1 midshipmen, 
thirteen seamen, and twelve marines, wounded : total, twelve 
killed, and twenty-eight wounded. The Didon's loss out of 
330 men amounted to twenty-seven killed/ and forty-four 
wounded. The force of the Didon was every way greater 
than that of the Phoenix, and her crew was composed of 
picked men. The crew of the Phoenix, on the other hand, 
consisted of well-trained, smart fellows, of whose skill the 
foregoing is a sufficient proof. 

1 Mr. Curling's wound was of a very remarkable description. While 
sucking an orange, with his jaws consequently extended, a musket-ball 
passed through his mouth, entering one cheek and escaping tnrough the 
other, without touching a tooth. The wound healed, leaving only a pair 
of dimples, which were not unseemly. 

12 



116 RAISONNABLE AND TOPAZE. [1805. 

As soon as the ships were refitted, the Phoenix took theDidon 
in tow, and on the 3rd of September, after narrowly escaping 
capture by the combined fleet, anchored in Plymouth Sound. 
The Didon was a beautiful ship, of 1,100 tons, and was added 
to the navy by the same name. Captain Baker received no 
official mark of distinction for this skilfully-fought and truly 
gallant action. The Patriotic Fund, however, voted him a 
sword, value 100 guineas. The first lieutenant of the Phoenix, 
Joseph Oliver, received his well-earned promotion to the 
rank of commander on the 18th of the following month, and 
the naval medal has lately been awarded to the survivors. 1 

On the 15th of August, about 200 miles from Rochefort, 
the French 16-gun corvette Faune was captured by the 
20-gun ship Camilla, Captain Bridges W. Taylor, assisted by 
the 7 4 -gun ship Goliath, Captain Robert Barton. The 
Goliath then stood to the southward, and in the afternoon was 
joined by the 64-gun ship Raisonnable, Captain Josias Rowley. 
Just at this time the French frigate Topaze and two corvettes 
were discovered and chased. The corvettes having sepa- 
rated from the frigate, the Torche was captured by the 
Goliath at 8h. p.m., having on board fifty-two of the late 
Blanche's crew. 

The Raisonnable pursued the Topaze, and at daybreak on 
the lGth had arrived within three miles of her, both ships 
steering to the southward nearly before the wind. At 9h., 
the wind falling light favoured t lit Raisonnable, and the Topaze 
hoisted her colours, and commenced firing stern-chasers, and 
with so much effect, that at 9h. 30m. the Raisonnable's fore- 
topsail was completely riddled, and her lower studding-sail 
shot away. The Raisonnable then commenced firing her bow 

1 The conspicuous gallantry of two or three officers of the Phoenix 
should be mentioned. The acting purser, Mr. John CoUman, volun- 
teered his services on the quarter-deck, where he performed excellent 
service; and Edward Phillips a young midshipman, saved Captain 
Baker's life in the following manner. While the .-hips were foul, a man, 
upon the bowsprit end of the Didon, wis taking deliberate aim at the 
captain, which the midshipman perceiving, unceremoniously pushed 
Captain Baker aside, and fired at the Frenchman. The latter also dis- 
charged his musket, and immediately fell overboard, the ball tearing the 
rim of Captain Baker's bat, but without hurting him. The spirit 
amongst the British crew was shown bj the tact that the sick men, who, 
though too debilitated to work the guns, volunteered to hand the powder 
and perform such offices as their strength permitted. 



1805.] CALCUTTA AND ROCHEFORT SQUADRON. 117 

guns, and just as she had got near enough to open her broad- 
side it fell calm. Shortly afterwards a light air from the 
southward enabled the Topaze to wear, and haul to the wind 
on the starboard tack, and with her stem guns she did some 
execution to the rigging of the Raisonnable, which also 
hauled to the wind in pursuit ; but the frigate, being now to 
windward, was soon lost sight of, and reached the Tagus on 
the 20th. 

On the 25th of September, in latitude 49° 30' K, long. 
9° W., Rear- Admiral Allemand, with the Rochefort squadron, 
consisting of the 120-gun ship Majesteux, 74-gun ships 
Magnanime, Jemappes, Suffren, and Lion, and frigates Ar- 
mide, Gloire, and Thetis, fell in with the 54-gun ship Calcutta, 
Captain Daniel Woodriff, having under convoy the Indus 
East-India ship, three whalers, and two other ships, from 
St. Helena, homeward bound. At daylight on the 26th the 
Calcutta made the private signal, which being unanswered, 
Captain Woodriff hailed the Indus, and directed her to make 
all sail ahead with the convoy, while the Calcutta stood 
towards the French frigate Armide, then upon her starboard 
bow, and in chase of the merchant ships. At 3h. p.m. the 
Armide fired her stern-chasers, and received in return the 
bow guns of the Calcutta ; soon afterwards the French 
frigate shortened sail, and allowed the Calcutta to get abreast 
of her ; but after an hour's firing the Armide hauled off out 
of gun-shot to repair her damages. This action with the 
Armide drew the whole squadron in chase of the Calcutta, 
and at 5h. the Magnanime opened her fire upon the British 
ship, still running under all sail to the southward before a 
light air of wind. Finding that the Magnanime was alone 
and far ahead of her consorts, except the -, 40-gun frigate 
Thetis, which was on her larboard quarter, Captain Woodriff 
resolved, as the only chance of escape left, to endeavour to 
disable this ship. The Calcutta's helm was accordingly 
ported, and she being quickly within pistol-shot, commenced 
the action. In three-quarters of an hour the Calcutta was 
completely unrigged and unmanageable, and the remainder 
of the French squadron rapidly approaching, her colours were 
hauled down. 

Out of 343 men and boys, the Calcutta had six men killed, 
and six woimded ; but she was so much disabled in her masts 



118 BLOCKADE OF CADIZ. [1805. 

and rigging, that the French were obliged to keep her in tow 
two days before they could make any sail upon her. This 
delay, and the direction in which Captain Woodriff had 
purposely drawn the squadron, enabled the ships under his 
charge to get away, and also preserved the 74-gun ship 
Illustrious and a convoy from Antigua of 200 sail from 
felling in with the enemy. The conduct of Captain Woodriff 
was most masterly and gallant, and obtained for him un- 
bounded approbation. He was, of course, tried for the loss 
of his ship, but most honourably acquitted. 

On the 9th of October, the 36-gun frigate Princess Char- 
lotte, Captain George Tobin, cruising off Tobago, discovered 
a ship and brig to windward. The Princess Charlotte being 
disguised, was taken for a merchant ship, and the French 
16-gun brig Naiade and 26-gun corvette Cyane (late British), 
Lieutenant Charles Le Menard, bore down within gun-shot. 
The Cyane did not discover the mistake until brought to 
action by the British frigate, to which she surrendered after 
a gallant defence, in which her first lieutenant and two sea- 
men were killed, and a midshipman and eight seamen 
wounded. The Naiade escaped, but was captured a week 
afterwards by the 3 2 -gun frigate Jason, Captain William 
Champain, after a long chase and a running fight of fifteen 
minutes. 

Vice-Admiral Villeneuve, whose cruise to the West Indies 
and action with Sir Robert Cakler we have just recorded, at 
length reached Cadiz ; but Napoleon was so dissatisfied with 
his conduct, that Vice-Admiral Eosily was appointed to 
supersede him in the command. 

From the 22nd of August until the 28th of September, 
Vice-Admiral Collingwood, had been blockading Cadiz with 
eighteen sail of the line, when Lord Nelson joined, in his old 
ship, the Victory. The Euryalus had been previously sent 
ahead to apprize Collingwood of Nelson's approach, and with 
orders not to salute or hoist the colours, by which the enemy 
might be apprized of the arrival of a reinforcement. Some 
other ships having also joined, the fleet amounted to twenty- 
seven sail of the line, a squadron of five sail of which, under 
Rear- Admiral Louis, was stationed close to the harbour of 
Cadiz, while the main body cruised about fifteen miles to the 



1805.] BATTLE OF TRAFALGAR. 119 

westward. But Nelson, considering that by withdrawing his 
ships to the distance of sixteen or eighteen leagues from the 
land, the French admiral, ignorant of the British strength, 
might venture to put to sea, reduced the in-shore 'squadron 
to the Hydra and Euryalus, and outside of them, at a con- 
venient distance for signalling, stationed four sail of the 
line. 

On the 1st of October, the Euryalus reconnoitred the 
port of Cadiz, and discovered in the outer harbour eighteen 
French and sixteen Spanish ships of the line, apparently 
ready for sea. Between the 9th and 13th, the Royal Sove- 
reign, Belleisle, Africa, and Agamemnon, joined the British 
fleet ; but five sail, under Rear- Admiral Louis, having been 
despatched to Gibraltar for provisions and water, the number 
was again reduced to twenty-seven sail. Since the 10th the 
enemy's fleet had moved towards the entrance of the harbour, 
and evinced a disposition to put to sea. From the 10th to 
the 17th the wind continued to blow fresh from the west- 
ward, which prevented them ; but, on the 17th, at midnight, 
the wind shifted to the eastward. On Saturday, the 19th, 
at 7h. a.m., the combined fleet weighed, by signal from the 
commander-in-chief, with a light breeze from the northward. 
Owing to the lightness of the wind, however, only twelve 
ships got out, and these lay becalmed until the afternoon, 
when a breeze sprang up from the westward, and this division 
of the enemy stood to the northward, closely watched by the 
Euryalus and Sirius, which immediately signalled the cheer- 
ing news to the British fleet. 1 

At daylight, on the 20th, the remainder of the enemy's 
fleet put to sea with a breeze from the south-east ; but had 

1 A most remarkable instance of what might almost be termed second 
sight in Lord Nelson has been mentioned to us from a quarter which 
demands the highest respect. On this morning, Lord Nelson was more 
than usually anxious, and he came on deck under the full impression 
that the enemy's fleet had put to sea. No signal to that effect had then 
been made by the look-out frigates, but his lordship persisted in his belief 
that such a signal was flying. Both the signal-lieutenant and Captain 
Hardy went to the masthead with their glasses to ascertain whether any 
such signal was out, but were unable to discover anything leading them 
to suppose that such was the case. About an hour afterwards a signal- 
gun announced that the enemy had put to sea. 



120 BATTLE OF TRAFALGAR. [180-5. 

scarcely cleared the harbour when the wind changed to 
south-west, attended with thick weather. At 2h. p.m. the 
wind shifted to west-north-west, and the weather cleared up. 
Villeneuve continued in command of the fleet, his successor 
not having arrived, having under him the Spanish Vice- 
Admiral D'Alava and Rear- Admiral Dumanoir ; and the 
second part of the fleet, or reserve, was divided into two 
squadrons of six ships each ; the first under the Spanish 
Admiral Gravina, and the second commanded by Rear- 
Admiral Magon. One of the advanced frigates having made 
the signal for eighteen sail of British ships, the combined 
fleet, then on the larboard tack, cleared for action, and at 
5h. p.m. tacked and stood towards the straits. At 7h. 30m. 
the Aigle signalled eighteen sail to the southward, and 
shortly afterwards the combined fleet wore, and stood to the 
north-west. 

A little before daybreak on the 21st, finding that the 
British were to windward, the French admiral directed the 
three columns of the line of battle, in which the fleet was 
formed, to draw, without regard to priority of rank among 
the ships, into a close line of battle on the starboard tack, 
and to steer south-west. At daylight the two fleets were in 
sight of each other, about twelve miles apart, the centre of 
the combined fleet bearing about east by south from the 
centre of the British, the wind being light from west-north- 
west, accompanied by a long ground swell. At 6h. a.m. the 
combined fleet was distinctly seen from the decks of the 
British ships, the Victory being at this time distant from. 
Cape Trafalgar about seven leagues. At 6h. 40m. Lord 
Nelson made the signals to form the order of sailing in two 
columns and prepare for battle, and in a few minutes after- 
wards to bear up. At 8h. 30m. Villeneuve made the signal 
for his fleet to wear and form a line in close order on the 
larboard tack ; but, owing to the light air of wind and the 
great swell, it was not until lOh. that this movement was 
accomplished, and even then the line, if such it could be 
called, was very irregularly formed ; so much so, that it was 
nearly in the shape of a crescent, and, instead of the ships 
being in line ahead, some were at a distance to leeward, and 
others to windward of their proper stations. For the most 



1805.] 



BATTLE OF TRAFALGAR. 



121 



part the ships were two, and, in some cases, three abreast ; 
and they were generally under topsails and top-gallant-sails, 
with main-topsails to their masts. The following is a state- 
ment of the ships in both fleets, in the relative order in 
which they went into action : — 



Guns 

100 
9S 
74 

100 
64 

74 

38 



BEITISH FLEET. 

WEATHEK DIVISION. 
Ships. 

-y-. , | Vice- Admiral Lord Nelson (white) 

' ' ' " | Captain Thomas Masterman Hardy 

( Teme'raire ,, Eliab Harvey 

| Neptune „ Thomas F. Fremantle 

j Leviathan „ Henry W. Bayntun 

| Conqueror „ Israel Pellew 

p ., j Rear-Adm. Earl of Northesk (white) 
| Captain Charles Bullen 

J Agamemnon .... ,, Sir Edward Berry 

( Africa „ Henry Digby 

( Ajax ,, John Pilfold (acting) 

1 Orion „ Edward Codrington 

\ Minotaur „ Charles J. M. Mansfield 

( Spartiate ,, Sir Francis Laforey 

j Euryalus . . ,, Hon. Hemy Blackwood 

\ Naiad ,, Thomas Dundas 

Pickle schooner . . Lieut. John R. Lapenotiere 



LEE DIVISION. 

1fiA B , c . S Vice-Adm. Cuthbert Collingwood (blue) 

100 Royal Sovereign } Captain Edward Rotheram 8 

ha \ Belleisle „ William Hargood 

\ Mars „ George Duff 

80 Tonnant „ Charles Tyler 

!Bellerophon .... „ John Cooke 

Colossus „ James Nicoll Morris 

Achille „ Richard King 

98 Dreadnought .... „ John Conn 

64 Polyphemus .... „ Robert Redmill 

f Revenge „ Robert Moorsom 

I Swiftsure „ George Rutherford 

74 \ Defiance „ Philip C. C. H. Durham 

Thunderer „ John Stockham (acting) 

I Defence „ George Hope 

98 Prince „ Richard Grindall 

36 ( Phoebe „ Hon. Thos. Bladen Capel 

\ Sirius „ William Prowse 

Entreprenante cutter Lieut. John Purver 



122 



BATTLE OF TRAFALGAR. 



[1805. 



The names of the ships of the combined fleet, the Spanish 
being in italics, were as follow, commencing with the north- 
westernmost : — 



Guns. Ships. 

INeptuno 
Scipion 
Intrepide 
100 Rayo 
80 Formidable (flag) 
f Duguay Trouin 
Mont Blanc 
74 \ San Francisco de Asis 
I San Auguslin 
LHeros 
130 Santisima Trinidad (flag) 
Bucentaure 1 
Neptune 
San Leandro 
Redoutable 
San Justo 
Indornp table 



Guns. Ships. 

112 Santa Ana 
f Fougueux 
Monarca 
Pluton 

Alge'siras (flag) 
74 \ Bahama 
Aigle 
Swiftsure 
Argonaute 
Montanez 
SO Argonauta 

( Berwick 
H . \ San Juan Nepomuceno 
J San Ildefonso 
{ Acbille 
112 Principe de Asturias (flag) 



The wind was so light, that although the British ships had 
studding-sails on both sides, they did not go more than two 
knots an hour, and scarcely that, and while the fleet was thus 
slowly nearing the enemy, Lord Nelson -visited the different 
decks of the Victory, cautioning the men not to fire without 
being sure of their object. 

Thinking that the Victory, as the flag-ship and leader of 
the column, would draw the principal attention of the 
enemy's fire, it was proposed to Nelson, by Captain Black- 
wood, that the Temeraire should go ahead of her ; and to 
this proposal Lord Nelson replied, " Oh, yes ! let her go 
ahead ;" but, at the same time, had no intention of allowing 
her ; nor would he permit an inch of canvas to be taken in. 
The Victory continued, therefore, to lead the column, closely 
hugged by the Temeraire. 

Apprehensive that the enemy might run for Cadiz, then at 
no great distance under their lee, Nelson telegraphed to 
Collingwood, "I intend to pass through the van of the 
enemy's line, to prevent hini from getting into Cadiz." At 
llh. 40m. a.m. Lord Nelson ordered his last and never-to-be- 

1 The Bucentaure, although the ship on board which the French 
commander-in-chief was, had no jlag flying. The admiral's flag was on 
board a frigate. 



ix ■.. 





I 805 '] BATTLE OF TRAFALGAR. 123 

forgotten telegraphic signal to be made, « England expects 

THAT EVERY MAN WILL DO HIS DUTY,"* and the purport of this 

signal having been communicated to the men at their quar- 
ters it was greeted with three hearty cheers, and excited the 
most lively enthusiasm among officers and men. 

The Fougiieux, the ship next astern to the Santa Ana, 
about ten minutes before noon, fired a shot to try the rang* 
of her guns ; upon which the Victory and all the British 
ships hoisted their colours. Both divisions of the fleet wore 
the bt. Georges ensign, the better to distinguish them from 
the enemy, together with a union-jack on the fore-topmast 
stay, and many on the main-topmast stay also. Shortly 
afterwards the combined fleets hoisted their colours; and the 
banta Ana, with several ships ahead and astern, commenced 
a heavy fire upon the Boyal Sovereign, then bearing from the 
Victory south-east two miles, and from the Belleisle east b Y 
north, distant about a quarter of a mile. At ten minutes 
past^ noon, the Royal Sovereign commenced the action bv 
passing close under the stern of the Santa Ana, discharger 
every gun of her larboard broadside as it came to bear : theS 
luffing round, she took up her station on the starboard bow 
of her opponent. In breaking through the line the Boyal 
{sovereign fired her starboard broadside into the Fououeux 

ihe feelings of the two noble admirals almost at the same 
moment found utterance : CoUingwood, as his ship was thus 
gallantly commencing the fight, observed to Captain Rotheram, 
m What would Nelson give to be here!" and at the same 
instant Nelson, observing his friend in his enviable position 
exclaimed, « See how nobly CoUingwood carries his ship into 
action. L 

The Boyal Sovereign, while closely engaging the Spanish 

W^ T l T S Which Tf re USed in com P°sing this celebrated signal ' 
have lately been correctly ascertained, and arranged in the orderin 
which they were hoisted, by the late Commander Jeaffreson Md es an 
old and mentorious officer, whose name is mentioned with credifin these 
pages, and who has kindly fnrnished the design nsed for the ZneZ 

it ™ P T of * he fi 8 T nd volume of this work > wSich embodi *s thSal 

It may here be further mentioned, in reference to this si-nal unon tht 
authority of Kear-AdmiralJohn Pasco, who was signal-1 iSant of the 
Victory at the time that Lord Nelson first gave dh-ec ions f" th fijj 
WA Iff T fiC l €S C &C " but that the word confident 

^^^^^ r s rte s d uggested the w -"' to 



124 BATTLE OF TRAFALGAR. [1805. 

three-decker, was raked distantly by the San Leandro- ahead, 
Fougueux on her quarter, and the San Justo and Indonipta- 
ble also fired at her with some effect, until succeeding ships 
engaged their more particular attention. The Santa Ana 
lost her mizen-topmast about five minutes afterwards, just as 
the Belleisle, with a well-directed broadside, raked her with 
full effect, and at lh. 20m. p.m. her three masts fell over the 
side. At 2h. 10m. the Santa Ana struck her colours, having, 
with the exception of the broadside from the Belleisle, 
been exclusively engaged by the Royal Sovereign. Just at 
this latter period the mizenmast of the Royal Sovereign 
came down, and soon afterwards the mainmast fell over the 
starboard side, tearing off two lower-deck ports. The fore- 
mast was also badly wounded, and having been stripped of a 
great part of the lower rigging, was left in a tottering 
state. 

After having for twenty minutes sustained the tremendous 
fire opened upon her by the rear of the combined fleet, which, 
from its irregular form, brought the sternmost ships of the 
enemy abaft her beam, and having her mizen-topmast over 
the larboard quarter, her sails in ribands, and more than 
fifty killed and wounded, the Belleisle, with the remains of 
studding sails, lower and aloft, ranged close under the stern 
of the Santa Ana, at about quarter past noon. After filing 
her larboard guns double shotted into that ship, and return- 
ing the fire of the Fougueux and Monarca with her starboard 
broadside, the Belleisle steered for the Indomptable, which 
latter ship, to avoid her fire, put her helm up, and, after a 
few broadsides, bore away to the south-east. In the mean- 
while the Belleisle was engaged distantly by the San Juan 
Nepomuceno, on her starboard beam, and at forty-five minutes 
past noon her main-topmast was shot away. As the enemy's 
rear ships were now pressing forward, the Belleisle's situation 
became very critical. The Fougueux ranged up on her star- 
board side, striking her on the gangway with her larboard bow, 
rolling at the same time with her foreyard over the British 
ship's quarter-deck. These two ships then became warmly 
engaged, and in ten minutes the Belleisle's mizenmast was 
shot away, about six feet above the deck, the wreck falling 
over the larboard quarter. Ten minutes afterwards the 
Fougueux dropped astern, and hauled to the northward, 



1805.] BATTLE OF TRAFALGAR. 125 

where we shall again have occasion to notice her. At lh. 30m. 
the Achille came down under the stern of the Belleisle, then 
lying unmanageable, with her head to the eastward, and, 
having taken her station on the larboard quarter, opened her 
fire. To this no return could be made, in consequence of the 
wreck of the mizenmast, which masked the Belleisle's after- 
guns. The Aigle, having replaced the San Juan, was can- 
nonading the Belleisle on the starboard side ; and the San 
Justo and Leandro, in crossing her bows, to join Gravina, in 
the rear, opened a passing fire. Thus, surrounded by enemies, 
the Belleisle, at 2h. 10m., lost her mainmast close to the 
deck, which fell aft on the larboard side of the poop, while 
the wreck of the topmast, with the yards and sails, hung over 
the starboard side. At 3h. 30m., an 80-gun ship, supposed 
to have been the French Neptune (driven from her position 
on the bows of the Victory by the Temeraire), placed herself 
on the starboard bow of the Belleisle ; and, at 2h. 45m., the 
foremast and bowsprit of the latter were shot away. At 
3h. 15m. the Polyphemus interposed between the Belleisle 
and Neptune, the Aigle became engaged by the Defiance, 
and at 3h. 25m. the Swiftsure passed under the Belleisle's 
stern, and, manning her rigging, gave the gallant ship three 
cheers, and took off the fire of the Achille. An ensign 
lashed to the topsail- yardarm projecting over the quarter, 
and a union-jack secured to a boarding-pike and lashed to the 
stump of her mizenmast, proved that, although dismasted, 
the Belleisle was not subdued ; yet, sensible of the valuable 
assistance thus handsomely rendered, the Swiftsure's cheers 
were warmly responded to. 

The Mars, in her way down, suffered severely from the 
raking fire of the San Juan Nepomuceno, Pluton, Monarca, 
and Algesiras. As the Mars steered to cut the line between 
the two first of these ships, the Pluton, which was to wind- 
ward of the San Juan, ranged ahead, which induced the 
Mars, to avoid being raked by the French ship, to haul up, 
and endeavour to cross the San Juan's bows. In attempting 
this manoeuvre the Mars was followed and engaged by the 
Pluton ; and having her rigging and sails greatly damaged, she 
was obliged to come head to wind, to avoid running on board 
the Santa Ana ; thus exposing her stern to the raking fire 
of the Monarca and Algesiras. From this dilemma she was 



126 BATTLE OF TRAFALGAR. [1805. 

relieved by the Tonnant. As the Mars fell off she became 
exposed to a heavy fire from the Fougueux, and subsequently 
to a very destructive fire from the Pluton also. At about 
lh. 15m. Captain Duff, while standing on the break of the 
quarter-deck, looking over the side, had his head shot off by 
a cannon-ball from the Pluton. The same shot also killed 
two seamen. The command then devolved upon Lieutenant 
William Hennah. Other British ships arming up, the 
Pougueux made off to the northward, in the direction of the 
Temeraire, and the Pluton stood to the south-east to join 
Gravina. 

The Tonnant steered for the bow of the Algesiras, which 
ship was on the lee quarter of the Monarca, with her main- 
topsail to the mast. At forty-five minutes past noon the 
Tonnant passed close under the stern of the Monarca, pour- 
ing in a raking fire, and then hauling up alongside. The 
Spaniard, after sustaining this fire a short time, dropped 
astern and struck her colours, but afterwards rehoisted them. 
The Algesiras, filling her main-topsail, then endeavoured to 
luff across the stern of the Tonnant, which ship had by this 
time lost her fore-topmast and mainyard ; but the latter, 
putting her helm hard a-port, bore round up, and ran the 
French ship on board, the bowsprit and anchor of the 
Algesiras getting entangled in the Tonnant's main rigging. 
Whilst thus engaged on the starboard side, the Tonnant 
fired her larboard guns, across the bows of the Mars, at the 
Pluton and San Juan. At lh. 40m. Captain Tyler received 
a severe wound, which obliged him to be taken below, and 
the command of the ship devolved on Lieutenant John 
Bedford. At about the same time the Algesiras lost her 
foremast, and the Tonnant her main and mizen-topmasts. The 
crew of the Algesiras now made a resolute attempt to board, 
but the steady fire of the Tonnant's marines defeated it. 
At 2h. 20m., just as her main and mrzen-masts were about 
to share the fate of the foremast, the Algesiras hauled down 
her colours. Lieutenant Charles Bennett, with Lieutenant 
of marines Arthur Ball, and about fifty men, then boarded 
and took possession of the prize. Just before 3h. the San 
Juan hailed to say that she had surrendered, and Lieutenant 
Benjamin Clement was sent in the jolly-boat, with two men, 
to take possession of her ; but the boat, being damaged by 



1805.] BATTLE OF TRAFALGAR. 127 

shot, swamped before she had proceeded half-way. The 
lieutenant could not swim, and while clinging to the boat a 
shot struck it upon the quarter. The boat then turned 
bottom upwards, but Clement continued to hold on while one 
of his boat's crew swam to the Tonnant and returned with a 
rope, by which means this brave young officer, who had pre- 
viously been in two general actions, was saved. Having then 
no boat left, the Tonnant could not take possession of the 
San Juan ; but that ship was afterwards engaged and secured 
by the Dreadnought. The Tonnant fired a few shot at 
Dumanoir's squadron, passing to windward. 

About fifty minutes past noon, and five after the Tonnant 
had commenced the action, the Bellerophon passed under the 
stern of the Monarca, as she dropped clear of the Tonnant. 
The Bellerophon's helm was immediately put hard a-starboard 
to lay the Monarca alongside ; but not being sufficients 
under command, she ran foul of the Aigle (the main-yard of 
the French ship locking with her fore-yard), and thus became 
engaged on both sides. The Montanez, French Swiftsure, 
and Bahama, at the same time, brought their guns to bear on 
the British ship, and, at about lh., the Bellerophon's main 
and mizen topmasts fell over the starboard side, causing the 
sails to take lire from the explosion of the guns. At lh. 5m. 
the master, Edward Overton, was killed; and at lh. 10m. 
Captain Cooke fell mortally wounded. The command then 
devolved on Lieutenant Pryce Cumby. The Montanez, 
Swiftsure, and Bahama soon became engaged by the Colossus 
and succeeding British ships, and, at lh. 40m., the Ai<de 
sheered on; and, as she payed round before the wind, became 
exposed to a raking fire from the Bellerophon. The Bellero- 
phon having fired a few shot at the Monarca, that ship 
hauled down her colours, and was taken possession of by a 
boat from the Bellerophon; and, nearly at the same time, the 
Bahama surrendered to the Colossus. 

The Colossus, at lh. p.m., ran past the starboard side of the 
French Swiftsure, which ship had bore up to avoid beino- 
raked, as well as to bring her larboard guns to bear on the 
Bellerophon, and, having run a short distance to leeward, the 
Colossus laid the Argonaute alongside, and, with their yard- 
arms locking, an animated fire was kept up for ten minutes, 
when the latter fell off and dropped astern, receiving the 



128 BATTLE OF TRAFALGAR. [1805. 

raking fire of the Colossus into her stern and quarters. 1 The 
Colossus was also engaged by the Swiftsure on her larboard 
quarter, and with the Bahama, which lay a little ahead of the 
Swiftsure, and fired at the Colossus, across the French ship's 
bows. About 3h., the Swiftsure, having dropped astern, the 
Colossus was enabled to devote her whole attention to the 
Bahama, and the mainmast of the latter falling, she showed 
an English jack to denote surrender. The Swiftsure, in the 
mean time, bore up with the intention of passing under the 
stern of the Colossus ; but the latter, wearing round, brought 
her starboard guns to bear with such effect as to knock away 
the Swiftsure's mizenmast, and the Orion, passing at the 
same time, by a broadside, brought down her mainmast. The 
Swiftsure, in this defenceless state, signified to the Colossus 
that she had surrendered. In hauling up to secure her 
prizes, the mizenmast of the Colossus went over the side. 

The British Achille was only a few minutes after the 
Colossus. This ship passed under the stern of the Montanez, 
then luffed up and engaged her to leeward. In less than a 
quarter of an hour the Montanez sheered off, and the Achille 
made sail to succour the Belleisle, then lying, as before stated, 
totally dismasted and surrounded by enemy's ships. But on 
her way down, the Achille became closely engaged with the 
Argonauta ; and after a warm action of long continuance 
with tins ship, the French Achille edged down on the British 
ship's quarter, while the Berwick, after engaging the Defence, 
ranged up on her starboard side. The French Achille then 
passed on in the direction of the Belleisle. After an hour's 
action between the British Achille and Berwick, the French 
colours were hauled down, and the Berwick was taken posses- 
sion of by a boat from the Achille. 

At 2h. p.m. the Dreadnought commenced action with the 
San Juan, and fifteen minutes afterwards ran the Spanish 
ship on board, and the latter, after a noble defence, at length 
surrendered. The San Juan had been previously engaged by 

1 Just as the Argonaute sheered off, Captain Morris was struck by a 
shot a little above the knee. This gallant officer refused to go below ; 
but, applying a tourniquet to his thigh, remained at his station, near I 
the head of the poop-ladder, until the mizenmast being in danger of! 
falling, he descended to the quarter-deck, which he would not quit until i 
the action had ceased and the Agamemnon had taken the ship in tow. 



1805.] BATTLE OF TRAFALGAR. 120 

the Bellerophon, Defiance, Tonnant, and others. The Dread- 
nought then opened fire upon the Principe de Asturias, but 
after a few broadsides the Spanish ship hauled off. 

The Polyphemus had yawed to starboard to permit the 
Dreadnought to advance upon the Principe de Asturias, and 
then endeavoured to regain her station ; but observing the 
Swiftsure coming up, she also permitted that ship to pass 
ahead of her. About 3h. 25m., the British Swiftsure, having 
rounded the Eelleisle, hauled away to the south-east after 
the French Achille, and, crossing under her stern, took a 
position to leeward ; and the Polyphemus having received 
some injury from the French Neptune, whose fire, as before 
stated, she took from the Eelleisle, then placed herself on the 
Achilles weather quarter. In about half an hour the Achille 
had lost her mizen-mast and fore-yard, and having caught 
fire in the fore-top, ceased firing. The Polyphemus then 
stood towards the San Ildefonso, already engaged by the 
Defence, and to which ship she surrendered before the Poly- 
phemus could get up. As the Swiftsure was hauling off from 
the Achille, the Prince bore down between the two ships. 

As the Revenge was attempting to break the enemy's line, 
if such it could at this time be called, she passed so close to 
the Aigle, that the jib-boom of the French ship hooked her 
mizen-topsail, and while thus entangled, she poured a very 
destructive raking fire into the Aigle's bows. The Revenge, 
having forged ahead of the Aigle, stood on ; and as she 
hauled up on the larboard tack, the Principe de Asturias 
opened fire upon her. The Revenge was also fired at by the 
Indomptable and San Justo, and continued to be engaged by 
them, until the Dreadnought and Thunderer coming up, 
brought those ships to action. The Spanish three-decker, 
with the most efficient of her division, soon afterwards bore 
away towards Cadiz. 

About 2h. 30m. the Defence commenced action with the 
Berwick, which ship in less than half an hour hauled off, 
and was engaged by the British Achille as^ before stated. 
"The Defence then opened her broadside on the San Ildefonso, 
and after an hour's action compelled the Spanish ship to haul 
down her colours. 

The Thunderer, at 3h. p.m., having approached to the 
assistance of the Revenge, crossed the bows of the Principe 

VOL. II. K 



130 CATTLE OF TRAFALGAR. [1805. 

de Astuvias, and ha\ ing ;i! some distance raked her, came to 
the wind on the starboard tack. The French Neptune, in 
advancing to the assistance of the Principe, engaged the 
Thunderer for a short time, when those two ships of the 
enemy, and some others, made off. The Principe de Asturias 
had been partially engaged by the Revenge, Defiance, and 
Prince, and she was for some tune in action with the Dread- 
nought also. In her various encounters, her masts sustained 
so much injury, that her main and mizen-masts fell during 
the night. 

The Defiance, at 3h. p.m., closed with the crippled Aigle, 
and having lashed alongside, a portion of the crew, headed 
by Lieutenant Thomas Simons, boarded her with very little 
resistance, and gained possession of the poop and quarter- 
deck. The party then hauled down the French ensign, and 
replaced it with the British : but the assailants were very 
soon driven from their position by a destructive fire of 
musketry opened upon them from the forecastle, waist, and 
tops of the Aigle, by which Lieutenant Simons was mortally 
wounded. 1 The lashings which held the two ships together 
being cut, the Defiance sheered off to pistol-shot distance, 
and alter a well-directed fire of twenty minutes, some one in 
the Aigle hailed to say they surrendered, and she was accord- 
ingly taken possession of by a boat from the Defiance. The 
San Juan Nepomuceno was also boarded and taken possession 
of by the Defiance's boats ; but this ship, having previously 
surrendered to the Dreadnought, Captain Durham sent her 
captain on board that slup. 

Having, for the sake of perspicuity, kept our readers' 
attention to the lee line, we proceed to narrate the deeds 
of the weather column, which was led by the immortal 
Nelson. Perceiving, as he neared the enemy, his old act juaint- 
ance the Santi-iina Trinidad, and being unable to discover 
the Hag-ship of the French cornmander-in-iihiof, Lord Nelson 
ojrdeied the Victory to be steered for the four-decker, con- 
sidering that, tin- ravneli admiral was at no great distant 8 
from this t'orniidalile ship. The event proved the accuracy <>r 
Ins conjecture. 

1 The Patriotic Fund voted a pieoe of plate, value 100 guineas, to the 
father of this gallant young man, to mark their sense of the son's heroic 
conduct. 



1805.] BATTLE OF TRAFALGAR. 131 

As the Victory rolled down at a sluggish pace towards the 
enemy, every glass was in requisition, in the hope of discover- 
ing the ship which the Victory was, if possible, to engage 
Nelson's anxiety was extreme, and so little did he value the 
suggestions of caution, that he would not permit the ham- 
mocks to be stowed higher than usual, because they would 
have obscured Ins view of the enemy's ships. And yet his 
mind was intent at the same time to guard against injury to 
his ship. The hammocks were, as usual, covered with black 
painted cloths ; but knowing the danger to be apprehended 
from fire in the close action to which the slnp was about to 
be subjected, he gave directions for the white canvass cloths 
to be brought up from below, and spread over all. These 
were then thoroughly saturated with water, and doubtless 
afforded much protection dining the action. 

At about twenty minutes past noon, the Bucentauiv filed 
a shot at the Victory. The shot fell short, but in two or 
three minutes, a second shot pitched close alongside ; a third 
and a fourth followed in quick succession, one passing over 
the ship, and another making a hole in the maintop -gallant 
sail, thus giving a visible proof that the ship was within 
range. A minute's awful pause ensued, and then, as if by 
signal, seven or eight ships opened a fire upon the Victory el" 
the most destructive and trying kind. Mr. Scott, the 
admiral's secretary, while conversing with Captain Hardy, 
was shot dead. Judging, from the course pursued by the lee 
division, that it was the British admiral's intention also to 
pass through the line, the enemy closed towards that point 
to which the Victoiy was advancing. The Santa Ana, how- 
ever, remaining stationary, engaged by the Sovereign, and 
the ships near her having full employment front the immediate 
followers of Collingwood, the enemy's fleet was divided 
nearly in the centre — leaving fourteen ships in the van, and 
nineteen in the rear division, "with a space of nearly a mile 
between them. 

The Victory had arrived within 500 or GOO yards of the 
enemy, when her mizen-topmast was shot away, and also her 
wheel, so that she was obliged to be steered by the relieving 
tackles below. A shot about this time killed eight marines 
on the poop, after which Captain Adair, by Lord Nelson's 
request, ordered his men to lie down — a precaution that was 
k2 



132 



BATTLE OF TRAFALGAR. 



[1805. 



adopted in the Belleisle and many other ships — before the 
enemy opened their fire. Shortly afterwards, a splinter from 
the fore-brace bits passed between Nelson and Hardy, and a 
part of it tore away the buckle from the shoe of the latter. 
Both looked earnestly and anxiously, each supposing the 
other to have been injured. Nelson smiled, and said, " This 
is too warm work to last long, Hardy." Captain Hardy re- 
marked to his lordship the impossibility of getting through 
the cluster of ships ahead without running foul of one oi 
them ; to which his lordship quickly replied, " I cannot heir 
it : it does not signify which we run on board of ; go or 
board which you please : take your choice." 

By this time the Victory (whose sails were hanging ii 
ribands) had lost full fifty men killed and wounded ; but i1 
was now her turn to begin. Having at length determined 
to pass under the stern of the Bucentaure, as the only mod* 
of breaking the line, the Victory's helm, at about lh. p.m. 
was put hard a-port, but there was scarcely space enough t( 
enable her to go clear. The Victory, therefore, passed s< 
close to the larboard side of the Bucentaure, that as sh( 
poured her well-directed and tremendous broadside into tha 1 
ship, the effect of it was so great, that the French ship wai 
observed to heel two or three streaks on receiving it. Th< 
Victory then hauled round as close under the stern of tin 
French ship as was practicable, in the hope of bringing he: 
to action to leeward, but this was prevented by the advance 
of the Bedoutable. This we will endeavour to illustrate ty 
a diagram, showing the Victory's track. 



SANJL£ANORO. / ^| 

REDOUBT 

sanltrw. *" :.; YfP 

victory: £5^ 

^V IK. PM 


SANtLEANDR* v^. 

sanitt^.: V(c: J :Ateni: 
-5Qji bucem: / C^ 

^ -my / 



1805.] BATTLE OF TRAFALGAR. 133 

The best bower-anchor of the Victoiy broke the spare 
anchor of the Redoutable, and the concussion drove the latter 
round off, nearly before the wind. (See diagram.) This 
happened at about lh. 10m. p.m. The ships would, however, 
in all probability, have separated, had not their lower 
yardarnis been foul, which kept them fast together. 
The larboard broadside of the Victory was, therefore, con- 
stantly employed upon the Bucentaure and Santisima, but 
principally upon the latter, and her starboard guns found 
full employment with the Eedoutable, her immediate oppo- 
nent. 

Nelson continued pacing the quarter-deck with Hardy, 
their walk being bounded abaft by the wheel, and forward 
by the companion-ladder, a distance of about twenty-five feet 
only. At lh. 25m. Ins lordship was about to turn to walk 
aft, when he received the fatal bullet. Hardy turning, ob- 
served his admiral in the act of falling ; and before he could 
prevent it, his lordship fell on his knees, with his left hand 
just touching the deck, very near to the spot whereon 
his secretary, Mr. Scott, had fallen. On Captain Hardy's 
expressing a hope that Ins lordship was not severely wounded, 
Nelson said, " They have done for me at last, Hardy." "I 
hope not," replied the captain. "Yes," continued his lordshij), 
I my backbone is shot through." A musket-ball had entered 
the left shoulder, through the strap of the epaulette, 1 and, 
descending, had lodged in the spine. 2 Sergeant Seeker, of the 

1 The coat and waistcoat worn by Nelson (the former still decorated 
with four orders and the epaulettes) are now deposited in the Painted 
Hall at Greenwich. The course taken by the fatal bullet is there dis- 
tinctly shown by the tattered bullion of the epaulette. The recovery of 
this relic is in great part attributable to Mrs. Horatio Nelson Ward, the 
hero's adopted daughter, who, through the late Sir N. H. Nicolas, made 
it known to his Royal Highness Prince Albert that so invaluable a 
memento of the deceased hero was obtainable. The prince immediately 
ordered the coat to be purchased and presented to Greenwich Hospital. 

2 The direction taken by the bullet proves that it must have been 
fired from aloft, and it doubtless came from the mizentop of the Redout- 
able ; but there is scarcely sufficient reason for believing that it was 
aimed in particular at Lord Nelson. It was most probably a chance 
shot ; but notwithstanding this, the direction from which it came led to 
the destruction of every man in the mizentop of the Redoutable by the 
enraged crew of the Victory. Captain Adair immediately snatched up 
a musket, and with a midshipman, John Pollard, and many others, con- 
tinued to fire at the men in the mizentop of the Redoutable, until one 



134 BATTLE OF TRAFALGAR. [1805. 

marines, and two seamen conveyed the wounded hero to the 
cockpit. 

The loss had been so severe on the quarter-deck and poop 
of the Victory, that Captain Hardy, Captain Adair of the 
marines, and two or three officers, were nearly all that 
remained. Observing the deserted appearance of the deck, 
the captain of the Redoutable ordered an attempt to be made 
to board ; but the remaining marines, assisted by a few 
small-arm men, kept ujd so continual and animated a fire, 
that the men assembled in the main rigging with this inten- 
tion were shot down as fast as they appeared. In repelling 
this attack, the gallant Adair was killed, and Lieutenant 
Ram mortally, and George A. Westphal, midshipman, severely 
wounded : many seamen and marines also fell. 

At about lh. 35m., the Temeraire ran on board the 
Redoutable, on the starboard bow, and lashed the French 
ship's bowsprit to the fore part of her main rigging. While 
in this position her foresail was set on fire by grenades 
thrown from the French ship, but the fire, by much exertion, 
was extinguished. The firing having at length entirely 
ceased, Captain Hardy sent David Ogilvie and Francis 
Colling wood, midshipmen, with a sergeant of marines and 
eight men, on board the Redoutable, to assist in extinguish- 
ing a fire which had broken out on board. The party, 
although under the necessity of getting on board by means 
of a boat, and through the gun-room ports, met with no 
opposition, thereby proving that all hostility had ceased. 

The Temeraire with some difficulty, owing to her being 
very light, kept astern, or rather upon the starboard quarter, 
of the Victory, sustaining as well as the Victory much loss 
and damage from the fire of the enemy. When the Victory 
put her helm a-port to attack the Bucentaure, the Temeraire 
was obliged to do the same, to keep clear of her leader, and, 
from this cause and the absence of any wind, was some time 
in finding an antagonist to herself. At length she hauled 
round the Redoutable at some short distance, receiving her 
starboard broadside, winch carried away the head of her 
mizen-topmast. The Temeraire, however, could make no 

by one they were observed to fall. Lord Nelson was scarcely known by 
the enemy to be on board the fleet, indeed it was believed at the time he 
was in England. 



1805.] BATTLE OF TRAFALGAR. 135 

return to this fire, on account of the position occupied by 
the Victory, but passed on, and for a time engaged the Nep- 
tune. At the time before stated, the two ships — Victory 
and Redoutable — coming down under the influence of the 
swell and light air of wind, gradually closed upon the Tem£- 
raire, and the latter was added to the group in the manner 
described. About 2h. p.m., just as the Victory was booming 
off from the Redoutable, the Fougueux was observed on the 
starboard side of the Temeraire. After quitting the Belle- 
isle, she had stretched across to the northward, and now 
approached with a crowd of men on the forecastle, apparently 
intending to board the British ship. The Temeraire permitted 
the Fougueux to approach within a few yards, and then 
fired her starboard guns with tremendous effect. In the 
confusion, the Fougueux fell on board the Temeraire, and her 
fore-rigging was immediately lashed to the sheet-anchor of 
the latter. Lieutenant Thomas F. Kennedy, with James 
Arscott, mate, Robert Holgate, midshipman, and about thirty 
men, then boarded the Fougueux. On the French ship's 
deck were M. Beaudoin, her captain (mortally wounded), and 
the second captain, and remaining officers, encouraging their 
men to repel the boarders. In about ten minutes the brave 
defenders of the Fougueux were driven below, and the ship 
in complete possession of the Temeraire. The main and 
mizen-masts of the Redoutable came down, and shortly 
afterwards the mainmast fell on board the Temeraire, thereby 
forming a bridge; and at 2h. 20m., Lieutenant John Wallace, 
with a party of men, took quiet possession of that ship also. 
At lh. 45m. the Neptune, which on account of the calm 
occasioned by the concussion of the firing was unable to 
approach more rapidly, passed under the stern of the Bucen- 
taure, and shot away the French ship's main and mizen- 
masts. The Neptune continued her course, and in a short 
time was close under the stern of the Santisima Trinidad, 
which ship, in conjunction with the Conqueror, she engaged 
until this huge ship (whose main and mizen-masts had pre- 
viously fallen) lost her foremast, and rolled an unmanageable 
hulk upon the water. When the van division, under 
Dumanoir, wore round, and passed to windward of the 
British ships, the Neptune, being at no great distance, 
received then fire and sustained much damage. 



136 BATTLE OF TRAFALGAR. [1805. 

The Leviathan and Conqueror closely followed the Neptune, 
and the Conqueror likewise raked the Bucentaure. The 
Conqueror hauled up on the Bucentaure's lee-quarter, and in 
a short time the foremast of the French ship fell, and the 
Bucentaure surrendered. Captain James Atcherly, of the 
marines, in a boat with five men, was sent on board the 
vanquished ship, and to this officer were presented the swords 
of Vice- Admiral Villeneuve and his two captains ; but 
justly considering that these shovdd be received by Captain 
Pellew, Captain Atcherly declined to receive them, and, 
having secured the magazine, accompanied the French admiral 
and his captains to the boat, which, with three men, two 
being left on board the Bucentaure, put off from the ship, 
and the Conqueror having in the mean time gone in chase, 
the boat went alongside the Mars. The Conqueror mean- 
while bore down, and attacked the Santisima. The master 
of the Conqueror in this action was Joseph Seymour. 

The 64-gun ship Africa was for a time in very great dan- 
ger. Being far to windward of the rest of the fleet, Lord 
Nelson made the signal for her to make all sail to take her 
place in the rear of his division ; but Captain Digby, either 
mistaking the signal or anxious to distinguish his ship, bore 
down upon the van of the combined fleet, which he passed 
along in order to join the ships engaged; and, in consequence, 
received the fire of each ship, until having arrived abreast of 
the Santisima Trinidad, the Africa brought to. Observing 
that no colours were flying on board the four-decker, Captain 
Digby despatched Lieutenant John Smith, with a boat's 
crew, to take possession of her. The boat arrived alongside, 
and Lieutenant Smith ascended to the quarter-deck, where 
he was met by a Spanish officer. He requested to know if 
the ship had surrendered, but was answered in the negative, 
the officer at the same time pointing to the combined squadron 
then passing to windward. Lieutenant Smith, not having 
the means with him of compelling submission, retreated to 
his boat, wliich the Spaniards permitted him to do, and 
returned to his own ship. The Trinidad was eventually 
taken possession of by the Prince, which ship, at 5h. 30m., 
took her in tow. The Africa, for nearly three-quarters of 
an hour, until relieved by the Orion, gallantly fought the 



1805.] BATTLE OF TRAFALGAR. 137 

Intrepide, and suffered very severely from the superior force 
of the enemy. 

The Leviathan also bore down upon the Santisima Tri- 
nidad ; hut finding that ship engaged by the Neptune, 
passed on towards the French Neptune, which continued 
hanging about the Temeraire. On the approach of the 
Leviathan, however, the French ship wore round, and made 
sail away, upon which the Leviathan hauled up to engage 
the French van, then in the act of wearing round to escape. 
At about 3h. the Leviathan brought to action the San 
Augustin, which ship had not wore round with the rest. The 
Leviathan hauled up to leeward, and, after engaging some 
short time, the San Augustin's helm was put a-port, intend- 
ing to pass ahead of the Leviathan, but she was unable to 
effect it ; and the British ship, having brought her broadside, 
treble-shotted, to bear with powerful effect, at the distance 
of fifty yards, knocked away the mizen-mast of the Spanish 
ship, and committed tremendous havoc. The San Augustin 
then fell on board her opponent with her jib-boom foul of the 
Leviathan's main rigging, thereby exposing her upper deck 
to the fire from the carronades, and from the marines on the 
Leviathan's poop. After some smart firing, Lieutenant 
Eyles Mounsher, first of the Leviathan, at the head of a 
party of seamen and marines, boarded and carried the San 
Augustin, without further opposition. The Leviathan then 
took the prize in tow, and was thus enabled to engage the 
Intrepide as that ship passed on to join the van ; but the 
Leviathan 1 was presently relieved of this opponent by 

1 The following anecdote of a seaman of the Leviathan, as stated by 
Captain Bayntun to the Patriotic Fund, is too honourable to British 
sailors to be omitted. While the Leviathan was engaging the Santisima 
Trinidad, a seaman, named Thomas Main, stationed at one of the fore- 
castle guns, had his arm shot off. His messmates offered to attend him 
below to the surgeon : but he bluntly said, " I thank you, stay where 
you are, you will do more good there." He then went down by himself 
to the cockpit, and the surgeon, who respected the man, seeing his case 
to be urgent, would have attended to him in preference to those there 
before him ; but Main would not allow this, saying, "Not till it comes 
to my turn, if you please." The surgeon soon afterward performed the 
amputation close to the shoulder, during which the gallant fellow, in a 
steady clear voice, sang the whole of "Rule Britannia." "The cheer- 
fulness of this rough son of Neptune," adds Captain Bayntun, " has been 



138 BATTLE OF TRAFALGAR. [1805. 

the Africa. The master of the Leviathan was John W. 
Trotter. 

The Orion, at about 4h. 15m., wore round under the stern 
of the Intrepide, and, bringing to on her lee-bow, between 
that ship and the Africa, opened so vigorous a fire, that in 
less than a quarter of an hour her main and mizen-masts fell 
over the side. The Conqueror and Ajax having by this time 
also arrived close up with the Intrepide, the captain, con- 
sidering further resistance would be unavailing, surrendered 
the ship at a little before 5h. p.m. 

The van of the enemy's fleet, consisting of the Formidable, 
Duguay Trouin, Mont Blanc, Scipion, and Neptuno, under 
Rear-Admiral Dumanoir, having succeeded in hauling to the 
light ah- of wind on the starboard tack, became engaged, 
about 3h. p.m., with the Orion, Ajax, Britannia, and 
Agamemnon, as those ships were running down to get into 
action. Four or five other ships of the van also attempted 
to wear and follow the rear-admiral, but from want of wind 
could not do so ; and those which succeeded in getting on 
the starboard tack, being unable to weather the British 
ships, bore up with the intention of passing to leeward, and 
joining Vice- Admiral Gravina, in the rear. Three of these — 
the Rayo, Francisco de Asis, and Heros — were engaged by 
the Britannia and other ships near her. As Dumanoir's 
squadron made its way to the southward, the five ships 
opened their fire on the British and the prizes indiscrimi- 
nately. The "Victory and Temeraire exchanged two or three 
broadsides with the squadron, but sustained little damage ; 
not so the Fougueux, which ship lost her main and mizen- 
masts by their fire, and had several men killed and wounded ; 
and on board the Bedoutable an English officer had his leg 
shot off. 

About 3h. 10m. p.m., the Minotaur and Spartiate, coming 
down, hove their main-topsails to the mast on the larboard 
tack, and exchanged several broadsides with the combined 
squadron, and succeeded in cutting off one of their number — 
the Neptuno. These two British ships, passing the four 
French ships, wore ; and, after a warm action with the 

of infinite use in keeping up the spirits of his wounded shipmates, and I 
hope this recital may be of service to him."' Poor Main, however, died 
at Gibraltar hospital. 



1805.] DEATH OF NELSON. 139 

Spanish ship thus cut oft" during which she was defended in 
a very gallant manner, obliged her, at about 5h. 10m., to 
surrender, having lost her mizenmast and fore and main 
topmasts. The Neptuno, drifting to leeward, fell on board 
the Temeraire, and thus gave rise to the extraordinary 
mistake contained in the letter of Yice-Admiral Collingwood, 
that the Temeraire had been boarded on one side by a 
Spanish, and on the other by a French ship. 

Having now, however, imperfectly given the most pro- 
minent and important details of the proceedings of the ships 
engaged in this ever-memorable battle, we return to the 
Victory and to that scene so deeply interesting to every 
British heart. The hero of a hundred fights had received a 
mortal wound just as he had put the finishing stroke to the 
title of England's naval supremacy, and, surrounded by a 
halo of victory, in the dark and gloomy abode to which he 
was carried, we behold him expiring. 

As he was being conveyed to the cockpit, in which he 
breathed his last, Dr. Beatty, in his narrative, states that he 
caused his face and stars to be covered by his handkerchief, 
in order that he might pass unnoticed by the crew. On 
reaching the cockpit, the dying hero was laid upon a mid- 
shipman's mattress, and stripped of his clothes, when the 
surgeon proceeded to probe the wound, which he soon 
ascertained to be mortal, an opinion which Nelson had from 
the first entertained. 1 The sufferings of his lordship, from 
pain and thirst, were very great. He frequently called for 
drink, and to be fanned with paper. In about an hour and 
ten minutes after Nelson had been carried below, Captain 
Hardy, availing himself of a moment's respite from his 
duties, visited his dying admiral. " They shook hands," says 
Dr. Beatty, "very affectionately, and Lord Nelson asked 'Well, 
Hardy, how goes the battle % How goes the day with us V 
'Very well, my lord,' replied Captain Hardy ; ' we have got 
twelve or fourteen of the enemy's ships in our possession ; but 
five of their van have tacked, and show an intention of bear- 
ing down upon the Victory ; I have therefore called two or 

1 We have heard it from authority which we cannot question, that 
Nelson had a firm presentiment that he should not survive the battle ; 
and how truly his presentiment was fulfilled the sequel too correctly 
proved. 



140 DEATH OF NELSON. [1805. 

three of our fresh ships round us, and have no doubt of 
giving them a drubbing.' ' I hope,' said his lordship, ' none 
of our ships have struck, Hardy.' 'No, my lord,' replied 
Captain Hardy, ' there is no fear of that.' Lord Nelson then 
said, ' I am a dead man, Hardy ; I am going fast, it will be 
all over with me soon.' " Captain Hardy in a minute or two 
returned to the deck, and the Victory soon afterwards opened 
her fire upon Dmnanoir's squadron, passing to windward, as 
before described. The concussion of the firing caused great 
distress to his lordship ; and, apostrophizing his ship, he 
exclaimed, " Oh, Victory, Victory, how you distract my 
poor brain ! " The Orion and other ships having neared the 
Victory, Dumanoir and his squadron hauled their wind to 
the southward, offering no further molestation. 

In about fifty minutes after Captain Hardy had returned 
to the deck, he a second time descended to the cockpit, and 
again shook hands with Lord Nelson, at the same moment 
congratulating hhn on the brilliant victory the British fleet 
had achieved ; and although unable to ascertain the exact 
number of enemy's ships that had struck, he was certain 
that fourteen or fifteen had surrendered. " His lordship 
answered," proceeds the narrative, "'That is well, but I 
bargained for twenty ;' and then emphatically exclaimed, 
' Anchor, Hardy, anchor ! ' 'I suppose, my lord,' returned 
Captain Hardy, ' that Admiral Collingwood will now take 
upon himself the direction of affairs?' 'Not while I live, 
I hope, Hardy,' cried the dying hero ; and, endeavouring in- 
effectually to raise himself from the bed, he exclaimed, 'No ! 
do you anchor, Hardy ! ' Captain Hardy then said, ' Shall 
we make the signal, Sir V 'Yes,' answered his lordship, 'for 
if I live, I'll anchor.' " Captain Hardy, after remaining about 
three minutes with his dying chief, went on deck. In about 
a quarter of an hour after Captain Hardy had quitted the 
cockpit to attend to his indispensable duties, Lord Nelson 
became speechless ; and at 4h. 30m. p.m. by the Victory's 
time, expired without a groan. His last words were, "I have 
done my duty — I thank God for it." 

For a writer, such as the compiler of these hiunble volumes 
to attempt to eulogize so great a hero as Lord Nelson, may 
appear presumption ; yet we camiot refrain from offering our 
sincere though unequal tribute to the memory of England's 



1805.] DEATH OF NELSOX. 141 

preserver, and the most talented naval commander that any 
age or country ever produced. From his commencement, as 
a, midshipman, to the last hour of his life, his public career 
was marked by a boundless zeal for his country's honour and 
welfare. The daring and hawk-sighted manoeuvre on the 
14th of February, did much towards gaining a brilliant 
victory over an enemy of more than double the force of the 
British fleet ; but this was eclipsed ?*t Aboukir. The victory 
of the Nile would have been alone sufficient to place Nelson 
on the highest pinnacle of nautical ability. His firm nerves 
appeared to strengthen with the difficulties presented, and he 
may be said to have smiled at discouragements which to the 
ordinary mind would have seemed insurmountable obstacles. 
The fleet and defences of Copenhagen quailed before him ; 
and, while a signal for his recall was flying on board the 
commander-in-chief's ship, which must have rendered nuga- 
tory all the blood which had been spilt, Nelson negotiated 
and gained all that was required. His pursuit of a superior 
fleet to the West Indies, added one more proof, if proof had 
been wanting, of his consummate skill and determination; 
but the final and complete triumph, which he sealed with his 
heart's blood, at once, and we would hope for ever, annexed 
the sovereignty of the seas to England's throne. To have 
died in such a cause, — to have fallen at such a moment, — was, 
indeed, to gain all that mortal man could aspire to ; and, 
as says Dr. Beatty, "his sjriendid example will operate as 
an everlasting impulse to the enterprizing genius of the 
British navy." 

The moment Lord Nelson's death was announced to Cap- 
tain Hardy, he directed Lieutenant Alexander Hills to 
proceed to the Royal Sovereign, and acquaint Vice- Admiral 
Collingwood that the admiral was mortally wounded, not 
wishing to hurt the feelings of a friend, by stating that he 
was dead. Captain Blackwood arrived on board the Victory 
soon afterwards, and Captain Hardy accompanied him, in the 
boat of the Euryalus, to the Royal Sovereign, to acquaint the 
vice-admiral with what had really happened, as well as to 
deliver Nelson's dying commands, that the fleet should be 
brought to anchor as soon as it was practicable. Vice- 
Admiral Collingwood unhappily differed in this respect with 
his distinguished friend, and on receiving the message, re- 



142 



CLOSE OF THE ACTION. 



[1805. 



plied, * Anchor the fleet ! Why, it is the last thing I should 
have thought of." 1 

At the conclusion of the action the land about Cape 



Trafalgar was in sight, 



bearing- 



south-east by east, distant 



about eight miles, after which cape the battle was named. 

It is now time to sum up the heavy losses sustained in this 
glorious encounter, which were as follow : — 



i 

Ships. 


Killed. 


Wounded. 


Ships. 


Killed. 


Wounded. 


WEATHER COLUMN. 






LEE COLUMN. 






Victory ... 


57 


102 


Royal Sovereign 


47 


94 


Teineraire... ... ... 


47 


76 


Belleisle 


33 


93 


Neptune . . ... 


10 


34 


Mars 


29 


69 


Leviathan .. 


4 


22 


Tonnant 


26 


50 


Britannia 


10 


42 


Bellerophon .... 


27 


123 


Conqueror ... ... 


3 


9 


Colossus 


40 


160 


Africa 


18 


44 


Achille 


13 


59 


Agamemnon ... 


2 


7 


Dreadnought . . 


7 


26 


Ajax . . ... ... ... . . 


2 


9 


Polyphemus .... 


2 


4 


Orion ... . . 


1 


23 


Revenge ....... 


28 


51 


Minotaur 


2 


22 


Swiftsure 


9 


8 


Spartiate 


3 


20 


Defiance 


17 


53 










4 


12 


Total 


160 


410 


Defence... ........ 


7 


29 


Tot 


al ... 


1 

.. 449 k 


Total 

died ; 1,241 wounc 






289 


831 


led. 






G 


rand total 


1,690 







1 Collingwood has been subjected to very severe strictures, in reference 
to his non-compliance with the dying command of Lord Nelson ; and 
there can be no doubt that he incurred a very distressing responsibility 
in consequence. The act, however, of not anchoring the fleet imme- 
diately on the termination of the battle, admits of some extenuation. A 
great part of the fleet, and nearly all the prizes, were wholly unpre- 
pared to anchor, their cables having been rendered unserviceable by 
shot. Had, therefore, the signal been made, those ships in a condition 
to comply would have brought up, while those unable to obey the signal 
would have become still more dispersed, whereas by keeping underweigh, 
the effective were in a condition to assist the crippled ships, and, in the 
meanwhile, the prize crews were enabled to employ themselves in splicing 
the cables, and in getting ready to anchor when the signal should be 
made, and it was made at 9h. P.M. We merely offer this as one of many 
reasons which might have induced the vice-admiral to decline carrying 
immediately into effect the dying injunction of his friend. 



1805.] KILLED AND WOUNDED. 143 

Subjoined are the names of officers officially returned as 
killed or wounded :— Victory : Killed— Vice-Adniiral Lord 
Nelson; John Scott, secretary; Captain (marines) Charles 
W. Adair ; Lieutenant William Earn ; Midshipmen Robert 
Smith and Alexander Palmer; Captain's clerk Thomas 
Whipple. Wounded — Lieutenants John Pasco and George 
M. Bligh ; Lieutenants (marines) Lewis B. Peeves and James 
G. Peake ; Midshipmen William Rivers, George A. West- 
phal, and Richard Bulkeley. Temeraire : Killed — Captain 
(marines) Simeon Busigny; Lieutenant (do.) John King- 
ston ; Carpenter L. Oades ; Midshipman William Pitts. 
Wounded— Lieutenant James Mould ; Lieutenant (marines) 
Samuel J. Payne ; Boatswain J. Brooks ; Mate F. S. Price; 
Midshipman J. Eastman. Neptune : Wounded— Captain's 
clerk. Leviathan : Wounded — Midshipman J. W. Watson. 
Britannia : Killed — Lieutenant Francis Roskruge. Wounded 
— Stephen Trounce, master; Midshipman William Grant. 
Conqueror : Killed— Lieutenants Robert Lloyd and W. St. 
George. Wounded — Lieutenant (marines) Thos. Wearing ; 
Lieutenant (Russian navy) Philip Mendel. Africa : Wounded 
— Lieutenant Matthew Hay ; Captain (marines) Jaines 
Fynmore ; Mates Henry West and Ab. Turner ; Midship- 
men Frederic White, P. J. Elmhurst, and J. P. Bailey. 
Orion : Wounded — Midshipmen Charles Tause and T. P. 
Cable. Minotaur : Wounded — Boatswain James Robinson ; 
Midshipman J. S. Smith. Spartiate : Wounded— Boatswain 
John Clarke ; Midshipmen Edward Bellairs and Edward 
Knapman. Royal Sovereign : Killed— Lieutenant Brice 
Gilliland ; Master William Chalmers ; Lieutenant (marines) 
Robert Green ; Midshipmen John Aikenhead and Thomas 
Braund. Wounded — Lieutenants John Clavell and James 
Bachford ; Lieutenant (marines) James Le Yesconte ; Mate 
W. Watson ; Midshipmen G. Kennicott, Grenville Thomp- 
son, J. Farrant, and John Campbell ; Boatswain Isaac 
Wilkinson. Belleisle : Killed — Lieutenants Ebenezer Gale 
and John Woodin ; Midshipman George Mnd. Wounded— 
Lieutenant William Ferrie ; Lieutenant (marines) John 
Owen ; Boatswain Andrew Gibson ; Mates W. H. Pearson 
and W. Cutfield; Midshipmen Samuel Jago and J. T. Hodge. 
Mars : Killed— Captain Duff; Midshipmen Edward Corbyn 
and Henry Morgan. Wounded— Lieutenants Edward W. 



144 



KILLED AND WOUNDED. [1805. 



Garrett and James Black ; Master Thomas Cook ; Captain 
(marines) T. Norman; Midshipmen J. Young, George Guiren, 
W J Cook, J. Jenkins, and Alfred Luckraft. Tonnant : 
Killed— Midshipman William Brown. Wounded— Captain 
Tyler ; Lieutenant Frederick Hoffman ; Boatswain Richard 
Little : Mate H. Ready ; Captain's Clerk W Allen. Belle- 
rophon : Killed— Captain Cooke ; Master Edward Overton; 
Midshipman John Simmons. Wounded— Captain (marines) 
John Wemyss ; Boatswain Thomas Robinson ; Mate E. 
Hartley ; Midshipmen W. N. Jewell, James Stone, Thomas 
Bant, and George Pearson. Colossus : KiUed— Master 
Thomas Scriven. Wounded— Captain Moms ; Lieutenants 
George Bully and William Forster ; Lieutenant (marines) 
J Benson; Boatswain William Adamson ; Mate Henry 
Millbanke; Midshipmen W. A. Herringham F. Thistle- 
wayte T. G. Reece, H. Snellgrove, R. M'Lean, George 
Whar'rie, Timothy Renou, and George Denton. Achille : 
Killed— Midshipman F. J. Mugg. Wounded— Lieutenants 
Parkins Prynn, and Josias Bray : Captain and Lieutenant 
(marines) Palms Westropp and William Liddon ; Mate G. 
Pe-cre ; Midshipmen W. H. Staines, W. J. Snow, and W. 
Smith Warren. Dreadnought : Wounded— Lieutenant J. 
L Lloyd • Midshipmen Andrew M'Cullock and James bab- 
ben Revenge: Killed— Midshipmen Thomas Grier and 
Edward F Brooks. Wounded— Captain Moorsom ; Lieu- 
tenant John Berry; Master Luke Brokenshaw; Captain 
(marines) Peter Lely. Swiftsure : Wounded-Midshipman 
Alexander B. Handcock. Defiance: Killed— Lieutenaut 
Thomas Simons; Boatswain W. Forster ; Midshipman 
James Williamson. Wounded— Captain Durham; Mates 
James Spratt and Robert Browne ; Midshipmen John 
Hodcre and Edward A. Chapman. Thunderer: Wounded— 
Mate John Snell ; Midshipman Alexander Galloway 

The damages exhibited by each ship, in masts and yards, 
tit the conclusion of the action, are described in the subjoined 
table • and from these may be imagined, without entering 
into tedious details, the injuries the different ships had sus- 
tained in their hulls. 



1805.] 



CASUALTIES IN THE FLEET. 



145 





Lower Masts, Topmasts, and Yards, 


Ships. 


Senior Lieutenants. 








Shot away. 


Left tottering. 




f John Pasco (flag) "| 








Edw. Williams 
< John Quilliam 1 )- 






Victory 


Mizenmast 


Foremast 




Andrew King . . 
1 John Yule .... J 
















( Main and niizen- 




Te'meraire 


Thos. F. Kennedy 


) mast heads, fore 
y and fore-topsail 
( yards 




Neptune 


George Acklom 






Leviathan 


Eyles Mounsher . . 


Mizen-topsail yard 




Britannia 


Arthur Atchison 






Conqueror 


Richard Spear 2 


Mizen-topmast 




Africa 


John Smith 


Main- topsail yard . . 




Agamemnon .... 


Hugh Cook 


[masts 


Ajax 


Jer. Brown + 






Orion 


John Croft 


Main-topsail yard 
Fore do. do. 




Minotaur 


James Stuart.. 




Spartiate 

Royal Sovereign 


John M'Kerlie .... 




Main-topmast 
Foremast 


{ John Clavell . . ) 
( John Ellis j 


( Main and mizen- ) 
< masts, and fore- > 
( topsail yard . . ) 






i All three lower 
< masts and bow- 




Belleisle 


Thomas Fife 




Mars 


James Black 


Main-topmast .... 
( Three topmasts & 




Tonnant 


John Bedford .... 








| main -yard 




Bellerophon .... 


Edward F.Thomas f 


{ Main and mizen- ) 
| topmasts . . . . \ 
Mizenmast 


Fore-topmast 


Colossus 


Thos. R. Toker 


Fore and main- 


Achille 


Wm. W. Daniel 




[masts 


Dreadnought .... 


Nisbet Palmer .... 


Main-topsail yard 




Polyphemus .... 


George Moubray 






Revenge 


Lewis Hole 






Swiftsure 


James Lilburn 






Defiance 


William Hellard 






Thunderer 


William Norman f 






Defence 


James Green 






Prince 


William Godfrey 







1 Deck lieutenant, made post captain. The officers marked f being second 
lieutenants, were not promoted with the others. 

2 Second lieutenant — first, Robert Lloyd, killed. 

VOL. II. L 



146 STATE OF THE FLEET AND PRIZES. [1805. 

The eleven ships under Admiral Gravina hauled to the 
north-east and escaped ; and the Heros, San Francisco, 
Indomptable, and Montanez, succeeded in passing in-shore of 
the British fleet, and also got away. Others were in tow of 
the frigates, and the whole, in course of the night, anchored 
about a mile and a half from Rota, not being able to enter 
the Bay of Cadiz on account of the strong south-east wind 
blowing off the land, although in the offing the wind was 
still from west-south-west. 

At 6h. p.m. "V ice- Admiral Colling wood shifted his flag to 
the Euryalus frigate, and taking the Sovereign in tow, stood 
off-shore with her. At this time several of the British ships 
were more or less disabled, and out of the seventeen prizes. 1 
eight were totally dismasted, and the remainder in a very 
helpless state. The fleet was now within a few miles of the 
shoals of Trafalgar, and in thirteen fathoms water. There 
was a heavy swell, which distressed the disabled ships very 
much ; but fortunately there was little wind. At 9h. p.m. 
the signal was made for the fleet to prepare to anchor, of 
which some few ships availed themselves. Towards midnight 
the wind veered to south-south-west, and freshened consider- 
ably. This favourable change induced the admiral to make 
the signal to wear the ships' heads to the westward ; and 
those ships which had not anchored, and were in a condition 
to obey the signal, wore and drifted out to sea. 

On the 22nd, at Sh.A.M., the Euryalus cast off the Sovereign, 
and the Neptune was directed to take her in tow. The wind 
blew fresh in squalls during the whole of tins day, and the 
thirteen prizes which remained underweigh (four having 
anchored), closed round the Sovereign. The Bucentaure, 

1 The names of the ships actually surrendered or in possession of the 
British at this time were as follows : — 

SPANISH. 



Guns. 

130 Santisima Trinidad 
112 Santa Ana 
„ ( Neptuno 
( Argonauta 
( Sun Augustas 
I Jlonarca 
74 -{ Bahama 

| S.-i:: Juan N !>>muceno 



FRENCH. 
Guns. 

80 Bucentaure 
' Intrepide 
Redoutable 
Fnu^ueux 
i i as 
Aigle 
Sw iftsur • 
Berwick 



7! 



I San Il<l.t lAchffle 



.1805.] HEAVY GALE LOSS OF PRIZES. 147 

having on board Lieutenant Richard Spear and a party of 
men from the Conqueror, drifted towards the shore near the 
castle of Saint Sebastian, and there anchored. During the 
day she was wrecked on the Puergues, and the crew, including 
the British, were saved by the boats of a French frigate. 
In the night it came on to blow a heavy gale from north- 
west. 

On the morning of the 23rd, the Redoutable foundered 
before the whole of her men could be removed. Only about 
170 were saved from her suiwiving crew, and these at a 
great risk, and with the loss of thirteen of the Temeraire's 
seamen, and five of the Swiftsure's. The Swiftsure's launch, 
under the command of Lieutenant Thomas Sykes, afterwards 
assisted by the pinnace, in charge of Lieutenant Thomas 
Read, saved the lives of near fifty poor wretches while the 
ship was in the act of sinking. The brave Captain Lucas 
had previously been removed to the Temeraire. The Fougueux 
drifted on shore near the river Sancti Petri, having thirty of 
the crew of the Temeraire on board, and was totally wrecked, 
with the loss of all on board except about twenty-five persons. 
The prize crew of the Algesiras was overpowered by the 
French during the gale, and having rigged jury-niasts, that 
ship, by great exertions, reached the harbour of Cadiz. The 
same morning, Commodore Kerguelen sailed from Cadiz with 
five* sail of the line and five frigates, which latter retook the 
Santa Ana and Neptuno, and carried them into port. 

On the 24th, the Indomptable, on board which were the 
survivors of the Bucentaure's crew, making with her own 
above 1,000 men, was wrecked off the town of Rota, and 
not more than 100 were saved. The San Francisco de Asis, 
another of Kerguelen's squadron, cut her cables and went on 
shore near Fort Santa Catalina, where her crew were saved. 
The Rayo, also of this squadron, not being able to enter 
Cadiz Bay, anchored off" San Lucar, where she soon rolled 
away her wounded masts, and on this day was captured by 
the Donegal, Captain Pulteney Malcolm ; but two days after- 
wards the ship parted company and went on shore, and of 
the 107 men and officers put on board her by the Donegal, 
twenty-five were drowned. The Monarca also drove on shore 
after the greater part of her crew had been removed by 
the boats of the Leviathan. The Santisima Trinidad was 

l2 



148 REWARDS OF THE VICTORS. [1805. 

scuttled and sunk by the Neptune and Prince. The Aigle 
drifted into Cadiz Bay, and was wrecked on the bar of Port 
Santa Maria on the night of the 25th. 

The few remaining prizes were at length anchored about 
six leagues to the westward of Cape San Lucar ; and on the 
28th the body of the British fleet also brought up a little to 
the northward of them ; the Royal Sovereign under jury, 
main, and mizen masts, and the Mars with main and mizen 
masts only. On the 29th the Intrepide was burnt by the 
Britannia, and the San Augustin by the Leviathan and 
Orion : the Argonauta was scuttled and sunk by the Ajax. 
The Berwick was wrecked off San Lucar ; 200 of her crew 
perished with her, the remainder being saved, after much 
gallant exertion, by the Donegal's boats. The Defence, with 
the San Ildefonso, Bahama, and Swiftsure, anchored on the 
night of the 26th, and rode out the gale in safety ; affording 
one argument in reference to the benefit which might have 
resulted had the dying injunction of Lord Nelson been 
attended to. The San Juan Nepomuceno was saved by the 
exertions of the Phoebe and Donegal. 

The victory of Trafalgar was most complete ; and since 
that day the enemies of England have not been able to fit 
out a fleet at all equal to contest with her navy the rule of 
the ocean. Although the preponderance of force was con- 
siderably on the side of the combined fleets, a chance of 
victory did not remain to them after the first shot fired by 
the British. Never, perhaps, was more cool and determined 
bravery and skill evinced than on this occasion. 

The body of Nelson was conveyed to England in the 
ship which had so long borne his flag, and on the 6th of 
January, 1806, after lying in state some time in the Painted 
Hall of Greenwich Hospital, was conveyed to St. Paul's Cathe- 
dral, beneath the splendid cupola of which those venerated 
ashes lie. Numerous were the honours bestowed by a grate- 
ful country on the hero's relatives ; and we wish we could 
add, that those who so nobly fought on that occasion also met 
that amount of promotion and distinction which so memora- 
ble a battle claimed for them. Vice-Admiral Colliugwood 
was raised to the peerage, with a pension of £2,000. Rear- 
Admiral the earl of Northesk was made a K.B., and Captain 
Hardy created a baronet. Lieutenant Quilliam, of the 



1805.] STRACHAN AND DUMANOIR. 149 

Victory, the senior lieutenants (acting as captains) of the 
Ajax and Thunderer, and those of the Bellerophon and 
Mars, were made post captains ; and the second, third, 
fourth, and flag lieutenants of the Victory, first and second 
of the Royal Sovereign, and first lieutenants of every ether 
line-of-battle ship, made commanders. Four mates of the 
Victory, three of the Royal Sovereign, two of the Britannia, 
and one from every other ship, were made lieutenants. The 
Patriotic Fund, ever alive to the honour and prosperity of 
the British navy, not only voted a large sum of money for 
the relief of the widows and orphans of the slain, and to ,the 
wounded officers and men ; but presented to each captain or 
commanding officer in the action a sword, valued at 100 
guineas. Vases each of 500 guineas' value were presented, 
one to the hero's relict, a second to the successor to his lord- 
ship's title, and a third to Vice- Admiral Collingwood. The 
earl of Northesk was also granted a vase, value 300 guineas. 
The silver " naval medal " has recently been bestowed upon 
the survivors present in the glorious victory. 

Rear- Admiral Dumanoir, who, with the 74-gun ships 
Formidable, Scipion, Mont Blanc, and Duguay Trouin, had 
escaped from Trafalgar on the same night, steered away to 
the south-west, but afterwards hauled to the northward, in- 
tending to enter Basque Roads. On the 2nd of November y 
being off Cape Finisterre, the squadron discovered, and at 
noon chased, the British 3G-gun frigate Phoenix, Captain 
Thomas Baker. The frigate bore up, steering for Ferrol, in 
the hope of falling in with a British squadron. At 3h. p.m. 
the Phoenix got sight of four sail bearing south, and at 
3h. 15m. the four pursuing ships hauled to the wind on the 
starboard tack ; upon which the Phoenix altered her course 
to south by west, the better to keep sight of her pursuers. 
Dumanoir soon afterwards wore to the eastward, and the 
Phcenix, making signals to the ships to leeward and firing 
guns, also wore and stood to the south-east. At about the 
same time that the Phoenix discovered Dumanoir's ships, the 
Dryad and Boadicea, Captains Adam Drummond and John 
Maitland, also got sight of them, bearing east ; and at 8h. 45m. 
these frigates were seen by the Phoenix. About 9h. 30m. 
the squadron to the southward, which was that of Sir 
Richard Strachan, consisting of the — 



150 ACTION OFF FERROL. [1805. 

Guns. Ships. 

80 Csesar. Captain Sir Richard J. Strachan 

/ Hero „ Hon. Alan Hyde Gardner 

7 , \ Namur „ Lawrence W. Halsted 

7 1 Courageux „ Richard Lee 

( Bellona „ Charles Dudley Pater 

Frigates. 

36 Santa Margarita . . „ Wilson Rathbone 

32 iEolus ............ „ Lord William Fitzroy 

was seen by the Dryad and Boadicea ; but being in doubt 
as to whether the strangers were friends or foes (their signals 
being unanswered), they tacked to the north-east, and were 
soon out of sight of both squadrons. At llh. p.m. the 
Phoenix, more satisfied as to the identity of the British 
ships, passed under the stem of the Csesar, then standing to 
the northward (wind west-north-west), and after receiving 
a shot and being hailed, Captain Baker informed Sir Richard 
of the enemy's position on the larboard bow. The British 
ships being much scattered, the Phoenix was ordered to 
speak the different ships, and make their captains aware of 
the presence of the French squadron. The Csesar then made 
all sail in chase of the enemy, bearing east-north-east, which 
a glimpse of moonlight enabled the British admiral to dis- 
cover. 

On the 3rd, in the morning, the 38-gun frigate Bevolu- 
tionnaire, Captain the Hon. Henry Hotham, joined in the 
pursuit, which continued throughout the day and night, with 
varied success. The action, however, did not take place till 
the 4th, when, at about fifteen minutes past noon, the Caesar 
opened her larboard guns on the Formidable. At this time 
the four French ships were formed in line ahead on the 
starboard tack, in the following order : — Duguay Trouin, 
Formidable, Mont Blanc, and Scipion, under topsails and 
top-gallant sails, with courses clewed up, the wind being at 
south-west, and about one point abaft the beam ; the British 
ships Caesar, Hero, and Courageux were on their weather 
quarter, and the Namur about ten miles astern. 

In a minute or two after the Caesar commenced firing, the 
Hero and Courageux, in quick succession, discharged their 
broadsides at the Scipkm and Mont Blanc. The fire was 
instantly returned by the three French ships, and a spirited 
action ensued. At 12h. 50m. the Caesar made the signal for 
close action, and five minutes afterwards the Duguay Trouin, 



1805.] ACTION OFF FERROL. 151 

in luffing up to rake the Caesar ahead, unintentionally came 
round on the larboard tack ; and the British ship, having 
hauled up to prevent the enemy crossing the Caesar's bows, 
the Duguay Trouin passed to leeward, within musket-shot of 
the Caesar and Hero, from each of which ships she received, 
a smart fire. Dumanoir soon afterwards tacked to support 
his second ahead, and his two followers also hove about. The 
Formidable, however, was so slow in stays that she did not 
regain her station astern of the Duguay Trouin, and became 
the third instead of the second ship. About lh. 20m. p.m., 
the Caesar wore after the enemy, and the Hero and Courageux 
tacked. 

At lh. 40m. the Caesar made the Namur's signal to engage 
the enemy's van, which had neared that ship, and at the 
same time the Hero was ordered to lead on the larboard 
tack. The Hero, followed at some distance by the Courageux, 
and at a much greater distance by the Caesar, accordingly 
edged away towards the French squadron. The Namur was 
still to windward, endeavouring, under all sail, to get into 
the action ; but, being a very dull-sailing ship, her progress 
was excessively slow. 

At about 2h. the Hero fired her starboard guns at the 
Scipion, which ship having lost her main-topmast, fell to 
leeward, and became engaged with the Courageux, Phoenix, 
and Revolutionnaire. The Hero, making sail, then gained 
a position on the weather bow of the Formidable. At 
2h. 45m., the Namur having arrived up with the Formidable, 
the Hero gallantly made sail after the Mont Blanc, which 
ship, as well as the Duguay Trouin, had been occasionally 
raking the Hero while engaging the Formidable. At 3h. 5m., 
the Caesar having in the mean time repaired her damages, was 
in the act of re-opening her fire on the Formidable, when 
that ship having lost her mizen-topmast, and her mainmast 
and fore-topmast being in a tottering state, hauled down her 
colours. She was taken possession of by a boat from the 
Namur. The latter, having her main- yard cut in two by her 
opponent's fire, was unable to make sail. At 3h. 10m. the 
Duguay Trouin and Mont Blanc bore up and endeavoured to 
form a line ahead of the Scipion ; but this latter ship, having 
by the united fire of the Courageux and frigates, lost her 
main and mizen masts and fore-topmast, just at this time 



152 KILLED AND WOUNDED. [1805. 

hauled down her colours. The Scipion was taken possession 
of by the Phcenix and Revolutionnaire. The Duguay Trouin 
and Mont Blanc, observing the fate of their consorts, endea- 
voured to escape, but were overtaken by the Hero and Caesar, 
and, after a close and animated fire of twenty minutes" 
duration, the Duguay Trouin surrendered to the Hero, and 
the Mont Blanc to the Caesar. The battle ceased at 3h. 35m. 

The loss on board the British ships was slight considering 
the closeness of the action. It was as follows : — Caesar, 
four men killed and twenty-five wounded. Hero, Lieutenant 
(marines) Robert Morrison and nine men killed ; and Lieu- 
tenants John Skekel and Cornelius J. Stevens (marines), 
Thomas Titterton (purser), and forty-eight men wounded. 
Courageux, one man killed ; and the first lieutenant, Robert 
Clephan, Thomas Daws, mate, John Gibbs Bird, midshipman, 
John Austin, gunner, and thirteen men wounded. Namur, 
four men killed ; and Lieutenant Thomas Osborne, Captain 
of marines William Clements, Frederick Beasley, midship- 
man, and five men wounded. Santa Margarita, Thomas 
Edwards, boatswain, killed, and one man wounded. The 
Revolutionnaire, two killed and six wounded ; the Phcenix, 
two killed and four wounded ; and the ^Eolus, three men 
wounded: total, twenty- four killed, and 111 wounded. 
The Hero had her fore-topsail-yard shot away, the Caesar 
her main-topgallant-mast, and the Namur her main-yard ; 
and the Caesar and Hero had received considerable injury 
in their masts, sails, and rigging. The loss sustained by the 
French ships was very severe : the Formidable had 200 
killed and wounded, including, among the latter, Rear- 
Ad miral Dumanoir ; the Scipion, about the same number ; 
Mont Blanc, 180 ; Duguay Trouin, 150 ; making together 
upwards of 700 killed and -wounded in the four ships. The 
foremasts of the Formidable and Mont Blanc were the 
only spars remaining. 

In this action the Formidable mounted only sixty-five 
guns ; three having been dismounted in the battle of the 
21st of October, and twelve of her quarter-deck 12-pounders 
having been thrown overboard during the chase of Sir 
Richard Strachan. The Revolutionnaire, Phcenix, and Santa 
Margarita took a very decided part in this contest, and did 
considerable execution while harassing the enemy's rear ;, 



1805.] BOATS OF SERPENT AT TRUX1LLO. 153 

they were also much damaged by shot. Sir Richard 
Strachan carried his four well-earned prizes to Plymouth, 
and they were added to the British navy, in which the 
Formidable became the Brave, the Duguay Trouin the 
Implacable, and the Mont Blanc and Scipion retained the 
same names ; but the Implacable and Scipion were the only 
ships that ever again went to sea. Sir Richard Strachan 
was invested with the order of the Bath ; the officers and 
men received the thanks of Parliament ; gold medals were 
given to the captains ; and the first lieutenants of the line- 
of-battle ships were made commanders. The Patriotic Fund 
ordered swords each of the value of 100 guineas to be pre- 
sented to the seven captains commanding the ships engaged, 
and a vase valued at 300 guineas to Sir Richard Strachan. 
This is also a naval medal action. 

On the 28th of November, the 16-gun ship-sloop Serpent, 
Commander John Waller, while cruising in the Bay of 
Honduras, observed two suspicious vessels. Believing them 
bound to Truxillo, the Serpent proceeded thither, and, on 
the 29th, regained sight of them entering the bay. Captain 
Waller then despatched two boats in charge of Lieutenant 
William Patfull, assisted by Charles Trace, master's mate, 
Samuel Nisbett, midshipman, and the purser, Thomas Scri- 
ven, which, in the face of a heavy fire of great guns and 
musketry, boarded, and without loss carried a Spanish 
guarda-costa schooner, mounting one long 18-pounder and 
six smaller guns, with a crew of forty men. Leaving this 
prize in possession of Mr. Trace, Lieutenant Patfull pursued 
a 4-gun felucca privateer, but the latter escaped by using 
her sweeps. 

On the 24th of December, the 24-pounder> 44-gun frigate 
Egyptienne, under the command of Lieutenant Philip Cosby 
Handheld (in the absence of Captain the Hon. C. E. Fle- 
ming), chased off Rochefort, and in conjunction with the 
38-gun frigate Loire, Captain Frederick Lewis Maitland, 
captured the French 38-gun frigate Libre, Captain Henri 
Descorches. The Egyptienne's loss amounted to one man 
killed and nine wounded, but the Loire had no one hurt. 
The French frigate had twenty men killed and wounded. 



154 BOATS OF WOLF AND MALABAR AT CUBA. [1806. 



1806. 

On the 2nd of January, the 54-gun ship Malabar and 
18-gun corvette Wolf, Captain Robert Hall and Commander 
George C. Mackenzie, cruising off the south end of Cuba, 
discovered two large schooner privateers running into 
Azeraderos, a small harbour, the entrance to which was con- 
cealed by a double reef of rocks. Owing to the skill and 
exertions of the master of the Malabar, Thomas Fotherin- 
ghame, the passage was at length discovered, and the Wolf 
was conducted through an opening in the reefs, and 
anchored within a quarter of a mile of the privateers, which, 
in expectation of an attack, were moored in a very advan- 
tageous position for defence. The Wolf opened fire upon 
the two vessels, and continued it for nearly two hours, when, 
observing that the crews of the vessels were escaping to the 
shore, Captain Mackenzie ordered the boats in-shore to 
bring the vessels out. They proved to be the Regulateur, 
mounting one long brass 18-pounder and four long brass 
G-pounders, with a crew of eighty men, and the Napoleon, 
of five guns and sixty -six men. Four of the crews, who 
were wounded, were made prisoners, the remainder escaped. 
The two vessels w T ere towed beyond the reef, but the Regu- 
lateur sank shortly afterwards, in consequence of her injuries. 
The British loss amounted to two seamen killed and four 
wounded. 

On the 6th of January, the 3G-gun frigate Franchise, 
Captain Charles Dashwood, having anchored about five miles 
distant from the town of Campeachy, despatched her launch, 
barge, and pinnace, containing sixty-four officers and men, 
under the command of Lieutenant John Fleming, assisted 
by Lieutenant Peter John Douglas, Lieutenant of marines 
H. B. Mends, and Midshipmen Cuthbert F. Daly, John 
Lamb, C. W. Chalmers, and William Hamilton, in search of 
enemy's vessels. The boats did not arrive where the vessels 
lay until 4h. a.m. on the 7th, which was long after the moon 
had risen; consequently their approach had been observed, 



1806.] CUTTING OUT THE RAPOSA. 155 

and every preparation for defence adopted. As the boats 
pulled in, they became exposed to the fire of two Spanish 
brigs of war, a schooner, and seven gun-boats. Lieutenant 
Fleming, being well supported, dashed on and boarded the 
i nearest brig, and, after a spirited resistance of ten minutes, 
carried her. The prize was the Spanish brig Raposa, 
mounting twelve guns, with swivels and cohorns, having on 
board seventy-five men. Only seven of the British were 
wounded. The Raposa had four men killed and twenty-six 
wounded. The guns of the Raposa having been turned 
upon the Spanish flotilla, they retired in-shore, leaving the 
British in quiet possession of the prize. Lieutenant Douglas 
was promoted ; but Lieutenant Fleming, who so gallantly 
conducted this enterprize, was not made a commander until 
November, 1814, just three years after Commander Douglas 
had attained post rank. The Patriotic Fund Committee 
voted swords to the three lieutenants above named, and to 
Mr. Lamb, for the gallantry they displayed. Those not so 
noticed were probably not mentioned prominently in the 
Gazette ; which accounts for the omission. 

In the month of December, 1805, two squadrons, together 
comprising eleven sail of the line and four frigates, sailed 
from Brest. They separated into two squadrons ; the com- 
mand of one being vested in Rear-Admiral Willaumez, who 
proceeded to the Cape of Good Hope : the other consisted 
of— 



Guns. Ships 

120 



Imperial \ Vice- Admiral C. U Leisseigues 

P "' \ Captain Julian G. Bigot 

80 Alexandre ... ... „ P. E. Garreau 

i Brave Commodore L. M. Conde 

74 < Diomede ......... Captain J. B. Henry 

( Jupiter. . ... ... . . „ G. Laignel 

Frigates — Cornete and Felicite. Corvette — Diligente 

Intelligence of the sailing of these squadrons having 
reached Vice-Admiral Sir John Duckworth, who with a 
squadron was blockading Cadiz, he departed in pursuit, and 
on the 25th and 26th of December unsuccessfully chased 
that of M. Willaumez, off the Cape de Yerds ; he then 
proceeded to Barbadoes, and being there joined by Rear- 
Admiral the Hon. Alexander Inglis Cochrane, in the North- 



74 



80 



156 ACTION OFF SAN DOMINGO. [1806. 

uniberland, and the Atlas, Captain Samuel Pym, his squa- 
dron consisted of the under-mentioned : — 

Guns. Ships. 

![ Vice-Ad. Sir John Thomas Duckworth, 
Superb •] K.B. (white) 
( Captain Richard Goodwin Keats 
Rear- Ad. Hon. Alexander Inglis Cochrane 
(white) 
Captain John Morrison 
n \ Rear- Ad. Thos. Louis (white) 

° ano P us | Captain Francis William Austin 

( Spencer „ Hon. Robert Stopford 

74 < Donegal ,, Pulteney Malcolm 

( Atlas „ Samuel Pym 

64 Agamemnon .... „ Sir Edward Berry 
Frigate Acasta „ Richard D. Dunn 

The 18-gun brig Kingfisher, Commander Nathaniel Daj 
Cochrane, joined at Barbadoes, on the 3rd of February, wit! 
intelligence that a French squadron had been seen steeling 
for San Domingo, and the whole immediately weighed it 
quest of the enemy. The brig Epervier, Lieutenant Thomas 
Higginson, joined the same day. On the 5th, being off the 
east end of San Domingo, the 32-gun frigate Magicienne 
Captain Adam Mackenzie, joined conijmny with news that 
a French squadron was at anchor off the town of Sail 
Domingo. At daybreak on the 6th of February, the 
British squadron gained a sight of the enemy. At 7h. 30m. 
A.M., observing the force approaching, the French slipped 
their cables and made sail to the westward, towards Cape 
Nisao, with a light air of wind from the northward, and 
formed a line of battle thus : — Alexandre, Imperial, Diomede. 
Jupiter, and Brave, with the Felicite and Cornete frigates, 
and Diligente corvette inshore. The British ships, being 
more off the land, steered a course to cross the leading 
French ship, and thereby also maintained a steadier breeze. 

At 8h. a.m., the ships of the British squadron were in two 
imperfectly-formed lines ; the weather one consisted of the 
Superb, Northumberland, Spencer, and Agamemnon, and the • 
lee line of the Canopus (nearly abeam of the Spencer), Donegal, 
and Atlas (the latter far astern). The Acasta and Magicienne* 
frigates, Kingfisher and Epervier sloops, were to windward of 
the line-of-battle ships. Soon after Sh., the distance increased 
between the different British ships by the inequality in their i 



1806.] ACTION OFF SAX DOMINGO. 157 

sailing, and the Superb, Northumberland, and Spencer, in 
close order, and, having a fine breeze, were gaining fast on 
the enemy ; while the Agamemnon had fallen considerably 
I astern. At Oh. 50m. the enemy's ships hoisted their colours, 
and, owing to the wind drawing more aft, and freshening 
i considerably, were now steering with it on their starboard 
quarter. At lOh. 10m., the Superb, having taken in her 
! studding-sails, opened a fire from her starboard guns, being 
on the larboard quarter of the Alexandre ; and, in a few 
. minutes, the Northumberland also coming up, engaged the 
Imperial. In another five minutes the Spencer, being close 
on the Northumberland's weather quarter, joined in the 
' cannonade, making the Diomede her more immediate oppo- 
nent, the ships now running nearly before the wind, at the 
; rate of about seven knots. 

After the third broadside, the Alexandre suddenly hauled 
to the wind on the larboard tack, and succeeded in liming 
across the bows of the Superb, leaving the Imperial in close 
action with the Superb and Northumberland. At lOh. 25m., 
the Alexandre, being now to the southward, gallantly 
.attempted to pass between the Northumberland and Spencer, 
:and rejoin the Imperial and her consorts, from whom she 
was separated; but the Spencer pouring in a raking fire, 
the Alexandre wore, and the Spencer, hauling up on her 
.starboard beam, brought her to close action. This change 
of position, owing to the smoke, was not immediately per- 
ceived by the Superb and Northumberland, and the Spencer, 
pn consequence, received several shot from their larboard 
jguns. 

The Spencer and Alexandre meanwhile continued closely 
engaged, with their heads to the southward, while the 
remaining ships of both squadrons were standing to the 
westward. The position of the two squadrons at this period, 
after much close examination of the logs of the Superb, 
Northumberland, and Spencer, we are enabled to illustrate 
by a diagram. 



158 ACTION OFF SAN DOMINGO. [1806. 









^W, ALEXANDRE 






SUPERS $ 


^ 


^ fricates 
&, biow: ^ 








NORTH, 0. 


'^ JUPITER 






••' # 


s.=zxc:r 








^u 




^r BRAVE 


CANOPUS rfi; 




V 


iz 




DONE.CAL ;£fc 


* 


vv 






ACASTA ' i 


IOh25m.AM. 




k 


MAG. 






ATLAS 


k 


4 


ACAMEMNON 





The Northumberland having succeeded in shooting ahead, 
gallantly pushed between the Superb and the Imperial, and 
for a long time received from the latter a tremendous fire. At 
about lOh. 35m. the Canopus, leading the lee column, crossed 
the bows of the Alexandre and Spencer, and firing a broad- 
side into the French ship, brought down her already totter- 
ing masts. The Donegal also fired into the Alexandre in 
passing, as did the Atlas. All this time the Spencer con- 
tinued warmly engaged ; but at llh., the Alexandre's fire 
having been silenced, and the ship being wholly defenceless, 
surrendered. Without waiting to take possession of a beaten 
enemy, the Spencer wore and made sail after the remaining 
combatants. The Canopus, after filing her broadside at the 
Alexandre, steered for the Imperial and Dioinede, and the 
Donegal and Atlas stood towards the Jupiter and Brave. 

The Donegal, at about lOh. 45m., fired her starboard 
broadside into the Brave, then huffing round under her stern, 
she ranged up on the French ship's starboard side, and 
brought her to close action. After about half an hour's 
animated cannonading, the Brave surrendered. The Atlas, 



1806.] ACTION OFF SAN DOMINGO. 159 

soon after the Donegal commenced firing upon the Brave 
brought the Jupiter to action ; but, in obedience to the 
signal of the admiral to attack the van of the enemy, made 
sail after the Canopus. Captain Malcolm, therefore, observ- 
ing the Jupiter without an opponent, quitted his prize, and 
proceeded to attack that ship. After bestowing upon her 
a few broadsides, and perceiving the imperfect resistance 
offered, the gallant captain determined to board ; and order- 
ing the Donegal's helm to be put a-starboard, she was quickly 
athwart the bows of the Jupiter, the bowsprit of the latter 
passing over the Donegal's larboard quarter, in which position 
it was secured by a hawser. The remaining officers and 
crew of the Jupiter, finding further resistance of no avail, 
surrendered, without much opposition, to a party of men 
headed by a lieutenant and two midshipmen, who boarded 
her. The Acasta, by the direction of Captain Malcolm, 
shortly afterwards took possession of the Brave. 1 

The Atlas, at about llh., closed the Imperial, sfcUl engaged 
by the Northumberland, and after firing two broadsides into 
the three-decker, endeavoured to bear up under her stern to 
rake her j but at this moment the tiller of the Atlas becom- 
ing jammed by a shot which she received from the Diomede 
into her starboard quarter, she fell on board the Canopus, 
but without doing any material damage to that ship, earned 
away her own bowsprit. Throwing all aback, the Atlas 
dropped clear of the Canopus, and became closely eno-ao- e d 
with the Diomede for about ten minutes, when the Spencer 
came up and joined in the action. 

The Imperial had hitherto principally been engaged by the 
Northumberland, but assisted by the Superb, Canopus, and 
Atlas; and at llh. 30m., having lost her main and mizen- 
topmasts by their united fire, hauled towards the land, then 
about a mile distant on her starboard bow. The North- 
umberland was by this time so crippled as to be unable to 
pursue, and Sir John Duckworth, deeming it unsafe for the 
Superb to stand in-shore, hauled off to the southward. The 
Canopus, however, followed, and continued to fire at the 
three-decker until llh. 40m., when the latter took the ground 
with such violence that her three masts went over the side. 

1 When boarded by the Acasta's first lieutenant, only one of the 
French officers (the second captain) was found to be sober. 



1G0 KILLED AND WOUNDED. [1806. 

Shortly afterwards she fired a gun to leeward, in token of 
surrender. The mainmast of the Northumberland at about 
the same time fell forward, crashing the boats, and doing 
great damage. The Spencer, after quitting the Alexandre, 
crossed the bows of the Diomede, which latter shortly after- 
wards, following the example of the Imperial, ran on shore, 
and at the same moment her three masts went over the side ; 
but she continued to fire occasionally at the Canopus and 
Atlas. The Agamemnon, having been so far astern, found 
little or nothing to do when she arrived up. This ship, how- 
ever, received some shot from the Imperial and Diomede. 

Thus, in less than two hours, the five line-of-battle ships 
were either captured or driven on shore, the frigates only 
escaping. The Imperial was the largest and finest ship in 
the world, measured 3,000 tons, and mounted 130 guns, 36, 
24:, and 18-pounders, and 36-pounder carronades, and had 
seventeen guns of a side on the lower, middle, and main 
decks. Her crew amounted to not less than 1,200 men, of 
which number the French accounts state her loss to have 
been 500 in killed and wounded. The other captured ships 
suffered in proportion, so that their united loss in killed and 
wounded must have been very little short of 1,500 men. 
The British loss was as follows : — Superb : six men killed ; 
and Lieutenant Charles Patriarche, William Pickering, master, 
Charles Wallington, Thomas Jackson, Joseph Bullen, and 
James Willcox, midshipmen, and fifty men, wounded. North- 
umberland : David Ridgway, midshipman, and twenty men, 
killed ; and Lieutenant George F. Seymour, William Millard, 
C. W. Selwyn, Jeremiah Lawrence (all four severely), Henry 
Stokes, Charles Comer, and Philip Peacock, midshipmen, and 
seventy-two petty officers, seamen, and marines, wounded. 
Canopus : eight officers and men killed, and twenty-two 
wounded. Spencer : Martin Oates, boatswain, fourteen sea- 
men, and three marines, killed ; and Captain Hon. R. Stop- 
ford, Lieutenant James Harris, Lieutenant (marines) James 
Cuthbertson, William Neame, midshipman, forty seamen, 
and six marines, wounded. Donegal : C. H. Kynaston, mid- 
shipman, seven seamen, and four marines, killed ; and John 
Airey, master, William Rudall, H. Ogilvie, and Edward 
Acton, midshipmen, twelve seamen and marines badly, and 
seventeen slightly, wounded. Atlas : eight men killed, and 



1806.J CAPTURE OF ALCIDE. 



161 



William Mowbray master, Stephen Spargo, boatswain, and 
nine men, wounded. Agamemnon : one killed, and thirC 
including Lieutenant William Coote, wounded Total ' 
seventy-four killed, and 264: wounded 

The Northumberland was the only British ship that lost a 
mast. The Donegal lost her fore-yard, and the Atlas her 
bowsprit. The masts and rigging of most of the ships were 
much damaged and the hulls of some- especially 1 of the 
Northumberland-in a shattered state. The Alexandre was 
with difficulty kept afloat. The Imperial and Diomede were 
lying broadside on to the surf- the latter about 200 yards 

otXlth le tl f n f~Tt b0t}l b ^ ed and total w^cka 
On the 8th the Acasta and Magicienne, after taking out the 

captain and about 100 men, which were all that remained on 
board the Diomede, set both French ships on fire. The crew of 
the Imperial, and the greater part of the Diomede's, reached the 
shore and escaped As soon as the two most disabled of the 
three prize* ; could be refitted, Sir John Duckworth proceeded 
with them to Jamaica, from whence the least disabled of the 
French ships, with the Northumberland and the Agamemnon 
sailed for Barbadoes. ' 

Rear-Admiral the Hon. A. I. Cochrane was invested with 
the order of the Bath, and Rear-Admiral Louis created a 
baronet Commander Cochrane, the bearer of the despatches 
was posted, and Lieutenant John Morrison, first of the 
feuperb, was also made a post captain ; but what other pro- 
motions were officially made we are unable to state The 
thanks of both houses of Parliament were voted on the occa- 
sion, and the naval medal has recently been granted for it. 

On the 8th of March the boats of the 44-sun frigate 
Egyptienne, Captain the Hon. Charles Paget, were despatched 
under Commander Philip C. Handfield (who, not having 
received an official notice of his promotion, still acted as first 
heutenant oi the frigate), assisted by Lieutenant Richard 
Israel Alleyn and Lieutenant of marines Edward H Garth- 
waite, to endeavour to cut out a large privateer in Muros 
Harbour. The enterprise was gallantly conducted, and the 
Bordeaux privateer Alcide, pierced for thirty-four guns, and 
moored close to the beach (which was lined by a bodv of 
troops), was towed out to sea. 
On the 13th of- March, at 3h. a.m., in lat. 26° N. lorn? 

VOL. II. M ' °* 



162 CAPTURE OF MARENGO AND BELLE POULE. [1806. 

29° 30' W., a squadron, consisting of the 98-gun ship London, 
Captain Sir Harry Neale ; 80-gun ship Foudroyant, Captain 
John C. "White ; and 38-gnn frigate Amazon, Captain 
William Parker, under Vice- Admiral Sir John B. Warren 
(whose flag was in the Foudroyant), came in sight of two 
large sail on the lee-beam. The London, being at some dis- 
tance to leeward, and astem, was the first to discover the 
strangers, and immediately wore and bore up in chase, making 
signals to the admiral with false fires and blue lights. At 
5h. 30m. the London got alongside the stranger, which was 
the French 74-gun ship Marengo, bearing the flag of Rear- 
Adiniral Linois, and commenced a close and vigorous can- 
nonade. At 6h. the Marengo made sail ahead, and at 
<3h. 15m. her consort, the 40-gun frigate Belle Poule, gallantly 
joined in engaging the British ship. The Amazon, at 7h., 
arrived up, and took the attention of the Belle Poule, leaving 
the London to continue her chase and running fight with the 
Marengo. The action lasted till lOh. 25m., when the two 
French ships surrendered. 

The loss on board the London amounted to William 
Rooke, midshipman, and nine seamen and marines, killed ; 
and Lieutenant William Faddy (dangerously), Thomas W. 
Watson, midshipman, and twenty men, wounded. The 
Amazon had her first lieutenant, Richard Seymour, Lieu- 
tenant (marines) Edward Prior, and two men, killed ; and 
Thomas Hoskins, master, and five men, wounded. The 
Marengo had sixty-three men killed, and eighty-two 
wounded ; among the latter, Admiral Linois, and his son, 
severely ; and Captain Yrignaud, with the loss of his right 
arm. The Belle Poule had six men killed and thirty-four 
wounded. The naval medal is granted to the London and 
Amazon for the capture of these two ships. 

On the 21st of March, the hired armed 16-gun brig Col- 
poys, with a crew of twenty-one men and boys, commanded 
by Lieutenant Thomas Ussher, chased into the harbour of 
A villas, on the coast of Spain, three Spanish luggers, which 
took shelter under a 6-gun battery. The Colpoys followed ; 
but having got within range of the battery it fell calm. 
Lieutenant Ussher then manned two boats, taking the com- 
mand himself, with which he proceeded to the attack of the 
luggers. Lieutenant Ussher's boat out-pulled the other,. 



1806.] CAPTURE OF PHAETON AND VOLTIGEUR. 163 

and, without waiting for her to close, he boarded and carried 
the three vessels in succession; the crews, with the exception 
of thirteen men, quitting the vessels on his approach. The 
second boat then came up and assisted in towing off the 
prizes. Two of the luggers mounted two guns each. In 
performing this dashing exploit only two men were wounded. 
Lieutenant XJssher was promoted in the month of October 
following, and his gallantry was further noticed by a present 
of a sword, value fifty guineas, by the Patriotic Fund. 

On the 24th of March, at lh. p.m., Cape Roxo, Porto 
Eico, bearing north, distant about forty miles, the 18-gun 
sloop Reindeer, Commander John Fyffe, discovered two brigs 
to windward. The strangers were the French national 
16-gun brigs Phaeton and Voltigeur, Lieutenants Saulce and 
Cricq. The Voltigeur steered for the bow of the Reindeer, 
and at 2h. p.m., hoisted her colours, and, in passing to leeward, 
fired her broadside ; while the Phaeton, bearing a com- 
modore's pendant, continued her course on a wind. Captain 
Fyffe, deeming the latter the most eligible opponent, tacked, 
and crossing the Phaeton, opened fire, which was returned 
by the French brig. The Reindeer and two brigs continued 
tacking and exchanging broadsides until dark, when 4 the 
British vessel, having her sails and rigging much damaged, 
was unable to tack for nearly a quarter of an hour. In the 
mean time the French brigs made off, and at 7h. p.m. had dis- 
appeared. The Reindeer sustained no loss in this encounter. 

On the 26th of March, the 36-gun frigate Pique, Captain 
Charles B. H. Ross, while crossing from St. Domingo to 
Curacoa, chased the two brigs above mentioned, and at lh. p.m. 
opened fire upon them. At 2h., by her superior sailing, the 
Pique brought the brigs to close action, and after the firing 
had continued twenty minutes, the Phaeton, having had her 
gaff-halyards shot away, fell on board the Pique. In an 
instant, Lieutenants William Ward and Philip H. Baker, 
John Thompson, master, and Lieutenant of marines Henry 
Craig, together with twenty-five seamen and marines, sprang 
on the deck of the brig, and the Pique, sheering off from the 
Phaeton, made sail after the Voltigeur. But no sooner had 
the boarders stepped on the Phaeton's deck than a large body 
of men rushed from under the fore and aft mainsail, and 
opened a verv destructive fire, killing the master and eight 
m2 



164 CAPTURE OF NEAKQUE. [1806. 

seamen ; and wounding Lieutenants Ward, Baker, and Craig, 
and eleven seamen and marines. The Pique, observing the 
straggle, threw all aback, and sent assistance to the board ers, 
which, in a few minutes, compelled the French crew to cry 
for quarter. Having again made sail, the Pique overtook, 
and captured the Voltigeur, without further resistance. On 
board the Pique only one man was wounded. The Phaeton 
aud Voltigeur were added to the British navy, under the 
names of Mignonne and Musette. The above is a naval 
medal action. 

A few days previous to the capture of the brigs, Lieutenant 
Ward, in the Pique's gig, and John Eveleigh, midshipman, in 
the yawl, gallantly boarded, and, after a smart resistance, but 
without loss, succeeded in capturing, off Ocoe Bay, San 
Domingo, the Spanish schooner Clara, of one long 9-pounder 
and twenty-eight men. 

On the 28th of March, the French 18-gun corvette 
Nearque was captured, after a long chase, off the Glenans, 
by the 38-gun frigate Niobe, Captain John W. Loring. That 
which renders this capture chiefly meritorious, consists in the 
service having been performed in the presence of a squadron 
of superior force ; and great praise is due to Captain Loring 
for the skilful manner in which the vessel was boarded. 
Lieutenant Barrington Reynolds commanded the boarding 
party. 

On the 3rd of April, the 3 6 -gun frigate Renommee, Cap- 
tain Sir Thomas Livingstone, and 18-gun brig Nautilus, 
Commander Edmund Palmer, were driven from before 
Carthagena, by a Spanish squadron, consisting of two ships 
of the line and a frigate, while a brig, having under her 
protection a convoy of coasters, with a fresh easterly breeze, 
ran down along shore to the westward. The Ptenommee 
having, in the evening, distanced the Spanish squadron, 
Captain Livingstone, after despatching the Nautilus to Lord 
Collingwood, made sail towards Cape de Gata, in the hope of 
ciitting off the Spanish brig, and on the 4th, at 2h. a.m., the 
latter was discovered at anchor under the Fort Callartes. 
The frigate was delayed by baffling winds in her approach to 
the shore ; but on arriving up, the frigate's fire soon silenced 
the brig, and cut asunder the hawser by which she was 
warping herself on shore, after which her colours were 



1806.] BOARDING THE TAPAGEUSE. 165 

hauled down. The prize proved to be the Spanish 18-gun 
brig of war Vigilante, having a crew of 109 men, and at 
3h. 30m. a.m. of the 4th, she was brought off. The Re- 
nommee sustained very little damage, and had only two men 
wounded. The Vigilante had one man killed and three 
woimded, and her mainmast fell soon after her surrender. 
She was added to the British navy, under the name of 
Spider. 

On the oth of April, a little after dark, the boats of the 
32-gun frigate Pallas, Captain Lord Cochrane (which ship 
was anchored near the Cordouan shoal), under the orders of 
Lieutenant John Haswell, assisted by James Sutherland, 
master, and Midshipmen Edward Perkyns, John Campbell 
Crawford, and W. A. Thompson, proceeded to the attack of 
two corvettes, lying twenty miles above the shoals, and pro- 
tected by two heavy batteries. At 3L a.m. on the 6th, the 
British party boarded, and carried the brig Tapageuse (of 
fourteen long 8-pounders and ninety-five men), in spite of a 
determined resistance. The strength of the tide prevented 
the boats from ascending the river after the other brig, but 
at daybreak the Tapageuse was under sail. The alarm was 
immediately given, and the consort of the captured brig 
followed and engaged her ; but after an hour's firing, was 
compelled to sheer off. Three seamen belonging to the 
British boats were wounded, one with the loss of both arms, 
On the same morning, while the Pallas was waiting the 
return of her boats, two armed ships and a brig were observed 
coming down towards her, upon which she immediately 
weighed, and chased and drove all three vessels on shore. 
These were the 20-gun corvettes Garonne and Gloire, and 
the 16-gun brig Malicieuse. The masts of all three vessels 
shortly afterwards went by the board, and their hulls were 
covered with the spray. The Patriotic Fund presented 
swords, valued at fifty and thirty guineas, to the above- 
named officers in reward for their gallantry. 

On the 17th of April, at 2h. p.m., the 36-gun frigate 
Sirius, Captain "William Prowse, while on a cruise six or 
seven leagues to the westward of Civita Vecchia, gained 
intelligence of a French flotilla which was to sail that morn- 
ing for Naples. The Sirius proceeded in that direction, and 
at 4h. 15m. p.m. discovered the corvette Bergere, of eighteen 



166 CUTTING OUT THE GIGANTA. [1806. 

long 12-pounders, and one 36-pounder brass carronade, with 
139 men, Commodore Duclos ; 20-gun brig Abeille ; 12-gun | 
brigs Legere and Janus ; bombard Victoire, of twelve long 
18-pounders, and two heavy mortars ; cutter Gauloise, and 
gun-ketches Jalouse, Gentille, and Provencale, each having 
four long 4-pounders, and one 36-pounder brass carronade, 
making in all ninety-seven guns. The Sirius closed with the 
flotilla soon after sunset, the vessels of which were formed in 
compact order, within two leagues of the mouth of the Tiber, 
and lying to near a dangerous shoal, awaiting the attack. 
At 7h. p.m. the Sirius, having arrived within pistol-shot, 
opened her fire, and continued closely engaged for two hours ; 
at the end of which time, the Bergere hailed to say that she 
had surrendered. Although several of the remaining vessels 
were silenced, the Sirius was so much cut up, as to be unable 
to pursue them. Her loss amounted to William Adair, 
master's mate, five seamen, and three marines, killed ; and 
Acting Master James Brett, and John Bobinson and Mey- 
ricke Lloyd, midshipmen, twelve seamen, and five marines, 
wounded. A vase, value 100 guineas, was presented by the 
Patriotic Fund to Captain Prowse. The naval medal is 
granted for this action. 

On the night of the 3rd of May, the boats of the 36-gun 
frigate Benommee, Captain Sir Thomas Livingstone, were 
despatched, when off Cape Palos, under the command of 
Lieutenants Sir William Parker, Charles Adams, and Alex- 
ander Nesbitt, Lieutenant of marines Henry John Murton, 
and Timothy Murray, boatswain, as well as several midship- 
men (not named), to cut out the Spanish schooner Giganta, 
lying in the port of Vieja. At about lh. a.m. of the 4th, 
the boats reached the schooner, and although the latter was 
fully prepared for defence, with her boarding nettings triced 
up, chain moored within pistol-shot of the batteries, and 
further covered by 100 men drawn up on the beach, she was 
carried in gallant style. One midshipman, Charles Forbes, 
and three men were badly wounded, and three slightly ; and 
the Giganta had nine men wounded. The prize, which was 
brought off, mounted two long 24-pounders forward, three 
long 4-pounders, and four swivels. She had a crew of twenty- 
eight men, and was commanded by a captain of the Spanish 



1806.] PALLAS AND MINERVA. 167 

navy. The Patriotic Fund voted swords to the above-named 
officers. 

On the 12th of May, the Indefatigable and Pallas, Cap- 
tains John T. Rodd and Lord Cochrane, with the 18- gun 
brig Kingfisher, Commander George F. Seymoiu-, watching 
the French squadron, in the roads of Aix, being perceived 
by the French admiral, two frigates and three brigs were 
ordered to get underweigh and stand out to attack them. 
At 2h. p.m. the British frigates were fired at by the light- 
house battery on the island of Aix, but at 3h., being close 
under the batteries, tacked and stood out to sea, hoping by 
these means to draw the enemy off the land. This, however, 
not succeeding, the Pallas (the adventurous disposition of 
whose captain has already been repeatedly noticed) proceeded 
in-shore, on the 14th, alone; and at lOh. 30m. a.m., having 
arrived within two miles of the battery of Aix, shortened 
sail to the topsails, braving the heavy frigates in the roads. 
This had the desired effect, as shortly afterwards the 40-gun 
frigate Minerva and three brigs were observed coming out, 
with studding-sails and royals set. The Pallas gallantly 
awaited the approach of her enemies, and the Minerva and 
her consorts having arrived within point-blank range, she 
opened an admirably-directed fire upon them. The main- 
topsail yard of one of the brigs came down, and the Minerva 
sustained much damage to her sails and rigging. The British 
frigate having received in return a fire from the frigates, and 
also from the batteries, hauled on board her fore and main 
tacks, and endeavoured to cross the bows of the Minerva, 
and get to windward of her, and this, after much excellent 
seamanship and good pilotage amongst the various dangerous 
shoals, was at lh. p.m. accomplished, and the Pallas then 
opened upon her principal adversary a close cannonade from 
to windward. After engaging a short time, the Minerva's 
fire began to slacken, and Lord Cochrane, with a view of 
preventing the frigate's retreat, gallantly determined on 
boarding. The helm of the Pallas was accordingly put 
a-weather, and she ran the Minerva on board. So violent 
was the collision that it brought down the fore-topmast of 
the Pallas, carried away the jib-boom, spritsail-yard, bumpkin, 
cat-head, fore and main-topsail yards, chain plates of the fore 



168 WARREN HASTINGS AND PIEMONTAISE. [1806. 

rigging, and the bower anchor was torn from her bows. The 
two ships then separated before an opportunity of gaining 
the deserted decks of the Minerva was effected ; but the 
capture would in all probability have taken place, had not 
the French admiral, seeing the disabled state of the Minerva, 
despatched two other frigates to her assistance. Under these 
circumstances, the Pallas got her head off shore, and meeting 
the Kingfisher, was taken in tow by her. The loss on board 
the Pallas, out of a crew of 214 men and boys, was one 
marine killed, and Midshipman William Andrews (severely) 
and four seamen wounded. The Minerva, whose crew amounted 
to 330 men and boys, only acknowledged to a loss of seven 
killed and fourteen wounded. The Pallas was a ship of 667 
tons only, mounting twenty-six 12 -pounders on the main 
deck, and twelve 24-pounder carronades on the quarter-deck 
and forecastle ; total, thirty-eight guns. The Minerva was 
a fine frigate of 1,100 tons, and when subsequently captured, 
mounted twenty-eight long 18-pounders on the main deck, 
and four long_8-pounders and twelve carronades, 36-pomiders, 
on the quarter-deck and forecastle ; total, forty-four guns. 

On the 27th of May, the French national 16-gun brig 
Diligente was captured in the West Indies without resist- 
ance, after a chase of forty-eight hours, by the 18-gun cor- 
vette Renard, Commander Jeremiah Coghlan. 

On the 21st of June, at 7h. 30m. a.m., the outward-bound 
H.E.I.C. ship Warren Hastings, in latitude 26° south, was 
chased by the French 40-gun frigate Piemontaise, Captain 
Jacques Epron. The Warren Hastings, at lOh. a.m., hoisted 
colours and made the private signal, but which was not 
noticed by the Piemontaise, although the latter had English 
colours flying. At llh., the British merchant ship shortened 
sail, and cleared for action, and at noon the Piemontaise, 
having taken in her studding-sails, substituted French for 
British colours. At lh. 20m. p.m., the Piemontaise, sailing 
about two feet to one of the Warren Hastings, ran to lee- 
ward, and opened fire upon her larboard quarter within 
musket-shot. The Warren Hastings gallantly returned the 
fire, as soon as her guns would bear. After tiring for about 
twenty minutes, the frigate made sail and passed ahead, but, 
owing to the fresh wind blowing, had done little damage. 
After standing on for some short time, the Piemontaise 



1806.] WARREN" HASTINGS AND PIEMONTAISE. 1G0" 

tacked, and, passing close to leeward of her antagonist, gave 
and received a smart fire, which wonnded the Indiaman's 
foremast, cut away the larboard fore-shrouds, fore-topsaii-tie, 
and much of the running rigging. The ensign also was shot 
away, but was quickly replaced by another at the main-top- 
mast head. The Piemontaise again hove about, and her 
third attack crippled the foremast of the Hastings. Having 
a second time tacked ahead of the Hastings, the Piemontaise 
renewed her fire, which was returned with great spirit by 
her opponent, who, in this fourth attack, had her fore and 
main masts shot through, and some of her guns dismounted. 
While in this disabled state, with only the main-topsail set, 
the Piemontaise made a fifth attack, and by her heavy fire 
shot away the mizenmast of the Hastings, which, falling 
forward, rendered most of the guns on the upper deck 
useless. In this helpless situation, no other course remained 
to the nobly-defended ship than to surrender ; and the 
British colours were accordingly hauled down. Her loss, out 
of a crew of 130 men, amounted to John Edwick, purser, 
and six men, killed ; the first, third, and sixth mates (James 
Cockwell, Edward Davies, and William Hope), James Gre- 
ville, surgeon's mate, and nine seamen, wounded. The Pie- 
montaise had seven men killed and five wounded. A refer- 
ence to the description of the India fleet, under Commodore 
Dance 1 (which holds equally good in the case of the Warren 
Hastings), will show that to resist an 18-pounder frigate 
was rashness. The gallantry was, however, unquestionable ; 
and had the Hastings at the commencement succeeded in 
knocking away a topmast, or crippling a lower mast, she 
might have escaped. 

The dismasted state of the Warren Hastings, and the 
heavy sea running, caused the ship to fall off before the 
wind, and from want of attention on board the Piemontaise, 
she fell on board that ship, with a force which seemed to 
endanger both. A party of Frenchmen, headed by the 
firsrt lieutenant, Charles Moreau, then rushed on the British 
ship's deck, armed more like pirates than national seamen, 
threatening the lives of all on board. Captain Larkins was 
dragged about the decks, and Lieutenant Moreau, accusing 

See page 78, ante. 



170 CUTTING OUT THE CESAR AT VERDON. [1806. 

him of intentionally running foul of the frigate, in order to 
cripple her masts, stabbed him in the right side with a 
poniard, which passed through the right lobe of the liver, 
and occasioned so great a flow of blood, that Captain Larkins 
fainted. Three officers were also stabbed in cold blood by 
Frenchmen ; but it is only justice to Captain Epron, Acting 
Lieutenant Baudin, and some other of the officers, to state 
that they did their utmost to restrain the drunken fury of 
the monster Moreau and his men, and to render Captain 
Larkins and the survivors of his crew every possible atten- 
tion. The Piemontaise, with her prize, arrived at the Isle 
of France on the 4th of July. 

On the 9th of July, the French 34-gun frigate privateer 
Bellone, Captain Jacques Perroud, was captured off Ceylon, 
after a chase and a running fight of near two hours' duration, 
by the 74-gun ship Powerful, Captain Robert Plampin. 
The Bellone, when first seen, was pursuing the 16-gun ship- 
sloop Rattlesnake, Commander John Bastard. The Powerful 
had two men killed and eleven wounded by the fire of the 
privateer, and the Bellone one man killed and six wounded. 
The prize was added to the British navy, as a 28-gun frigate, 
under the same name. 

Commodore Sir Samuel Hood, who commanded a squadron 
of six sail of the line and a frigate off Rochefort, having 
learnt that a convoy, laden with stores for the fleet at 
Brest, was about to sail from Verdon Roads, under the pro- 
tection of two corvettes, determined to give the officers and 
men of the squadron an opportunity of cutting them out. 
A boat from each line-of-battle ship was selected, and sent 
to the 32-gun frigate Iris, which ship immediately proceeded 
off the Gironde, where she joined the 44-gun frigate Inde- 
fatigable, Captain John T. Rodd. The six boats were com- 
manded as follows : — Centaur's, Lieutenant Edward R. Sibly 
(the senior officer) ; Conqueror's, Lieutenant George Fitz- 
maurice ; Prince of Wales's, Lieutenant John Francis ; Re- 
venge's, Lieutenant Charles Manners ; Polyphemus's, not 
named \ and Monarch's, Lieutenant Dalhousie Tait ; Achil- 
les', not named. To these were added three boats from the 
Indefatigable, commanded by Lieutenants Thomas Parker, 
Thomas Arscott, and Ralph Shipperdson, as well as three 
from the Iris, whose officers are not named in the despatch. 



1806.] BLANCHE AND GUERRIERE. ' 171 

On the night of the 15th of July, the twelve boats quitted 
the Indefatigable. A strong head-wind delayed their 
progress, but they succeeded in reaching Yerdon Roads at 
midnight. The first object of attack was the French 16-gun 
brig Cesar, which Lieutenant Sibly gallantly attempted to 
board ; but, while in the act of cutting away the boarding- 
netting, he was wounded by a pike and sabre in the side, 
arm, and face. The brig was, however, boarded, and car- 
ried, after a very gallant defence, her commander, M. Fourre, 
being among the killed. The other brig, the Teazer (late 
British), of 14-guns, slipped her cable, and escaped by run- 
ning up the river. The convoy followed her example, and 
escaped. The Cesar, although exposed for some time to the 
fire of the batteries on both sides of the river, worked out, 
under the direction of Lieutenant Parker, and joined the 
frigates in the offing. The trophy was dearly purchased. 
Lieutenant Charles Manners, Thomas Helpman, master's 
mate, and seven seamen, were killed ; and Lieutenants Sibly, 
Tait (both badly), Parker, and Shipperdson, Thomas Mul- 
lins, master's mate, and thirty-four seamen and marines, 
were wounded, Thomas Blackstone, midshipman, and nine- 
teen seamen and marines of the Revenge, were made 
prisoners, their boat having been struck and disabled by a 
shot. Lieutenant Sibly was promoted. The above is a 
naval medal boat action. 

The frigates Phoebe and Thames, Captains James Oswald 
and Bridges W. Taylor, lying in Leith Roads, were ordered 
to proceed to the Shetland Islands in search of three French 
frigates that had been doing much injury to the Greenland 
fisheries. Captain Thomas Lavie, in the 38-gun frigate 
Blanche, was ordered to take the above-named ships under 
his orders. The Phcebe and Thames proceeded ; but on 
arriving at the appointed rendezvous, ascertained that one 
of the French frigates had parted company when they 
quitted the station. On the 13th of July, the Blanche 
arrived at the rendezvous, and Captain Lavie received infor- 
mation that a French frigate had been seen off the Faro 
Islands, and having proceeded in search, on the 18th, at 
10L 30m. A.M., descried a large ship bearing north-east. 
This was the French 18-pounder 40-gun frigate Guerriere, 
Captain Hubert. At 3h. p.m., discovering that the Blanche 



172 CAPTURE OF PALLAS AND CONSORTS. [1806. 

was not one of her companions, she bore up, and made all 
sail. The Blanche gained rapidly in the pursuit, and, at a 
little past midnight, opened fire upon the Guerriere, into 
which she poured two broadsides before her antagonist 
returned a shot. A close action commenced, which con- 
tinued until lh. 30m. a.m. on the 19th, when the Guerriere, 
having lost her mizen-topmast, hauled down her colours. 
No one was killed on board the Blanche, but Lieutenant 
Robert Bastin and three marines were wounded, by mus- 
ketry. The Guerriere's masts were badly wounded, and her 
hull much shattered ; her loss amounted to twenty men 
killed and tliirty wounded. The two ships were nearly 
equal in point of guns ; but the French crew was very 
sickly, and many men unable to go to their quarters, 
which accounts for the trifling loss sustained by the Blanche. 
The Guerriere was added to the British navy as a 38-gun 
frigate. Captain Lavie received the honour of knighthood. 
The above is a medal action. 

On the 25th of July, in the evening, as the 3 2 -gun frigate 
Greyhound, Captain Edward Elphinstone, and 18-gun brig 
Harrier, Commander Edward Thomas Troubridge, were 
cruising in the Java seas, four sail were seen passing through 
the Straits of Salayer, which were chased until 9h. p.m., 
when the strangers hove-to. Observing that one of the 
strangers was a large two-decked ship, the Greyhound and 
Harrier also hove-to during the night, about two miles to 
windward of the squadron ; and, as the day broke, the 
strangers formed in line of oattle, consisting of the Dutch 
36-gun frigate Pallas, Captain Aalbers ; Dutch Company's 
armed ships Vittoria and Batavia, and 14-gun corvette 
William, and continued lying to on the larboard tack, under 
their topsails. At 5h. A.M., the Greyhound bore up, under 
French colours, steering for the Pallas, and being, at 5h. 30m., 
within hail, the Greyhound shifted her colours, and opened 
her fire from to windward upon the Dutch frigate, which 
the latter quickly returned. The Harrier, having closely 
followed the Greyhound, passed between the Pallas and 
Vittoria, and, wearing round on the starboard tack, became 
engaged with the two merchant ships. The Greyhound, in 
the mean time, having shot ahead, wore close round the bows 
of the Pallas, pouring in a raking broadside, and, keeping up 



1806.] CAPTUKE OF THE RHIN. 173 

a vigorous and destructive fire, compelled her, at about 
6h. 15m., to haul down her colours. The Vittoria and 
Batavia, after sustaining the fire of the Harrier, surrendered, 
the former at 6h. 30m., and the latter at 6h. 40m., and, as 
well as the Pallas, were taken possession of by the British 
ships. The William, seeing the fate of her companions, 
made sail, and effected her escape. The Greyhound, out of 
a crew of 212 men, had one killed and eight wounded ; and 
the Harrier only three men wounded. The Dutch frigate 
mounted forty guns, and, out of her complement of 250 men, 
had eight killed, her captain (mortally) and thirty-two 
wounded. The Vittoria had two killed and six wounded, 
and the Batavia two killed. 

In the month of February, four French frigates — the 
Hortense, Bhin, Hermione, and Themis, together with 
the corvette Furet (captured, on the 27th, by the 38-gun 
frigate Hydra, Captain George Mundy) — sailed from Cadiz 
on a cruise. On the 27th of July, on their return to France, 
being in lat. 47° north, long. 7° west, the squadron was 
discovered, at 6h. A.M., by the 74-gun ship Mars, Captain 
Bobert D. Oliver, the look-out ship of a British squadron of 
five sail of the line, under Commodore Richard G. Keats, in 
the Superb. The Mars, after making known by signal to 
the commodore the object of her pursuit, crowded sail in 
chase, and soon after dark lost sight of both squadrons, with 
the exception of the 64-gun ship Africa, which, until 
llh. p.m., was seen on her lee-quarter. Captain Oliver, 
rightly imagining the enemy would alter the course in the 
night, bore up a few points, and, at daylight on the 28th, 
the four frigates were seen on the weather-bow. The stern- 
most of the four, which was the Bhin, being at some distance 
from her companions, was so rapidly gained on by the Mars, 
that the French commodore hove about, and bore up to her 
support ; after which he formed his ships in line of battle 
ahead on the larboard tack ; but, at 3h. p.m.^ again made all 
sail, and abandoned the Bhin to her fate. The Mars, having 
already run a distance of 150 miles, continued in pursuit, 
and, at 6h. p.m., in the midst of a heavy squall of wind and 
rain, was about to open her broadside on the frigate's lee- 
quarter, when the latter struck her colours. Soon after the 
Bhin was taken possession of, the other three frigates were 



174 PHOSPHORUS AND FRENCH PRIVATEER. [1806. 

seen standing to the south-east, and Captain Oliver would 
have pursued them, but for the proximity of the French 
coast, and the dark, squally weather. The Mars, on the 31st, 
rejoined her squadron with the prize. The Hortense and 
Hermione succeeded in reaching Bordeaux, and the Themis 
entered Rochefort. 

On the 14th of August, at daybreak, the Isle of Wight 
bearing north, eight leagues, the 4-gun fire-brig Phosphorus, 
Lieutenant William J. Hughes, was attacked by a French 
12-gun lugger privateer, of seventy men, which, having laid 
her alongside, attempted to carry her by boarding. Although 
the officers and crew of the brig numbered only twenty-four, 
the French crew were repulsed with much loss, and, after 
engaging with spirit for forty minutes, the lugger sheered off. 
Lieutenant Hughes, Thomas Esther, acting master, and six 
seamen, were wounded. Lieutenant Hughes was promoted 
in the month of September following, and a sword, value 100 
guineas, presented him by the Patriotic Fund. 

On the 22nd of August, the boats of the 32-gun frigate 
Alexandria, Captain Edward D. King, in which were Lieu- 
tenants Joseph Lewis and Edmund Nagle, and Alfred Smith, 
master's mate, boarded and carried a Spanish brig and a 
guarda-costa, moored under the batteries in the harbour of 
Rio de la Plata, on the Spanish Main. As the vessels were 
stripped of their sails and secured to the shore, Lieutenant 
Lewis, after sustaining a most severe fire for ten hours, and 
consequent heavy loss, ordered them to be destroyed, and 
retreated. Mr. Smith, and five seamen and marines, were 
killed ; and Lieutenant Nagle, Samuel Marshall, midship- 
man, the gunner, and eight seamen and marines, wounded. 

On the 23rd of August, in the morning, the frigates 
Arethusa and Anson, Captains Charles Brisbane and Charles 
Lydiard, cruising off the Havannah, discovered to leeward, 
and within two miles of the Moro Castle, the Spanish 3 4-gun 
frigate Pomona, endeavouring to enter the harbour. Find- 
ing this, from the strength of the current, to be impracticable, 
the Pomona bore up and anchored two leagues to the east- 
ward of the Moro, in three and a half fathoms of water, 
and within pistol-shot of the castle, mounting eleven long 
36-pounders. Ten gun-boats, each mounting a long 24- 
pounder, with crews of sixty men, immediately put out from 



1806.] CAPTURE OF THE POMONA. 175 

the Havaimah to the frigate's assistance, and formed ahead 
as best suited for her defence. At lOh. the Anson and 
Arethusa dropped their anchors ; the first abreast of the 
Spanish gun-boats, and the Arethusa on the starboard quar- 
ter of the Anson, within pistol-shot of the Pomona. After 
a warm action, which lasted thirty-five minutes, the Spanish 
frigate struck her colours, and was taken possession of; and 
the gun-boats were all previously, sunk or driven on shore 
by the Anson's fire. The castle continued to fire upon the 
British ships, until an explosion in some part of the battery 
having taken place, the action ceased. The Anson had not 
a man hurt, but the Arethusa had two seamen killed ; and 
Captain Brisbane, Lieutenant Henry Higman, Lieutenant of 
marines John Fennell, and twenty-nine seamen and marines, 
wounded. The Pomona, out of 347 men, had her captain 
and twenty men killed, and thirty men wounded. The prize was 
added to the British navy, under the name of Cuba. Although 
the bulk of her cargo had been landed, enough remained to 
render the Pomona a valuable prize. Lieutenants John 
Parish, of the Arethusa, and Thomas Ball Sulivan, of the 
Anson, were promoted to the rank of commander, the former 
in November, and the latter in February, 1807, by which 
time he had acquired still stronger claims to preferment. 
Swords, each valued at 100 guineas, were voted by the 
Patriotic Fund to Captains Brisbane and Lydiard ; and the 
naval medal has been granted to the surviving participators. 

On the 29th of August, the 20-gun ship Bacchante, Cap- 
tain James R. Dacres, cruising off the Spanish Main, sent 
her boats under Lieutenant George Norton, with the gunner, 
John Howard, Master's Mates Henry Overend and Richard 
Birch, Lieutenant of marines John M. Pilcher, W. Leriche, 
purser, and Robert Burnett, carpenter, to attempt the de- 
struction of some vessels in the harbour of Santa Martha. 
On the 30th, at lh. A.M., the boats dashed at the vessels, 
exposed to a heavy fire from the batteries and some field- 
pieces on the beach ; notwithstanding which, one armed brig- 
and two armed feluccas were brought out without any loss 
to the British. 

Batabano and Trinidad, two ports of Cuba, having become 
the resort of numerous privateers, Vice-Admiral Dacres, 
the commander-in-chief at Jamaica, despatched Commander 



176 BOATS OF STORK AND SQUADRON AT BATABANO. [1806. 

George Le Geyt, in the 18-gun ship-sloop Stork, having 
under his orders the 14-gun schooner Superieure, Commander 
Edward Rushworth, 12-gun schooner Flying Fish, and the 
4-gun schooner Pike, Lieutenants James G. Gooding and 
John Ottley, with orders to attempt the destruction of the 
marauders. On the 25th of August, this squadron sailed 
from Port Royal, and on the 30th arrived off the Isle of 
Pines, in which place a schooner was discovered at anchor. 
This vessel, which was a Spanish guarda-costa, of ten guns, 
was chased and captured by the Pike. 

As it was found impracticable, from the shallowness of the 
water, for the Stork to proceed up the bight towards Bata- 
'bano, then thirty leagues distant, Captain Rushworth was 
instructed to lighten the three schooners as much as possible, 
and proceed with them in the execution of the projected 
service. From the intricacy of the navigation, these vessels 
did not reach within twenty-two miles of Batabano till the 
2nd of September, when they anchored for the night off 
Point Gonda. At midnight they again weighed, in the 
hope of getting into the harbour before dawn, but it was 
broad daylight before this could be effected. Captain Rush- 
worth, taking with him eighteen men lent from the Stork, 
thirty-five from the Superieure, and ten from the Flying 
Fish, then landed two miles to windward of the battery at 
Batabano, and leaving the men belonging to the Flying Fish 
in charge of the boats, proceeded with the remaining fifty- 
three men to attack the battery ; but they were so impeded 
in their progress by the marshy and irregular ground, that a 
party of Spanish troops, lying in ambush, made an attack 
upon them. The Spaniards were, however, speedily routed 
by the advanced division of the British sailors, leaving two 
of their number dead and one wounded. The alarm had by 
this time spread in all directions, and the militia and men 
from the privateers had joined the regulars, when, finding 
his retreat thus cut off, Captain Rushworth pushed forward, 
and stormed and gained the fort. The battery mounted six 
long 18-pounders; and, having spiked these, the British 
party proceeded to take possession of the vessels in the 
harbour. These consisted of one felucca, pierced for fourteen 
guns, but having only one long 18-pounder mounted; a 
12-gun schooner, and one French and three Spanish priva- 



1806.] CAPTURE OF FRENCH FRIGATE SQUADRON. 177 

teers ; besides six with cargoes. Having taken entire 
possession of these, the whole party quitted the port, having 
only one man badly wounded. Captain Rushworth was 
assisted in his gallant undertaking by Lieutenants John 
Russell and James Murray, and Sub-Lieutenants George 
C. Blake and James Brasier. 

On the 14th of September, as the French 74-gun ship 
Impetueux (one of the squadron of Rear- Admiral Willauniez, 
which had been dispersed in the preceding August by a 
hurricane) was endeavouring, under jury-masts, to enter 
the Chesapeake river, on the coast of North America, she 
was discovered by the 74-gun ship Belleisle, Captain Wil- 
liam Hargood, who, with the 74-gun ship Bellona, Captain 
John Erskine Douglas, and frigate Melampus, Captain 
Stephen Poyntz, was cruising off Cape Henry. Finding 
escape impossible, the French ship ran on shore, where she 
was destroyed by the Melampus, her crew having first been 
removed. 

In the month of September, a squadron, consisting of the 
following ships, was cruising before Rochefort : — 

Guns. Ships. 

74 Centaur Commodore Sir Samuel Hood 

98 Windsor Castle . . Captain Charles Boyles 

( Achille „ Richard King 

-. \ Monarch „ Richard Lee 

1 Revenge „ Sir John Gore 

( Mars ,, William Lukin 

16 Atalante . . „ Joseph Ore Masefield 

On the 25th, at lh. a.m., as this squadron, upon the 
larboard tack, with the wind, at north, was stretching in 
for Chasseron lighthouse, then distant about seven leagues, 
seven sail were observed to leeward, and, on discovering 
that the strangers were frigates, the signal was made for a 
general chase. The ships in view were a French squadron, 
under Commodore Soliel, from Rochefort, bound to the 
West Indies, consisting of the 40-gun frigates Gloire, In- 
fatigable, Miner ve, and Armide, and 3G-gun frigate Themis, 
with the brigs Lynx and Sylphe. 

These ships, finding they were pursued, bore up under all 
sail, steering scuth-west. The Monarch, being the nearest 
ship to the enemy, at 4h. a.m., was nearly within gun-shot 

VOL. II. N 



178 CAPTURE OF FRENCH FRIGATE SQUADRON. [1806. 

of the sternmost French frigate, which was the Armide ; 
and at this time the Centaur was eight miles astern of her. 
At 5h., the Monarch commenced firing her bow-chasers, 
which the Armide returned with her stern-chasers. At 6hJ 
the Infatigable, being to windward of her companions, hauled 
up to the north-east, and was pursued by the Mars ; while 
the Themis and two brigs bore away to the southward, and, 
there being no ship at hand to intercept them, effected their 
escape. The Gloire, Armide, and Minerve kept in close 
order for mutual support, and at about lOh. a.m. the Monarch 
opened her starboard guns upon the two rearmost, between 
which ships a warm engagement ensued. In consequence, 
however, of the heavy swell which prevailed, the Monarch 
was prevented opening her lower-deck ports, and, after 
twenty minutes' close action, had suffered so severely in her 
rigging and sails as to be managed with difficulty. At llh., 
the Centaur arriving up, discharged her larboard guns at the 
Gloire and Armide, and the latter struck to the Centaur at 
llh. 45m. At about noon the Minerve, which ship, since 
the Centaur's arrival, the Monarch had engaged, struck her 
colours; and by this time the Mars had overtaken and 
captured the Infatigable. The Gloire seeing the fate of her 
companions, as a last resource hauled up and made sail to 
the westward, pursued by the Centatu\ At 2h. 30m. p.m., 
the Mars having joined in the chase, opened her fire on the 
Gloire, which ship at 3h. surrendered after a very creditable 
defence. This determined resistance on the part of the 
enemy occasioned considerable damage to the Monarch and 
Centaur. The Centaur had a great part of her lower rigging 
shot away, and her masts and yards wounded in several 
places ; her loss amounted to three men killed, her captain 
and three seamen wounded. While Sir Samuel Hood was 
standing with his right hand on the railing of the quarter- 
deck, a musket-ball struck him between the wrist and elbow, 
and passing through that part of the arm, again entered 
below the shoulder, where it lodged. The arm was so 
shattered, as to render amputation necessary. The Monarch 
had her main-topgallant-mast shot away, her masts and 
yards wounded, her sails a good deal cut, and her hull shot 
in several places. William Buddin, midshipman, and three 
seamen, were killed ; and Lieutenant John Anderson, her 



1806.] CAPTURE OF PRESIDENTS 179 

boatswain Peter Duffy, John Geary, midshipman, fifteen 
seamen, and seven marines, wounded. The Mars was hulled 
in several places, but her principal damages were in her sails 
and rigging. 

The Gloire measured 1,153 tons, Minerve 1,101, Armide 
1,109, and Infatigable 1,157 tons. All four ships were added 
to the British navy ; the Minerve, under the name of 
Alceste, and the Infatigable under that of ImmortaUte ; 
but the Gloire and Armide retained their French names. 

On the 27th of September, the French 40-gun frigate 
Presidente, returning to France from the coast of America, 
having separated from the 74-gun ship Regulus, fell in with 
a British squadron, in lat. 47° 17' north, long. 6° 52' west, 
under Rear- Admiral Sir Thomas Louis, in the Canopus, by 
which she was immediately chased. At 6h. 45m., the 18-gun 
brig Dispatch, Commander Edward Hawkins, arrived up 
with, and commenced firing her bow-guns at the frigate, 
receiving in return the fire from the Presidente's stern- 
chasers, and a running fight was gallantly maintained by the 
Dispatch until 7h. 15m. p.m. ; but being much damaged, 
she bore up and stood towards the British squadron, then 
about three miles distant. The Presidente being overtaken 
by the^ Canopus, surrendered without resistance. The Dis- 
patch in her spirited encounter did not meet with any loss. 
The Presidente measured 1,148 tons, and, being an improved 
model, became a valuable acquisition to the British navy, to 
which she was added under the same name. 

On the 2nd of October, while the 32-gun frigate Minerva, 
Captain George R. Collier, was anchored off Oro Island, 
near Porto Novo, on the coast of Spain, the cutter and barge 
of the frigate, commanded by Captain Collier in person, who 
was in the cutter, attended by Lieutenant Charles Menzies, 
of the marines, and Lieutenant P. P. James, and William 
Holt, midshipman, in the barge, proceeded in search of some 
Spanish gun-boats, supposed to be lying at Carril. After 
rowing seven hours, the cutter was hailed by a large gun- 
boat, accompanied by a smaller one, mounting a 4-pounder 
brass gun, both of which were instantly boarded, and carried 
without the loss of a man. 

On the 9th of October, three boats of the 32-gun frigate 
Gralatea, Captain George Sayer, under the orders of Lieu- 

n2 



180 CAROLINE AND DUTCH SQUADRON. [1806. 

tenant Richard Gittings, with John Green, master's mate, 
and James Scanlan, boatswain, were sent to cut out some* 
vessels at anchor in Barcelona. As the boats approached, 
a heavy fire was opened on them from the batteries, andl 
also of musketry from the beach, to which the vessels were 
moored head and stern ; three schooners were, however, 
boarded, and brought out without any loss. 

On the 12th of October, the French 26-gun flute Sala- 
mandre, laden with timber and stores for Brest, was at- 
tacked, driven on shore, and burnt in Erqui Bay, under 
some heavy batteries, by a small squadron, consisting of the 
2 2 -gun ship Constance, Captain Alexander S. Burrowes 
gun-brigs Strenuous and Sheldrake, Lieutenants John Nu- 
gent and John Thicknesse, and hired armed cutter Britannia 
Captain Burrowes was unfortunately killed by a grape-shot 
and the cable of the Constance having been cut by the fire 
from a battery, that ship took the ground, and her crew 
were under the necessity of quitting her, leaving the 
wounded to the mercy of their enemies. Their loss* 
amounted to eight men killed, besides their captain, and 
Lieutenant George Spencer Richards, Daniel M c Crawley 
boatswain, and fourteen seamen and marines of the Con- 
stance, wounded. The loss of the Sheldrake amounted tc 
one man killed and two wounded ; and of the Strenuous, tc 
Robert Bond, midshipman, and four men, wounded. The 
officers named in the official letter were noticed by the 
Patriotic Fund Committee, and swords voted accordingly. 

On the 18th of October, the 18-pounder 36-gun frigate 
Caroline, Captain Peter Rainier, having taken possession oJ 
the Dutch 14-gun brig Zeerop, Captain Groat, obtained 
intelligence concerning the Dutch 12-pounder 36-gun frigate 
Maria Riggersbergen, Captain Jager, which, with the 14-gun 
corvette William, brig Zee Ploeg, and Dutch Company's 
18-gun ship Patriot, was lying at anchor in Batavia Roads. 
The Caroline, being prepared with springs on her cables, 
stood into the roads, and anchored within pistol-shot of the 
frigate, and after thirty minutes' action compelled her to 
surrender. The British frigate was occasionally engaged by 
the other three vessels, 1 and the action was fought in sight 

1 These, together with the 36-gun frigate Phoenix, and brig Aven- 



1806.] PITT AND SUPERBE. 181 

of thirty heavy giin-boats. This achievement was very gal- 
lantly executed, and with comparatively slight loss ; which 
amounted to three men killed, Lieutenant of marines Za- 
chary Williams (mortally), and seventeen men, wounded. The 
Caroline sustained very little damage in her masts, rigging, 
and hull. The Maria Kiggersbergen had fifty killed and. 
wounded. The prize was purchased into the British navy, 
and named the Java, 1 The Committee of the Patriotic 
Fund presented Captain Rainier- with a sword of 100 
guineas' value. 

On the 23rd of October, in the evening, while the 12-gun 
schooner Pitt (ten 18-pounder carronades and two long 
6-pounders), commanded by Lieutenant Michael Fitton, was 
lying at anchor in the mole of Cape St. Nicolas, St. Do- 
mingo, two sail were seen from her masthead, over the 
narrow neck of land, the one apparently in chase of the 
other. The Pitt was immediately underway, and, it being 
a dead calm, sweeping out of the mole. At daybreak on 
the 24th, three schooners were discovered, the largest of 
which was a privateer of great force, and for this vessel the 
Pitt steered. The privateer hove to, and at 7h. a.m. com- 
menced firing on the Pitt ; but after half an hour's can- 
nonading, bore up to the westward after the other schooners, 
which were her prizes. The privateer was one well known 
to Lieutenant Fitton, and which had been long the scourge 
of the West-India trade, being the 14-gun schooner Superbe 
(of- twelve long 6 and two 8-pounders), commanded by 
Dominique Diron. The Pitt made every effort to close the 
Superbe, and the chase continued throughout the day and 
night, every man and officer labouring, during the frequent 



turier, and a second armed ship, were taken or destroyed by a squadi*on 
of four sail of the line, under Rear- Admiral Sir Edward Pellew, on the 
27th of November. 

1 This ship, commanded by Captain George Pigot, was unhappily lost 
with all hands in 1807, in company with the 74-gun ship Blenheim, 
"Vice-Admiral Sir Thomas Troubridge : both are supposed to have 
foundered off the island of Roderigue in the East Indies. 

2 Owing to this action not having been properly reported to or 
recorded at the Admiralty, Captain Rainier lost the honour of being 
included among the knight commanders of the Bath in 1816, and pro- 
bably for the same reason the naval medal has not been granted to the 
gallant men engaged in this service. 



182 PITT AND SUPERBE. [1806. 

calms and light airs, at the sweeps, and using every effort to 
bring the enemy to action. 

On the morning of the 25th the breeze freshened, and 
during the day, the Superbe having succeeded in seeing her 
prizes into Baracoa, again hove to, as if with the intention 
of engaging the Pitt. At 4h. p.m., the Pitt, having obtained 
a situation between the Superbe and Baracoa, in which 
harbour were several other privateers, recommenced the 
action, at tolerably close quarters ; but, after half an hour's 
hring, the Superbe made sail towards Cape Maysi. A third 
night's laborious chase ensued, all hands constantly at the 
oars, except those employed knotting the rigging and 
righting the carronades, which, having been badly fitted, 
had upset. 

On the morning of the 26th the Superbe, followed closely 
by the Pitt, rounded Cape Maysi ; but desirous of getting 
into Occoa Bay, where Captain Diron knew there was a 
detachment of Spanish troops, the Superbe was obliged to 
haul up across the bows of the Pitt, in doing which she 
fired her starboard broadside, and immediately afterwards 
ran ashore amongst the rocks with her colours flying. The 
crew of the privateer then took to their boats, and quitted 
the vessel; which being observed, Lieutenant Fitton sent 
his boats manned and armed, and took possession of the 
Superbe. The end of a hawser was conveyed on board the 
prize, and the 14-gun brig Drake, Commander Robert 
Nicholas, having during the morning joined company, she 
was, after much exertion, hove off. Out of a complement of 
fifty-four men and boys, the Pitt had two men badly, and 
six slightly wounded. The Superbe's exact loss was not 
known, but four of her crew (originally ninety-four) were 
found dead in her hold, and three mortally wounded. The 
remainder, including the captain, escaped to the shore ; 
their total loss was understood to have been fourteen, with 
a proportionate number of wounded, most of whom were 
conveyed on shore. Thus, after a tedious, but skilfully-con- 
ducted chase of sixty-seven hours' duration, was captured 
one of the most formidable French privateers infesting the 
"West Indies. Her captain was a most experienced and 
daring freebooter, for few nations were respected by him ; 
and for capture and pillage he could always find a sufficient 



1806.] UNREQUITED SERVICES. 183 

excuse. The amount of his depredations may be imagined, 
when it is stated that among the papers found on board the 
Superbe, was a list of captures, English, Spanish, and 
American, made by Dominique, to the value of £147,000 
sterling. 

Lieutenant Fitton, whose health was at the time much 
impaired by his unwearying exertions on the station, in 
endeavouring to put down French privateers (not one-tenth 
part of which have ever been recorded), was on this occa- 
sion so worn out by the long and anxious chase, that he was 
wholly unable to write the official letter relative to the 
capture. The task was therefore performed by Captain 
Nicholas, and Rear- Admiral Dacres, in forwarding the letter 
to the Admiralty, made the following strong, but well- 
merited comment upon the action : " The zeal and perse- 
verance manifested on this occasion, during so long a chase 
(being upwards of fifty hours at their sweeps, with only 
two-thirds the number of men the privateer had), the very 
gallant conduct of, and superior professional abilities dis- 
played by Mr. Fitton, will, I trust, recommend him to the 
protection of their lordships." 1 

On the night of the 21st of October, four boats of the 

1 M. Dominique afterwards equipped a brig, which he named La 
Revanche de la Superbe, and actually sent, by a Spanish licensed trader, 
an invitation to Lieutenant Fitton to meet him at an appointed place ; 
but the latter had been superseded in the command of the Pitt by the 
eleve of an admiral, not to be promoted to the rank of commander, but 
to be turned adrift as an unemployed lieutenant.* — James. 



* A specific sum of money was allotted by the Admiralty for the 
purpose of purchasing a fast-sailing cruiser, the command of which vessel 
was to be intrusted to Lieutenant Fitton, and he was permitted to choose 
from amongst the different vessels on sale. The Pitt, a beautiful vessel, 
was the schooner selected ; but the sum demanded for her exceeded that 
named by the Admiralty, and an inferior vessel must have heen pur- 
chased, had not Lieutenant Fitton nobly made up the difference, £437, 
from his own hard earnings ! The schooner was equipped, and the name 
of her commander was sufficient to draw the choicest seamen the station 
coidd boast. This accomplished, the Superbe, as we have seen, was 
destroyed by her ; when all the proud hopes of the gallant lieutenant 
were blasted by the cruel wrong put upon him. This sum of money was 
never reimbursed him, and he is still (1851) a lieutenant ! A sword value 
50 guineas was presented to this officer by the committee of the Patriotic 
Fund, in compliment to his exertions on this occasion. 



184 BOAT ACTIONS. [1806. 

36-gun frigate Renoinniee, Captain Sir Thomas Livingstone, 
under the direction of Lieutenant Sir William Parker, 
entered the port of Colon, in the island of Majorca, exposed 
to a heavy fire from the tower of Falconara, and gallantly 
boarded and carried a Spanish tartan and two settees. The 
tartan, which mounted four guns, having got on shore, was 
set tire to and destroyed ; but the settees, one of which 
mounted three guns, were brought out. In executing this 
service only one British seaman was wounded. 

On the 1st of November, three boats of the 36-gun 
frigate Pique, Captain Charles B. H. Ross, under the orders 
of Lieutenant Christopher Bell, with Lieutenant of marines 
Edward Bayley, cut out of Cabaret Bay, Porto Pico, a 
Spanish brig, pierced for twelve guns ; previously to which 
they destroyed a 3-gun batteiy, and spiked the ordnance 
belonsrinor to it. This was effected without the loss of a 
man. 

On the following day, Lieutenant Philip H. Baker, in the 
Pique's launch, drove on shore, upon the reef of Cape Poxo, 
a French felucca-rigged privateer, which mounted two car- 
riage-guns and four swivels, with a crew of twenty-six men. 
The felucca was completely wrecked. 

On the 20th of November, the 32-gun frigate Success, 
Captain John Ayscough, standing in for the land to the east- 
ward of Cumberland Harbour, island of Cuba, observed a 
small felucca running under Hidden Point. Two boats were 
immediately despatched in pursuit, under command of Lieu- 
tenant William Duke, with Lieutenants Charles Spence and 
Dowell O'Reilly (acting), and William P. Hughes, master's 
mate. The crew of the felucca, numbering about fifty men, 
landed on the approach of the boats, and securing their 
vessel to the trees, posted themselves on a hill. Here the 
British attacked them ; but the first volley from this emi- 
nence killed Lieutenant Duke, and, after a vain attempt to 
dislodge them, Lieutenant Spence retreated, after taking 
possession of the felucca, Lieutenant O'Reilly and seven 
seamen were wounded. 

On the 20th of November, the barge of the 32-gun frigate 
Orpheus, Captain Thomas Briggs, in the Bay of Campeachy, 
under the direction of Lieutenant George Ballard Vine, 
gallantly boarded and carried, without any loss, the Spanish 



1806.] HALCYON WITH NEPTUNO AND CONSORTS. 185 

schooner Dolores, mounting one long 9 and two 4-pounder 
guns and four swivels, with a crew of thirty-four men. 

On the 13th of December, at 8h. a.m., the 16-gun brig 
Halcyon, Commander Henry Whitmarsh Pearce, being off 
Cape San Martin, on the coast of Spain, observed three sail 
standing towards her from the land, which were soon dis- 
covered to be a brig, a ship, and a xebeck ; and, at the same 
time, five settees Avere seen from the masthead, steering 
towards them. At lOh. 30m. a.m., the three strangers having- 
arrived within musket-shot of the Halcyon, hoisted Spanish 
colours, and commenced the action. The Halcyon being 
abreast the brig, tacked, and in a short time was in close- 
action with her three opponents, which she continued to 
engage until about noon, when, it falling nearly calm, the 
brig and xebeck, by means of their sweeps, made off to the 
southward. The ship endeavoured to escape to the northward, 
but the Halcyon, being nearer this antagonist, swept after 
her, and in an hour, having got alongside, compelled her to 
surrender. The prize was the Spanish corvette Neptuno, 
mounting fourteen long 12 -pounders, and manned with a 
crew of seventy-two men. The brig was the Yirgine de- 
Solidad, of fourteen guns and seventy-eight men ; and the 
xebeck the Vives, of twelve guns and sixty-eight men. At 
the time the Neptuno surrendered, the settees were about 
four miles distant ; but seeing the fate of the corvette, they 
returned towards the shore. The Halcyon, in her highly 
gallant action, suffered considerably in her masts and rigging, 
but had no one killed or wounded. A sword, value 100 
guineas, was presented to Captain Pearse by the Patriotic 
Fund. 



186 STORMING OF CURACOA. [1807. 



1807. 

The 38-gun frigates Arethusa and Latona, Captains Charles 
Brisbane and James Athol Wood, and 44-gun frigate Anson, 
Captain Charles Lydiard, sailed from Port Royal, Jamaica, 
on the 29th of November, 1806, with orders from Vice- 
Admiral Dacres to reconnoitre the island of Curacoa. On 
the 22nd of December, the squadron reached the west end 
of Aruba Island, a dependency upon Curacoa, and the three 
frigates having anchored here, and having been joined by the 
38-gun frigate Fisgard, Captain William Bolton, Captain 
Brisbane resolved to attack the island, and made arrange- 
ments accordingly. Different duties were apportioned to 
each captain, officer, and man ; and, the better to prevent 
confusion, the men of each ship's company were ordered to 
wear some known mark of distinction, so conspicuous as to 
be easily recognized. On the 28th, the four frigates weighed, 
Captain Brisbane having determined to make the attack on 
New Year's Day, the eve of which it is customary for the 
Dutch to pass in conviviality. 

On the 1st of January, at lh. a.m., the squadron arrived 
off the port, and having hoisted out the boats, bore up, the 
Arethusa leading, followed in close order by the Latona, 
Anson, and Fisgard. The entrance to the harbour of Curacoa 
is about fifty fathoms wide, defended by strong fortifications, 
of which Fort Amsterdam, on the right hand, mounted sixty 
pieces of cannon in two tiers. Athwart the harbour, which, 
nowhere exceeds a quarter of a mile in width, were the 
Dutch 36-gun frigate Halstaar, Captain Cornelius J. Evertz ; 
20-gun corvette Surinam, Captain Van-Nes ; and two armed 
schooners. A chain of forts on Misselburg Height, and Fort 
Bepublique, situated on a high hill, within half gun-shot, 
commanded the whole harbour. 

At daylight, the Arethusa, with a flag of truce at the fore, 
entered the port : but the Dutch forts and shipping taking 
no notice of the flag, opened a smart but ineffective fire. 



1807.] STORMING OF CURACOA. 187 

The wind veering to the northward, checked the further 
progress of the Arethusa ; but in a few minutes it again 
shifted to the north-east, enabling the three leading frigates 
to sail up the harbour, and which, after some little delay, 
anchored close to the forts and shipping : but the Fisgard 
unfortunately took the ground on the west side, and re- 
mained fast. Captain Brisbane, the jib-boom of whose ship 
was over the wall of the town, then wrote the following 
summons on the capstan-head, which he despatched to the 
governor : — " The British squadron are here to protect, not 
to conquer you ; to preserve to you your lives, liberty, and 
property. If a shot is fired at any one ship of my squadron, 
after this summons, I shall immediately storm your batteries. 
You have five minutes to accede to this determination." As 
no notice was taken of this summons, the flag of truce was 
hauled down, and at 6h. L5m. a.m. the British squadron 
opened fire. After the third broadside, Captain Brisbane, 
heading Ins men, boarded and carried the Dutch frigate, and 
the Latona, warping alongside, took possession of her ; and 
at the same time Captain Lydiard, with a party of the 
Anson's men, boarded and secured the Surinam. Captains 
Brisbane and Lydiard then proceeded at 7h. 30m. to storm 
Fort Amsterdam, which was garrisoned by 270 regular 
troops. Some of the British broke open the sea-gate with 
crowbars, while others scaled the walls ; and in about ten 
minutes the fort was carried, and with equal facility two 
minor forts, the citadel, and the town. 

The captains with part of the men then returned to their 
ships, and opened a fire on Fort Republique, while 300 
seamen and marines departed to attack it in rear. At 
lOh. a.m. the British flag was hoisted on Fort Bipublique, 
and by noon the whole island of Curacoa had capitulated. 
This daring enterprize was accomplished with no greater loss 
than two seamen killed and five wounded, belonging to the 
Arethusa : Latona, one killed and two wounded ; and seven 
wounded of the Anson's crew. Total, three killed and four- 
teen wounded. The only spar shot away was the spritsail- 
yard of the Arethusa. The Halstaar had her captain and 
two men killed and three badly wounded ; the Surinam, one 
killed, her captain and three wounded ; the schooner Flying 
Fish, one killed and one wounded. The loss on shore is 



188 BOATS OF CERBERUS AT MARTINIQUE. [1807. 

stated to have amounted to 200 in killed and wounded ; but 
it was only the admirable plans of Captain Brisbane, and 
the vigour and ability of the attack, that prevented a loss of 
life infinitely greater. Captain Brisbane was knighted for 
this achievement, and all four captains received gold medals 
commemorative of the brilliant service performed. Lieu- 
tenants John Parish, of the Arethusa, and Thomas Ball 
Sulivan, of the Anson, both of whom assisted in storming 
Fort Amsterdam, were previously made commanders, and 
Lieutenants William Mather (Latona), Henry Higman 
(Anson), and Samuel JefFery (Arethusa), were also promoted. 
The Committee of the Patriotic Fund voted a sword of 100 
guineas' value to Captain Bolton, and vases of the same value 
to Captains Wood and Lydiard, and a vase, value 200 guineas, 
to Sir Charles Brisbane. The naval medal has been granted 
for this action. 

On the night of the 2nd of January, the boats of the 
32-gun frigate Ceberus, Captain William Selby, commanded 
by Lieutenants William Coote and Francis Bligh, gallantly 
boarded and cut out two vessels at anchor under a battery 
near the Pearl Bock, Martinique. The vessels, although 
protected by a large privateer and troops on shore, were 
brought off under a tremendous fire, by which Lieutenant 
Coote was desperately wounded in the head, and deprived 
of his eyesight, and George Sayer, midshipman, was also 
wounded. Two seamen were killed and eight wounded. 
The Patriotic Committee voted Lieutenants Coote and 
Bligh swords of <£50 value, and the former was promoted, 
and a pension conferred upon him, afterwards increased to 
.£400 a year. This is a naval medal boat action. 

During the preceding year, Commodore Sir Home Popham 
quitted his station at the Cape of Good Hope, in order to 
attempt the capture of Buenos Ayres. The operations, in 
which a large number of troops were employed, were attended 
with varied success ; but on the 5 th of January, Sir Home 
Popham was superseded by Rear- Admiral Charles Stilling, 
and ordered to England, where he was tried by court-martial r 
and reprimanded for quitting his station. Pear- Admiral 
Stirling continued the siege of Buenos Ayres ; and, on the 
5th of February, a breach was effected in the walls of the 
town, which was stormed, and the place taken. The total 



1807.] BOARDING THE LYNX. 189 

loss sustained by the British naval forces employed amounted 
to six seamen killed • Lieutenant George Stewart, Hon. 
Charles Irby, Henry Smith, and John Morrison, midshipmen, 
twenty-four seamen and marines wounded, and four missing. 
The loss of land forces amounted to 192 killed, 421 wounded, 
and eight missing. 

On the 5th of January, the boats of the 38-gun frigate 
Imperieuse, Captain Lord Cochrane, under the orders of 
Lieutenant David Mapleton, with the Hon. William J. 
Napier and Houston Stewart, midshipmen, and Assistant- 
Surgeon George Gilbert, were sent to bring out of the basin 
of Arcasson, near Rochefort, whatever vessels might be found 
there. Lieutenant Mapleton and his party landed and 
attacked the battery of Fort Roquette, which mounted four 
36-pounders, two field-pieces, and a 13-inch mortar, and 
having spiked the guns and burnt the carriages, laid the fort 
in ruins. Several vessels were taken and destroyed. 

On the 21st of January, at daybreak, as the 32-gun frigate 
Galatea, Captain George Sayer, was cruising oif Caraccas, on 
the Spanish Main, a sail, bearing south-east, was discovered 
from the masthead and chased — the stranger apparently 
making for Barcelona. At noon the frigate was nearly 
becalmed, and the chase, which was the French 1 6-gun brig 
Lynx, Lieutenant J. M. Fargenel, using her sweeps, and 
being favoured by a light breeze, was fast leaving the Galatea. 
At 2h. p.m. six boats, containing five officers, fifty seamen, 
and twenty marines, were despatched, under command of 
Lieutenant William Coombe, to endeavour to board the 
enemy. The following officers embarked : — Lieutenants 
Henry Walker and Robert Gibson, and John Green and 
Barry Sarsfield, master's mates. Finding that the boats 
gained very little on the brig, Lieutenant Coombe directed 
them to separate and make the best of their way, except 
that no boat was to pass the barge in which he himself was. 
At 6h. p.m., notwithstanding the long pull, -the Lynx bore 
east-south-east, distant nearly four leagues, and fearing their 
labour might be entirely lost, Mr. Green, in the long gig, 
was directed to proceed ahead, and keep sight of the chase, 
hoisting a light when the night closed in. 

At 8h. 30m. p.m. the boats had arrived within musket- 
shot of the Lynx, when they were formed in two lines, and 



190 BOARDING THE LYNX. [1807. 

advanced to the attack ; one division on the larboard quar- 
ter, and the other on the starboard. Arriving within pistol- 
shot, Lieutenant Coonibe hailed the brig, and receiving no 
answer, the British cheered and dashed on towards the 
enemy. The Lynx immediately opened a heavy fire of grape 
and musketry, which repulsed the assailants, and wounded, 
among others, Lieutenant Coombe, a musket-ball passing- 
through the left thigh, the leg of which he had lost in a 
former action. A second attempt was made to board, which 
was also unsuccessful, but the boats in dropping astern fired a 
volley of musketry into the brig with great effect. A third 
attempt, as vigorous as the two former, was successful, and 
the Lynx, after much desperate fighting, became a prize. In 
this last attack Lieutenant Walker was killed, having pre- 
viously received three severe wounds. The loss to the 
British altogether amounted to, besides Lieutenant Walker, 
five seamen and three marines killed ; and Lieutenant 
Coombe, Mr. Sarsfield, six seamen, and three marines severely, 
and Mr. Green, nine seamen, and one marine slightly- 
wounded. Total : nine killed and twenty-two wounded. 
The Lynx, out of a crew of 161 men, had one lieutenant 
and thirteen men killed; and her captain, first lieutenant 
(severely), four other officers, and fourteen seamen and 
soldiers wounded. Total : fourteen killed and twenty 
wounded. When the fatiguing row, in a burning sun, 
which prefaced this desperate action, is taken into considera- 
tion, too much praise cannot be bestowed upon the victors, 
whose bravery was extreme : their loss, however, is much to 
be deplored. The Lynx measured 337 tons, and was a fine 
vessel, only two years old. She was purchased into the 
British service, where she was named the Heureux, a Lynx 
being already in the navy ; the command of her very pro- 
perly being conferred on Lieutenant Coombe, together with 
promotion to the rank of commander. 1 

1 This brave officer, however, did not five to enjoy the reward due to 
his merit, he being killed fighting for his country in the year ensuing, 
as will be hereafter stated. A sword valued at 50 guineas, voted him by 
the Patriotic Fund, he never received ; but at the request of his widow 
it was presented to her, "to be kept in the family as a memorial of his 
services." Similar tokens of approbation were voted to Lieutenant 
Gibson and Messieurs Sarsfield and Green ; and a piece of plate was also 



1807.] BOATS OF LARK IN LISHATA BAY. 191 

On the 27th of January, the 32-gun frigate Jason, Captain 
Thomas Cochrane, being oft the coast of Guayana, recaptured, 
after a long chase, the late British sloop Favourite. A brig 
of fourteen guns was at the time in company with the 
Favourite, but escaped. 

On the 26th of January, the 18-gun ship sloop Lark, 
Commander Robert Nicholas, captured off the Spanish Main 
two schooner guarda-costas, each commanded by a lieutenant. 
On the 1st of February, Captain Nicholas having observed 
a number of market-boats under convoy of a schooner and 
two gun-boats, anchored the Lark off the mouth of a creek, 
hi Lishata Bay, in which the vessels sought refuge, and taking 
with him, in the boats and two prizes, nearly the whole of 
the ship's company, proceeded up the creek. The Spanish 
armed vessels rowed out to meet the British until the latter 
closed, when the Spaniards commenced a retreat. Captain 
Nicholas boarded the sternmost, which had grounded, and 
carried her after an obstinate resistance, Captain Nicholas, 
Richard Pound, purser, and five of his crew, being severely 
wounded in effecting it. The captured vessel was destroyed ; 
but the pilots on board the British boats having mistaken 
the channel, were unable to execute anything further, and 
returned to the ship. The two schooner prizes having 
grounded, were set on fire and destroyed. 

France having obtained a powerful influence in the coun- 
cils of the Sublime Porte, and induced that monarch to take 
some steps inimical to the interests of Great Britain and 
other powers, a squadron was ordered to Constantinople, 
under command of Vice- Admiral Sir John Thomas Duck- 
worth. On the 14th of February, the 74-gun ship Ajax 
(belonging to the squadron), Captain the Hon. Henry 
Blackwood, unfortunately took fire and blew up on the 
following day, and near 250 of her ship's company perished. 
Many were rescued through the intrepidity of Lieutenant 
Nesbit J. Willoughby, whose conduct was beyond all praise. 
On the 19th, the squadron, consisting of the following ships, 
in the order expressed, passed the Dardanelles, exposed to a 
heavy fire from the forts on each side. 

voted to Lieutenant Walker, and presented to his nearest relative. This 
is a naval medal boat action. 



192 PASSING THE DARDANELLES. [1807. 

Guns. Ship. 

80 Canopus . \ £ ear " Ad ™- Sir Thomas Louis ( white ) 

( Captain Thomas G. Shortland 
74 Repulse „ Hon. Arthur Kaye Legge 

100 Royal George . . j J ice ; Ad ™: ? ir J- T. Duckworth (white) 
J & ( Captain Richard Dalhng Dunn 

98 Windsor Castle „ Charles Boyles 

64 Standard „ Thomas Harvey 

Bomb Meteor (in tow) „ James Collins 

80 Pompee i Rear - A( hmral Sir W. Sidney Smith (blue) 

F ( Captain Richard Dacres 

74 Thunderer „ John Talbot 

Bomb Lucifer (in tow) „ Robert Elliot 

40 Endymion „ Hon. Thos. Bladen Capel 

38 Active . . „ Richard Hussey Moubray 

The only return made to this heavy cannonading was by 
the mortar-vessels, which threw shells at the forts. The 
squadron passed the Dardanelles, with the loss of six men 
killed and fifty-one wounded. 

A little above the Castle of Abydos, towards Point Pes- 
quies, was a Turkish squadron, consisting of one 64-gun ship, 
four frigates, four corvettes, and four smaller vessels, which, 
having opened fire upon the British, was attacked by Sir Sid- 
ney Smith, with the Pompee, Thunderer, Standard, Endymion, 
-and Active, while the vice-admiral with the remainder stood 
on for the anchorage three miles distant. Sir Sidney Smith 
with his squadron anchored within musket-shot of the 
Turkish ships, lying immediately under a redoubt on Point 
Pesquies, mounted with thirty-one heavy guns. At lOh. a.m. 
the British ships opened their fire, and in half an hour the 
64-gun ship, bearing the rear-admiral's flag, ran on shore on 
the Asiatic side ; and this example was in a short time 
followed by all the squadron, except one corvette and a gun- 
boat, which remained and were taken possession of. As 5 the 
redoubt continued its fire upon the British ships, Sir Sidney 
next turned his fire in that direction, and as a few shells 
judiciously thrown dispersed the Asiatic troops, Lieutenant 
Mark Oates, with the Pompee's marines, landed and took 
possession of their standard. A division of the boats was 
despatched, commanded by Lieutenant William Fairbrother 
Carroll, accompanied by Lieutenant Walter Croker, and 
Lieutenants of marines David Holt and William Laurie 
David Sinclair (master's mate), Thomas Smith, George Par- 




c^m 



1807.] DESTRUCTION OF TURKISH SQUADRON, ETC. 193 

kyns, Edmund Lyons, and Norfolk King, midshipmen, to 
destroy the redoubt, and these were presently assisted by 
Lieutenants of marines Edward Nicolls, William Fynmore, 
and L. F. Boileau. 

The boats of the Thunderer and Standard, commanded 
by Lieutenants John Carter, John Waller, and Thomas 
Colby, also pulled on shore, and boarded and destroyed the 
three frigates ; and Lieutenant of marines Edward Nicolls, 
of the Standard, who had been directed to board the 40-gun 
frigate, performed that service, after carrying away the nag 
of the Captain Pacha. The redoubt was quickly carried, and, 
setting fire to the gabions, and spiking the guns, eight of which 
were brass, to throw large marble balls, the boats returned 
to their ships. The anticipated explosion of the Turkish 
line-of-battle ship, which the Bepulse, by signal from the com- 
mander-in-chief, was assisting to destroy, obliged the boats to 
return before completing the demolition of the redoubt. 

The loss sustained by the British squadron under Sir 
Sidney Smith amounted to three seamen and one marine 
killed, and thirteen men wounded, belonging to the Thun- 
derer , five seamen of the Pompee wounded ; one officer and 
five seamen of the Standard, and one marine belonging to 
the Endymion, wounded : making a total of four killed and 
twenty-six wounded. 

This service effected, Sir John Duckworth proceeded to 
within eight miles of Constantinople, and anchored off the 
Prince's Islands. Here British success terminated ; for 
much valuable time was frittered away in useless menacing 
letters and proclamations, which proving of no avail in the 
absence of active proceedings, the squadron on the 1st of 
March began to retreat. 

On the 3rd of March, the squadron having on the pre- 
ceding night anchored off Point Pesquies, weighed at 
7h. 30m. a.m., and at 8h. 15m. bore up with a fresh wind 
from north-east, and the ships proceeded through the strait 
in the same order as they went up ; except that the Active 
was ahead of the Endymion, and that the latter, instead of 
the Standard, had the Meteor in tow. On approaching the 
Castle of Abydos, Sir John Duckworth ordered the Royal 
George to salute (!) the batteries, not with cannon shot r 
but blank cartridge ; probably thinking in this way to pro - 

VOL. II. o 



194 REPASSING THE DARDANELLES. [1807. 

pitiate the Turks, who with lighted matches were ready to 
open fire on the ships as they passed. This waste of powder 
was responded to by marble shot and iron shells, which the 
British ships returned. The defences of the Dardanelles 
had been considerably improved since the squadron had 
passed up, and consequently the ships did not escape with 
equal impunity. The Canopus had her wheel shot away, 
and her hull much damaged ; but escaped with the loss of 
only three seamen wounded. The Repulse was struck by 
a stone-shot from the Asiatic side, which entered under the 
poop-deck, killing ten and wounding one lieutenant of 
marines and nine men. This shot also badly wounded the 
mizenmast, broke and carried away the wheel, and caused 
much other damage. The Royal George sustained some 
damage to her rigging, and a large stone-shot stuck fast in 
her cut-water ; her loss amounted to three men killed and 
twenty-seven wounded. The Windsor Castle received a 
stone-shot weighing 800 lbs., which cut her mainmast three 
parts through, killed three, and wounded thirteen men. 
The Standard was struck by a shot from the Castle of Sestos, 
weighing 770 lbs. and of the extraordinary size of twenty-six 
inches in diameter, which, entering the lower deck, killed 
four men, and caused an explosion of the cartridge-boxes, 
which badly wounded one lieutenant, forty seamen, and six 
marines. An alarm of fire caused four other men to leap 
overboard, which made her total loss eight killed or drowned 
and forty-six wounded. The Pompee escaped untouched ; 
but the Thunderer was much damaged, and had two seamen 
killed, and one lieutenant, one midshipman, ten seamen, and 
two marines wounded. A stone-shot of 800 lbs. weight 
struck the Active, and passing through her side lodged on 
the orlop-deck. Captain Moubray, on looking over the 
side, observed two of his crew at the same moment 
thrusting their heads through the hole made by it ! The 
Active had eight men wounded ; the Endymion, three men 
killed and nine wounded ; and the Meteor, eight wounded. 
Total : twenty-nine killed and 138 wounded. The total 
loss incurred in this expedition amounted to forty-six killed 
and 235 wounded. 

The names of the officers killed and wounded were as 
follow : — Canopus : Captain of marines R. Kent killed ; 



1807.] EXPEDITION TO EGYPT. 195 

Midshipmen John Nichols and George Wray wounded. 
Repulse : Lieutenant of marines Thomas Marshall, and Mas- 
ter's mate Joseph Magui, wounded. Royal George : Lieu- 
tenant G. L. Belli killed ; Lieutenants John Forbes and 
Nesbit J. Willoughby, Midshipmen George Holbrook, John 
Furneaux, — Dalrymple, John Alexander, John Wood 
Rouse, and Charles Coteswortk, wounded. Windsor Castle : 
William Jones, master's mate, wounded. Standard : Lieu- 
tenant Daniel Harrington, Lieutenant of marines William 
Fyninore, Master's mates John Haines and William Smith, 
Midshipman Charles H. Jay, Boatswain William Shoo- 
bridge, wounded. Thunderer: Lieutenants John Waller 
and Thomas Colby, and Midshipman J. Moore, wounded. 
Active: Boatswain Mark Palmer wounded. Endymion: 
Lieutenant John Langdon wounded. Meteor : Lieutenant 
of marine artillery Charles E. Balchild wounded. 

The attack upon Constantinople was succeeded by an 
expedition to Egypt ; and Alexandria was taken possession 
of on the 22nd of March by a squadron consisting of the 
74-gun ship Tigre, Captain Benjamin Hallo well; 38-gun 
frigate Apollo, Captain Edward Fellowes; and 16-gun brig 
Wizard, Commander Edmund Palmer; which convoyed a 
fleet of transports, having on board 5,000 troops under 
Major-General Frazer. In the harbour of Alexandria were 
found two Turkish frigates and one corvette, one mounting 
forty guns, the second thirty-four, and the corvette sixteen 
guns, all of brass. Lieutenant James Boxer, of the navy, 
who landed with the troops, distinguished himself on this 
occasion. 

On the 4th of February, the 20-gun ship Bacchante, and 
18-pounder 32-gun frigate Mediator, Captains James Richard 
Dacres and William Furlong Wise, were cruising off Cape 
Rafael, San Domingo, and having captured the French 
national schooner Dauphin, it was determined by Captain 
Dacres to take advantage of this capture, in order to attack 
the adjacent fort of Samana, a well-known resort for pri- 
vateers. The three vessels accordingly proceeded on this 
service, the Bacchante and schooner under French colours, 
and the Mediator disguised as a neutral, which disguise the 
latter was the better able to support, the ship having 
formerly been an Indiaman. The three vessels, piloted by 

o2 



19 G BOATS OF COMUS AT PUERTA DE HAZ. [1807. 

their masters, stood through the intricate channel, and 
anchored within half a mile of Samana, before they were 
suspected, when the fort opened fire, which was returned by 
the British sliips. After a cannonade of four hours, Captain 
"Wise, with Lieutenants Henry L. Baker, Charles Shaw, 
and John Norton, proceeded with the boats of the two ships, 
and stormed and carried the fort. Thomas H. M c Kenzie, 
master's mate, and two seamen of the Bacchante, were 
wounded, and two seamen killed and fourteen wounded on 
board the Mediator. In the harbour were found an Ame- 
rican ship and an English schooner, and two privateers 
fitting out. Swords of 100 guineas' value were presented by 
the Patriotic Fund to Captains D acres and Yv T ise. 

On the 1st of March, intelligence having reached the 
50-gim ship Glatton, Captain Thomas Seccombe (which 
with the 14-gun brig Hirondelle, Lieutenant George A. E. 
Skinner, was lying off Tenedos), that a Turkish ship was 
at anchor in the port of Sigri, Captain Seccombe despatched 
the boats of the ship, under Lieutenants Edward Watson 
and Charles A. Trusson, and Lieutenant of marines George 
A. E. Sandwith, to cut her out. This service was accom- 
plished after much hard fighting, and with the loss of Lieu- 
tenant Watson and four men killed and nine wounded. 
The prize had formerly been a French 18-gun corvette, and 
at this time mounted ten guns. 

On the loth of March, v/hile the 22-gun ship Comus, 
Captain Conway Shipley, was cruising off the island of 
Grand Canaria, her boats were despatched, under the com- 
mand of Lieutenants George E. Watts and Hood Knight, 
and Lieutenant of marines George A. Campbell, to cut some 
vessels out of Puerta de Haz. Six merchant vessels were 
boarded and brought out, although protected by three bat- 
teries, which opened a heavy cross-fire on the British boats. 
Lieutenant Campbell was wounded. 

On the 8th of May, still cruising off the Canary Islands, 
information was received on board the Comus, from a 
captured vessel, that a large armed vessel was at anchor 
under the batteries of Grand Canaria. Captain Shijjley 
immediately determined on endeavouring to effect her 
capture, if possible by surprise, and accordingly made such 
sail for the island as to reach that part where the vessel 



1807.] BOATS OF COMUS AT GRAND CANAMA. 197 

was supposed to be lying just before dark. This accom- 
plished, the boats were sent away ; but, after a long search, 
returned without having found the enemy of which they 
were in search. At daybreak the vessel was discovered 
moored close under the principal fort, and although no 
chance now remained of taking the Spaniards by surprise, 
the determination to cut her out was unchanged. The 
Comus therefore stood as close in to the shore as she could, 
and the boats, under the command of Lieutenants Watts and 
Knight, and Jeaffreson Miles, master's mate, were despatched 
on this service. The vessel was a felucca, which displayed 
a large Spanish ensign, and was fully prepared for the 
attack. Lieutenant Watts, in the cutter, was the first to 
close, and boarded her, exposed to a fire of musketry from 
between thirty and forty soldiers, sent to assist in the 
felucca's defence, and in a short time cleared her deck. The 
other boats now arriving up, the British gained entire pos- 
session of the vessel, and her cables having been cut, they 
attempted to take her in tow, as the Spaniards had used the 
precaution of carrying her rudder and sails on shore. At 
this time a hawser, which had been secured under water to 
the vessel's sternpost, was manned in the fort, by which the 
felucca was dragged close under the muzzles of their guns, 
before the British sailors could succeed in cutting it. The 
rope being at length cut, the vessel was towed clear of the 
fire of the batteries. This dashing exploit was performed 
with the loss of one marine killed, and Lieutenant Watts 
severely, one marine dangerously, and two seamen and one 
marine badly wounded. The prize was the Spanish packet 
San Pedro, from Cadiz, bound to Buenos Ayres, with a 
cargo of bale-goods. Of the Spanish troops, twenty-one 
were made prisoners, eighteen of whom were wounded ; and 
the remainder, with the exception of a few who swam to 
the shore, were killed, as were also her captain and some 
of her crew. Lieutenant Watts was most "deservedly pro- 
moted shortly afterwards for this gallant affair, in which 
he was most ably supported by each ofhcer, seaman, and 
marine of the party. A sword of fifty guineas' value was 
presented to Lieutenant Watts by the Committee of the 
Patriotic Fund. 

Several men having deserted from the squadron block- 



198 LEOPARD AND CHESAPEAKE. [1807. 

ading two French 74-gun ships in the Chesapeake, and 
intelligence having been obtained that these men had en- 
tered on board the 36-gun frigate Chesapeake, the 50-gun 
ship Leopard, Captain Salisbury Pryce Humphreys, was 
despatched by Vice-Admiral Berkeley from Halifax, with 
orders to search the Chesapeake frigate for deserters from 
the « Belleisle, Bellona, Triumph, Chichester, Halifax, and 
Zenobia cutter." 

On the 21st of March, the Leopard anchored in Lynn- 
haven Bay, in company with the Bellona and Melampus. 
On the 22nd, the Leopard weighed, and at 6h. a.m. re- 
anchored three miles to the northward of Cape Henry light- 
house, in company with the Triumph. At 7h. 15m.,°the 
Chesapeake put to sea from Hampton Roads, and at 9h. 
passed the Bellona and Melampus, whereupon the Bellona 
directed the Leopard by signal to weigh, and reconnoitre 
her. The Leopard, at 3h. p.m., being four or five leagues 
from Cape Henry, bore down to speak the Chesapeake, then 
about two miles distant. At 3h. 30m., Captain Humphreys 
hailed, and said he had « despatches from the British com- 
mander-in-chief." The answer was, " Send them on board, 
I shall heave to." Both ships hove to, and Lieutenant John 
Meade went on board with the order from Vice-Admiral 
Berkeley, and at the same time carrying a message from 
Captain Humphreys to Commodore Barron, expressing his 
hope that every point might be amicably adjusted. At 
4h. 15m. the boat was recalled, and Lieutenant Meade 
brought a reply from Commodore Barron, stating that he 
knew of no such men as were described in the order, and 
that the recruiting parties at Boston were particularly 
directed not to enter any deserters from his Britannic 
majesty's ships. The commodore further stated that his 
instructions were not to permit the ship's company to be 
mustered by any but their own officers, and that his desire 
was to preserve harmony. The Leopard then edged down 
towards the American frigate, and Captain Humphreys said, 
" Commodore Barron, you must be aware of the necessity 
I am under of complying with the orders of my commander- 
in-chief." These words were twice repeated, to which the 
only reply returned was, "I do not understand what you 
say;" which words were distinctly heard on board the 



1807.] BOATS OF SPARTAN OFF NICE. 199 

Leopard, although to windward. The Leopard then fired 
a shot across the bows of the Chesapeake, which was fol- 
lowed by a second; and as nothing but evasive answers 
were returned to the repeated hails of Captain Humphreys, 
the Leopard fired her broadside. Commodore Barron then 
hailed, that he would send a boat on board ; but, as the 
frigate was evidently making preparations for action, the 
Leopard continued her fire. A few straggling shots were 
discharged from the guns of the Chesapeake: but at 4h. 
15m., on the Leopard's firing her third broadside, the 
American colours were hauled down, and Lieutenant Smith, 
of the Chesapeake, came on board the Leopard with a 
message from Commodore Barron, to the effect that he con- 
sidered the American frigate to be the prize of the Leopard. 
At 5h. p.m., Lieutenants Gordon Thomas Falcon, George 
Martin Guise, and John Meade, with a party of men, pro- 
ceeded on board the Chesapeake, and mustered her ship's 
company, when about twelve were recognized as deserters ; 
but "four only, three belonging to the Melampus, and one to 
the Halifax, were brought away. The Leopard then made 
sail for Lynn-haven Bay, and the Chesapeake returned to 
Hampton Roads. The Leopard had no one hurt ; but the 
Chesapeake, besides being greatly damaged, had three sea- 
men killed, and the commodore and seventeen men wounded. 
The spirited conduct of Vice- Admiral Berkeley and of Cap- 
tain Humphreys was, however, disavowed by the British 
government ; the British right of search was given up, and 
Vice-Admiral Berkeley recalled from the North American 
command. 

On the 14th of May, the 38-gun frigate Spartan, Captain 
Jahleel Brenton, met with a severe loss off Nice. The 
frigate had been all day chasing a polacre ship, and at sun- 
set both were becalmed, at the distance of about five miles 
from each other : the vessel appeared to be an unarmed 
merchant ship. The boats of the Spartan, with the two 
senior lieutenants (Benjamin Weir and "Woodford Wil- 
liams), and seventy of the best men, pulled alongside, in two 
divisions, and attempted to board her on the bow and 
quarter ; but the vessel was defended by a numerous and 
equally gallant crew, assisted by boarding-nettings and every 
other means of resistance. The first discharge from their 



200 ANECDOTE OF JAMES BODIE. [1807. 

great guns and musketry laid sixty-three of our brave 
fellows low — the first and second lieutenants and twenty-six 
men being killed or mortally wounded ; seven only remained 
unhurt. The few remaining hands conducted the boats back 
to the ship. 1 

A few days afterwards the Spartan was chased by a 
French squadron, consisting of the 74-gun ship Annibal 
(late British Hannibal, captured in Algesiras Bay), 30-gun 
frigates Pomone and Incorruptible, and brig Yictorieuse. 
The Spartan was proceeding from Palermo towards Toulon, 
when, observing the above ships, Captain Brenton deter- 
mined on watching their motions during the night ; but 
being perceived, the enemy gave chase to the Spartan. By 
daylight on the succeeding morning, the strangers were 
within three miles of the Spartan ; but a light breeze 
springing up, the Spartan ran close down the east side of 
Cabrera, pursued by the Annibal. The frigates and brig, 
hoping to intercept the Spartan, made sail round the west 
side of the island ; and in this the headmost, possessing a 
fine strong breeze and finding the Spartan becalmed, was 
nearly successful. Having arrived within gun-shot, she 
opened fire upon the Spartan ; but in a few minutes, having 
lost the breeze, and being surrounded by her own smoke, 

1 The narrow escape of one of the men is very remarkable. James 
Bodie, the coxswain of the barge, was missing. The deceased men were 
all laid out on the main deck : the wife of Bodie, an interesting young 
woman, who was on board, flew with a lantern from one to the other 
in search of her husband, but in vain : all the survivors declared that he 
had undoubtedly perished ; that they saw him wounded and fall between 
the ship and the boat. The poor woman became delirious, got into the 
barge, which was by this time replaced on the booms, and, taking the 
.station recently occupied by her husband, could with difficulty be 
removed from it. A few days, with the soothing kindness of the officers 
and crew, produced a calm but settled grief. At Malta a subscription 
of eighty guineas was made for her, and she was sent to her parents in 
Ireland. Some weeks elapsed, when the Spartan spoke a neutral vessel 
from Nice, and learnt that a polacre had arrived there, after a severe 
action with the boats of a frigate, which she had beaten off, and that 
when the boats had left her a wounded Englishman was discovered, 
holding on by the rudder-chains, who was instantly taken on board, and, 
his wounds being cured, had been sent prisoner to Verdun. Captain 
Brenton, concluding that this was hia late coxswain, wrote to his friends 
at the depot, and ascertained that the man thus rescued was James 
Bodie, who remained a prisoner four years. — Brenton. 



1807.] SALLY AND CONSORTS IX THE. VISTULA. 201 

was unable to make further progress. Captain Brenton, on 
the contrary, would not allow a gun to be fired, and being 
consequently left in possession of the light air of wind, crept 
away from her adversaries and escaped. 

On the 12th of April, the hired armed ships Sally, Falcon, 
and Charles, — Commanders Edward Chetham, George San- 
ders, and Robert Clephane, — were cruising oil Dantzic Bay, 
with a view to intercept any vessels endeavouring to convey 
provisions to the French troops besieging Dantzic. On the 
17th, observing that the French had encamped on the 
western bank of the Vistula, thus cutting off his communi- 
cation with the Prussian garrison, Captain Chetham light- 
ened his ship by sending her stores on board the Falcon, 
and then pushed the Sally through the shoal water, at the 
mouth of the Vistula, in order to attack the enemy's posi- 
tion. At 6h. 30m. p.m., the Sally, whose force amounted to 
sixteen guns, commenced a close action with the French 
troops, consisting of 2,000 men, assisted by three field-pieces 
and a battery at Legau. The mutual firing continued until 
9h. p.m., when, several of the breechings of her larboard guns 
having broken, the Sally attempted to bring her starboard 
broadside to bear on the enemy ; but in this she was pre- 
vented by the strength of the current. The Sally then 
made sail down the stream and ceased firing. Lieutenant 
James Edward Eastman, and a great part of her crew, were 
wounded by the incessant fire of musketry to which the 
Sally had been exposed, more than 1,000 balls having 
lodged in her hull. 

On the 19th of April, the gun-brig Richmond, Lieutenant 
Samuel S. Heming, working alongshore, near Cape Mondego, 
coast of Portugal, discovered a lugger, with Spanish colours 
flying, in a bay six leagues to the northward of Peniche. 
In the evening Sub-Lieutenant George Bush boarded and 
carried her in the face of a heavy fire, which wounded three 
men. The lugger, which mounted four 4-pounders, had on 
board a crew of thirty-six men, all of whom except twelve 
escaped to the shore. The above is a naval medal boat 
action. 

On the 24th of April, the 18-gun sloop Dauntless, Com- 
mander Christopher Strachey, made a gallant attempt to 
assist the Prussian garrison of Dantzic with COO barrels of 



202 EXPEDITION TO COPENHAGEN - . [1807. 

gunpowder. Having a favourable wind, the Dauntless ran ' 
up the river, with studding-sails set, firing on the enemy 
as she passed * but a sudden shift of wind heading her, she 
grounded within half musket-shot of the French batteries, 
and surrendered. 

On the 5th of June, the 38-gun frigate Pomone, Captain 
Robert Barrie, cruising off the Pertuis Breton, chased a 
French convoy, which was under the protection of three 
armed brigs, and drove several ships belonging to it on shore. 
Notwithstanding a heavy fire from the shore, a transport 
and brig were brought out by Lieutenant John Jones, 
without any loss, although the grape-shot from one of the 
gun-brigs passed through and through his boat. Fourteen 
vessels of this convoy were captured on the same day, near 
St. Gilles, by the Pomone's boats, under Lieutenant James 
Wallace Gabriel. 

On the 6th of June, Lieutenant Hall was despatched 
from the 14-gun brig Port d'Espagne, Lieutenant James 
P. Stewart, cruising in the Gulf of Paria, in a prize schooner, 
disguised as a neutral, to attack a Spanish privateer. Lieu- 
tenant Hall, after receiving a fire of musketry, laid the 
privateer on board and carried her. The prize was the 
Mercedes, mounting two suns and two swivels, with a crew 
of thirty men; three of whom were killed and one 
drowned. Two men belonging to the British boats were 
drowned. 

On the 19th of July, in consequence of the treaty of 
Tilsit, a demand was made by Great Britain for the sur- 
render of the Danish fleet, which was required to be de- 
livered up and to be carried to England, under a solemn 
promise of its restoration at the conclusion of a general 
peace. On the 26th of July, Admiral James Gambia* sailed 
from Yarmouth Roads with the following seventeen sail of 
the line, twenty-one frigates, sloops, bombs, &c. 

Guns. Ships. 

( Adm. James Gambler (blue) 
98 Prince of Wales . . \ Captain Sir Home Pophani 

( „ Adam McKenzie 
g p \ Vice-Adm. Hon. H. E. Stanhope (blue) 

if Captain Eichard Dacres 
7 4 p, . ( Commodore Sir Samuel Hood 

/4 Lentaur ^ Captain William H. Webley 



1807.] 



EXPEDITION TO COPENHAGEN. 



203 



Ships. 





Ganges 


( Commodore Richard G. Keats 




\ Captain Peter Halket 




Spencer 


,, 


Hon. Robert Stopford 




Vanguard ... . 


• • ;> 


Alexander Frazer 




Maida ... ... ... . 


. ; ,, 


Samuel Hood Linzee 


74 1 


Brunswick 




Thomas Graves 


Resolution . . . 




George Burlton 




Hercule ..... 




Hon. John Colville 




Orion ... ... ... .. 




Sir Arch. C. Dickson 




Alfred 




John Bligh 




Goliath ....... 




Peter Puget 




L Captain ...... 


• • a 


Isaac Woolley 




|M>y 

Dictator 

Nassau. . 


• • :> 


John Draper 


64 < 




Donald Campbell 






Robert Campbell 



After an interview between the Crown Prince of Den- 
mark and Mr. Jackson, the British plenipotentiary, the 
former having given a decided refusal to submit to the pro- 
positions of the British government, measures were resorted 
to to obtain possession of the Danish fleet by force. By this 
time the 64-gun ship Agamemnon, Captain Jonas Rose, had 
arrived with the transports and frigates, and the force before 
Copenhagen consisted of twenty-five sail of the line, forty- 
frigates, and troops, principally German, under the command 
of General Lord Cathcart, to the number of 27,000. 

On the 14th of August, his Danish majesty quitted the 
capital for Colding, in Jutland, intrusting the defence of 
the city to Major-General Peiman. The population in the 
city and suburbs of Copenhagen was estimated at 100,000 
souls, and the military and naval force, including militia, 
amounted to about 12,000 men. The main body of the 
Danish army, about 30,000, was encamped in Holstein. 

The defences of Copenhagen consisted of the Trekronen 
battery, built on piles, about 2,000 yards from the mouth 
of the harbour (or river, which runs through the centre of 
the town), mounting sixty-eight guns besides" mortars ; the 
citadel, mounting twenty guns and four mortars ; and the 
arsenal battery, mounting fifty guns and twelve mortars. 
Total : 174 guns (for the most part long 36 and 24-pounders) 
and twenty-five mortars. In front of the harbour were 
moored the block-ship Mars, of sixty-four guns ; four prames, 
each mounting twenty long 24-pounders; two floating bat- 



204 COMUS AXD FREDERICKSCOARN. [1807. 

teries; and twenty-five or thirty gun-boats, each mounting 
two heavy long guns. In the arsenal, afloat, were sixteen 
sail of the line and twenty-one frigates, but which, for the 
most part, were in an unserviceable state, and three 74-gun 
ships, which were on the stocks. Two other ships of the 
line were in ports of Norway. 

On the night of the 12th, the 3 2 -gun frigate Frederick- 
scoarn, which was lying at Elsineur, slipped her cable, and 
steered for Norway ; upon which Admiral Gambier directed 
Captain Ekins, in the 74-gun ship Defence, with the 22-gun 
ship Comus, Captain Edmund Heywood, to pursue the 
Danish frigate. The Comus being ordered by Captain 
Ekins to make sail in advance, at 6h. 30m. a.m. on the 
14th, discovered the Danish frigate nearly ahead. At noon, 
the Frederickscoarn was five miles distant from the Comus, 
and the Defence seven miles astern of the latter. At 
Gh. p.m., a light easterly breeze springing up, the Comus 
gained considerably on the chase, and about midnight had 
arrived within hail, when Captain Heywood, hailing the 
Danish frigate, requested her captain to heave the ship to. 
This being refused, a musket was fired from the Comus, 
which was returned by a shot from the stern-guns of the 
Frederickscoarn. The Comus then bore up, and, passing 
under the stern of the Danish frigate, fired a broadside 
within pistol-shot distance. The action became warm on 
both sides, and continued forty-five minutes, when the 
Frederickscoarn, from the disabled state of her rigging, fell 
on board the Comus. She was immediately boarded, and, 
after a slight resistance, carried. The boarders were headed 
by Lieutenants George Edward Watts and Hood Knight. 
The Comus sustained very little damage, and only one of 
her crew was wounded. The Frederickscoarn suffered con- 
siderably in rigging, masts, and yards, and had twelve men 
killed and twenty wounded. The Comus mounted twenty- 
two long 9 -pounders on the main-deck, and eight 24-pounder 
carronades, and two long nines on the quarter-deck and 
fore-castle, with a crew of 145 men. The Frederickscoarn 
was armed with thirty-two long 12 and 6-pounders, and six 
12-pounder carronades, so that had these two ships met 
under different circumstances, the advantage would have 
been greatly on the side of the Danish frigate ; and, as it 



1807.] BOMBARDMEXT OF COPENHAGEN. 205 

was, the result redounded much to the credit of Captain 
Heywood, his officers and crew. 

Much time was necessarily consumed by the land forces 
in constructing batteries, during which the small vessels of 
the British fleet rendered important services in checking the 
annoyances of the Danes. On the 23rd of August, while 
thus employed, the in-shore squadron, consisting of 18-gun 
sloops Hebe, Cruiser, and Mutine — Commanders Edward 
Ellicott, Pringle Stoddart, and Hugh Steuart — four mortar- 
vessels, and eight gun-brigs, were warmly attacked by the 
batteries, pranies, and gun-boats, and the British vessels, 
armed principally with carronades, being unable to make an 
adequate return, retired out of gun-shot. In this attack 
Lieutenant John Woodford, commanding the Cruiser, and 
three seamen were killed, and Lieutenant John Williams, of 
the Fearless, seven seamen, and five marines, wounded. 

On the 31st of August, the advanced squadron was again 
exposed to an attack from the batteries, prames, and gun- 
boats, in the course of which an armed transport was blown 
up, by which catastrophe her master (James Moyase) and 
nine seamen were killed, and Lieutenant Henry N". Rowe, 
Master's mate P. Tomlinson, and nineteen seamen were 
wounded. At length, on the 2nd of September, the prepa- 
rations being completed, and the terms proposed again 
refused, the British batteries opened fire upon the town and 
forts of Copenhagen, into which the mortar-vessels threw 
shells. The bombardment continued with little intermission 
till the evening of the 5th, when Major-General Peiman 
sent out a flag of truce. Major-General Sir Arthur Welles- 
ley, Captain Sir Home Popham, and Lieutenant-Colonel Sir 
George Murray, were appointed to settle the terms of capi- 
tulation, having for its basis the surrender of the Danish 
fleet. On the 6th, the articles of capitulation were drawn 
up, and on the morning of the 7th signed and ratified by 
the respective parties. By this arrangement the British 
were to be put in possession of the citadel and of the ships 
of war and their stores ; but within six weeks from the date 
of the capitulation, the citadel was to be restored, and the 
island of Zealand evacuated by the British ; in the mean 
time all hostilities were to cease, and all property and 
prisoners taken on either side to be given up. 



206 



SURRENDER OF THE DANISH FLEET. 



[1807. 



The loss of the British from the commencement of hosti- 
lities amounted to four officers, one sergeant, and thirty-seven 
rank-and-file killed ; six officers, one sergeant, 138 rank-and- 
file wounded ; one sergeant and twenty-three rank-and-file 
missing ; making, with the casualties of the navy, a loss of 
fifty-six killed, 175 wounded, and twenty-five missing. 

The Danes, in the different skirmishes outside the city, 
lost about 250 in killed and wounded, and above 1,500 
within the fortifications, consisting of men, women, and 
children, which latter it was in the Danish general's power 
to have averted, had he made use of the numerous oppor- 
tunities afforded for removing them. One church and above 
300 houses were destroyed. The arrangements in the 
arsenal in respect to the ships' stores were so good, that in 
the space of nine days fourteen sail of the line were equipped 
and towed from the harbour into the road, notwithstanding 
that several ships underwent considerable repairs in that time. 

It was reported that the Crown Prince, while at Kiel, sent 
an order to Major-General Peiman to burn the fleet in the 
event of his being compelled to surrender the town ; but 
that the messenger was intercepted by some British patrols, 
who destroyed the despatches. 

At the end of six weeks, the three remaining ships of the 
line, together with the frigates and sloops, were removed to 
the road, and the arsenal cleared of its naval stores. Of 
the three ships on the stocks, two were taken to pieces, and 
the most useful of the timbers brought off; but the third, 
being nearly planked up, was destroyed. The block-ships, 
being unfit to make the voyage to England, were burnt. 
The following is a list of the Danish fleet brought away 
from Copenhagen by the British armament : — 



Guns 


Ships. 




Guns. Ships. 




Christian VII. 




f Princesse-Sophia-Frederica 
Skiold 


80 


Waldemar 






Neptunos 




74 *| Tre-Kronen 




' Dannemark 




I Princesse-Carolina 
L Fyren 




Norge 






Arve-Prindts 




64 j Syeren 

( Dittsmarchen 


74 ■ 


Justitia 






Kron-Prindts 




oo ( Perlen 
d8 j Rota 




Kron-Princesse 






,0dm 






Six frigates of thirty-six guns, 


two 20 -gun ships, eleven corvettes and 




brigs, one schooner, 


anc 


. twenty-five gun-boats. 



1807.] BOATS OF HYDE A AT BEGUR. 207 

On the 21st of October, the fleet sailed from Copenhagen 
in three divisions. In going down the Sound, the 80-gim 
ship Neptunos grounded on a sand-bank, near the Island 
of Huen, and although every exertion was used, the ship 
could not be got off, and was destroyed. On entering the 
Cattegat, the weather became stormy, and all but three of 
the Danish gun-boats were destroyed. At the end of the 
month the fleet and the remainder of the prizes arrived in 
Yarmouth Roads and the Downs. Only four of the line-of- 
battle ships taken from the Danes — Christian VII., Danne- 
mark, Norge, and Princesse Carolina — were, on being sur- 
veyed, found fit for active service ; and the most valuable 
part of the seizure at Copenhagen consisted in the naval 
stores. Exclusive of the stores shipped on board the fleet 
and prizes, ninety-two transports, measuring upwards of 
20,000 tons, were deeply laden with them. The thanks 
of Parliament were voted to the army and navy employed 
in this successful expedition. Admiral Gambier was raised 
to the peerage ; Lord Cathcart made an English peer ; Vice- 
Admiral Stanhope. Lieutenant-General Burrard, and Major- 
Geueral Bloomfield, created baronets ; and Captain George 
Ralph Collier, of the Surveillante frigate, the bearer of the 
despatches, knighted. 

A declaration of war on the part of Denmark was imme- 
diately followed by an order from the English government 
to make reprisals on the Danes, and the 74-gun ship Van- 
guard and a few frigates were left cruising in the Belt. 

On the 6th of August, late in the evening, the 38-gim 
frigate Hydra, Captain George Mundy, cruising off Cata- 
lonia, chased into the harbour of Begur, an armed polacre 
ship and two brigs. On the following morning, these vessels 
were discovered lying under protection of a tower and a 
battery. A little before lh. p.m., the Hydra anchored, with 
springs on her cables, at the entrance of the harbour, and 
opened a fire on the battery, which was returned. After 
an hour's firing, a division of boats, with fifty seamen and 
marines, commanded by Lieutenant Edward O'Brien Drury, 
with Lieutenants of marines John Hayes and Edward Pen- 
gelly, John Finlayson, midshipman, and Robert Hendrick 
Goddard, captain's clerk, left the Hydra, and attacked the 
fort in a very gallant manner, under a heavy discharge of 
grape and musketry from the vessels, as well as from the 



"208 BOATS OF CONFIANCE AT GUARDIA. [1807. 

shore. The enemy spiked the guns and quitted the battery 
as the British entered it on the opposite side. Leaving 
Lieutenant Hayes with the greater part of the marines to 
occupy the heights which commanded the decks of the ves- 
sels, Lieutenant Drury with the remainder advanced towards 
the town, which in a short time was cleared. The crews of 
the French vessels then made for the shore, and formed in 
groups among the rocks and bushes, from whence they 
annoyed the seamen, as the latter, having first taken posses- 
sion of the boats on the beach, boarded the polacres. At 
oh. 30m., Lieutenant Drury having gained entire possession 
of the vessels, carried out hawsers to the rocks, and com- 
menced warping out against a strong breeze, exposed to a 
galling fire of musketry. Lieutenant James Little, with 
the remainder of the Hydra's boats, arriving to the assistance 
of their shipmates, the prizes rounded the point of the 
harbour at 4h. P.M., and the marines were re-embarked. 
The captured vessels were the ship Eugene, of sixteen guns 
and 130 men; and brigs Caroline, twelve guns and forty 
men, and Rosario, of four guns and forty men. One seaman 
was killed and two wounded on board the Hydra, and 
Mr. Goddard and three men of the party on shore wounded. 
The Hydra sustained some damages in her masts and rigging. 
The Patriotic Fund Committee noticed all the officers 
officially mentioned as having been engaged in the above 
gallantly-conducted enterprize. The naval medal is granted 
for this action. 

On the 18th of August, the boats of the 20-gun ship 
Confiance, Captain James Lucas Yeo, under the orders of 
Lieutenant William Hovenclen Walker, with Massey H. 
Herbert and George Forder, midshipmen, attacked a lugger 
privateer, mounting one long 12-j)ounder, and two 4-pound- 
ers, with a crew of thirty men, moored under the protection 
of two forts at Gnardia, on the coast of Portugal. The 
vessel was boarded and carried in the face of a heavy fire 
from the batteries, without any loss on the British side. 
One Spaniard was killed and several wounded ; the re- 
mainder jumped overboard, and swam to the shore. 

On the 2-1 th of August, the 18-gun sloop Weazel, Com- 
mander John Clavell, being off Corfu, chased and drove on 
shore three trabacculos, working in between Corfu and some 



1807.] CAPTURE OF THE JEUNE RICHARD. 209 

adjacent rocks. Three others were then seen, and, after a 
chase, captured, containing 251 French soldiers, commanded 
by Colonel Devilliers, going to reinforce the garrison at 
Corfu. After disarming the troops, Captain Clavell pro- 
ceeded with his prisoners and two of his prizes to Malta. 
On the day preceding this success, the Weasel narrowly 
escaped capture, being on the point of entering Corfu, which 
island had been ceded by the treaty of Tilsit, and was at the 
time in possession of the French. 

On the 31st of August, the island of Heligoland capitu- 
lated to a British force, the naval part of which was under 
the command of Vice-Admiral Thomas Macnamara Russell. 

On the 1st of October, as the Windsor Castle, leeward 
island packet, William Rogers commander, was in lat. 13° 
o3' north, long. 58° 1' west, on her passage to Barbadoes, 
a privateer was seen early in the morning approaching 
under all sail. At noon the schooner hoisted her colours, 
and opened fire, which was returned from the chase-guns of 
the Windsor Castle. The privateer having arrived along- 
side, and grappled the packet, her crew endeavoured to 
board, but were repulsed with the loss of ten men killed and 
wounded. The privateer then cut loose from her grapplings, 
and endeavoured to sheer off, but the mainyard-arm of the 
packet being entangled with the schooner's rigging, held her 
fast. About 3h. p.m., one of the packet's carronades, loaded 
with grape and musket-balls, was brought to bear, and fired 
with great effect on the enemy's deck, just as her men were 
about to make a second attempt to board. Witnessing the 
havoc caused by this discharge, the commander of the packet, 
followed by only five men, leaped upon the schooner's deck, 
and driving the remaining Frenchmen from their quarters, 
compelled the privateer to surrender. The Windsor Castle 
mounted six long 4-pounders, with two 12-pounder carro- 
nades ; and her crew consisted of twenty-eight men and 
boys, of which number three were killed, and ten severely 
wounded : her mainyard and mizenmast were shot away, 
and her rigging considerably damaged. The privateer was 
the Jeune Richard, and mounted six long 6-pounders, and 
one long 18-pounder on a pivot, with a crew consisting of 
ninety-two men, of whom twenty-one were killed and 
thirty-three wounded. The Windsor Castle proceeded to 

VOL. II. p 



210 BOATS OF PORCUPINE IN THE ADRIATIC. [1807. 

Barbadoes with lier prize ; and one more gallantly won it has 
rarely been our lot to record ; for to Captain Rogers and 
every officer, man, and boy under his orders, the most 
unqualified praise is due. 

On the evening of the 7th of October, the 22-gun ship 
Porcupine, Captain the Honourable Henry Duncan, cruising 
in the Adriatic, having chased a trabacculo into Zupaino, 
despatched two boats, commanded by Lieutenants George 
Price and Francis Smith, to bring her out. As the boats 
rounded a point near the harbour's mouth, a gun-boat, under 
the Italian flag, opened a fire of round and grape upon 
them, which Captain Duncan observing, recalled the boats, 
but despatched them again at night. Having on this 
second occasion captured the guard-boat, mounting one 
4-pounder swivel, and manned with French soldiers, the 
boats pushed on for the gun-vessel, which, in expectation of an 
attack, was moored close to the shore with four cables. In 
the face of a heavy fire of grape and musketry, Lieutenant 
Price and his party gallantly boarded, and in a short time 
carried the vessel, which proved to be the Venetian gun- 
boat Safo, armed with one long 2 4-pounder and several 
swivels, with a crew of fifty men, commanded by Enseigne 
de vaisseau Ghega. In accomplishing this enterprise, one 
seaman and one marine were wounded. 

On the 27th of November, Lieutenant Price, in the Por- 
cupine's cutter, captured two small vessels from Pagusa, 
and on the 29th this officer entered the harbour of ZuHano 
with the boats of the same ship, and after destroying a 
number of small vessels, brought out a trabacculo laden 
with wood. On their return, the boats captured another 
vessel of this description, laden with ordnance stores, in- 
tended for the construction of a battery at Curzola. 

On the night of the 25th of October, the boats of the 
18-gun shij>sloop Herald, Commander George M. Hony, in 
charge of Lieutenant Walter Foreman, gallantly boarded, 
and brought out from under the fortress of Otranto the 
French privateer Cesar. The crew of the French vessel 
defended her until the boats were close alongside, when all 
except four made their escape by means of a hawser fastened 
to the shore. The prize mounted four long 6-pounders. 



1807.] ANN WITH SPANISH GUN-BOATS. 211 

Of the boarding party, James Wood, the carpenter, was the 
only person wounded; and two men were wounded on 
board the Herald by shot from the castle, which also 
damaged the ship's hull and rigging. 

On the 24th of November, in the forenoon, the hired 
armed brig Ann (mounting ten 12-pounder carronades), 
Lieutenant James M c Kenzie, in company with the Spanish' 
7 -gun lugger-privateer Vansigo, her prize, being off the 
island of Tariffa, was chased by ten Spanish gun-boats. 
Finding from the calm state of the weather it would be 
impossible to escape, Lieutenant M c Kenzie shortened sail to 
close the prize, and receive his enemies. At lOh. 15m. the 
three headmost gun-boats commenced the action ; and at 
lOh. 30m. the remaining seven joined in the combat. The 
"Vansigo soon afterwards, having previously hailed to say 
that three of her prize crew (originally but nine) were killed, 
struck her colours. At llh. the Ann had by her fire dis- 
masted one of the gun-boats, and compelled two others to 
strike ; but having only thirty of her own men on board — 
the remainder of her crew being in the lugger, and having 
already forty-two prisoners to guard, Lieutenant M c Kenzie 
being, moreover, the bearer of despatches — did not attempt 
to take possession of the prizes. The action was protracted 
till lh. p.m., when the gun-boats made off, carrying with 
them the Vansigo. Although for so long a period exposed 
to the fire of ten such powerful opponents (each of which, it 
is probable, carried from two to four heavy long guns), the 
Ann sustained no loss. Upon the whole, this action was 
highly creditable to the ability of the Ann's commander and 
crew. The naval medal is awarded for this action. 

On the night of the 6th of November, the boats of the 
3G-gun frigate Renommee, Captain Sir Thomas Livingstone, 
and 18-gun brig Grasshopper, Commander Thomas Searle, 
cruising off Carthagena, were sent, under the orders of Lieu- 
tenant William Webster, to cut out some vessels lying at 
anchor under the Torre d'Estacio. A Spanish brig and a 
French tartan, each mounting six guns, were taken posses- 
sion of ; but the current being strong, and only a very light 
air of wind blowing, both vessels ran aground, and, several 
women and children being on board, they were abandoned, 

p2 



212 CURIEUX AND REVANCHE. [1807. 

Lieutenant Webster not choosing, under the circumstances 
to destroy the vessels. Thomas Bastin, purser of the Grass- 
hopper, and one seaman were wounded. 

On the 3rd of December, at lOh. a.m., being in lat 14° 
48' K, long. 59° 14' W, the 16-gun brig Curieux, Com- 
mander John Sheriff, while standing on the starboard tack 
with the wind from north-east, discovered, broad on the lee 
bow, a strange ship on the opposite tack. The stranger was 
the French 24-gun ship privateer Revanche. At llh. am 
as the two vessels passed on opposite tacks, the Revanche 
being to leeward, the Curieux made the private signal 
which remaining unanswered, the brig tacked in chase and 
at lh. p.m., when on the larboard quarter of the Revanche 
fired a bow gun, and received in return that ship's stern- 
chasers. At 2k the Curieux, having arrived within a short 
distance of the weather quarter of the privateer, brought 
her to close action, and continued it with great spirit for^an 
horn-, by which time the Curieux had her braces, bow-lines 
and tiller-ropes shot away. The Revanche observing the 
unmanageable state of her opponent, put her helm down and 
ran the brig on board a little before the mainmast on the 
starboard side. By the discharge from a long 18-pounder 
mounted on a traversing carriage, and musketry, Captain' 
bheriff and five men were killed, and several wounded : and 
the mam boom of the brig shot away. Finding themselves 
however, gallantly opposed, the Frenchmen retreated to 
their own quarter-deck, from whence they kept up a con- 
tinual and galling fire of musketry. Lieutenant Thomas 
Muir, upon whom the command of the brig had now de- 
volved, endeavoured to board the Revanche, but finding 
himself likely to be supported by only ten men and the* 
boatswain, he was compelled to relinquish the design. The 
Revanche soon afterwards sheered off from the Curieux 
and, after firing two guns and some musketry, made sail to 
the north-west, leaving the Curieux in no condition %• 
pursuit. The Curieux, besides her captain, had seven seamen 
killed and fourteen wounded. The loss of the Revanche 
was afterwards stated to have been two killed and thirteen 
wounded. The Curieux was much inferior in number of 
men and in armament to the Revanche ; the former having 
a crew of eighty men, mounted ten 18-pounder carronades 



1807.] GRASSHOPPER AND SAN JOSEF. 213 

and eight long 6-pounders ; while the privateer's crew num- 
bered at least 200 men, and she was supposed to have been 
armed with twenty-four long 8-pounders, together with an 
18-pounder long gun on a pivot. This latter piece of ord- 
nance alone was nearly equivalent to all the carronades of 
the Curieux ; and had the Revanche not been a privateer, 
her escape would have been unattended with discredit to 
the surviving commander or crew. As, however, the 
Revanche was a privateer, a great deal was said upon the 
subject, and Lieutenant Muir became subjected to the 
ordeal of a court-martial, by the sentence of which he 
was slightly reprimanded for not, as it was stated, having 
done his utmost to capture the enemy after the death of his 
commander. 

On the 11th of December, at llh. a.m., while the 3G-gun 
frigate Renommee, Captain Sir Thomas Livingstone, and 
18-gun brig Grasshopper, Commander Thomas Searle, were 
on the same station, the latter discovered, off Cape Palos, 
and chased a brig and two settees. The Grasshopper con- 
tinuing to beat to windward, lost sight of the Renommee at 
noon, and at 12h. 30m. p.m. opened her broadside on the 
brig. A running fight commenced, which continued until 
2h. 30m., when the enemy, which was the Spanish brig San 
Josef, Lieutenant De Torres, of ten 24-pounder carronades, 
and two long sixes, ran on shore under Cape Negrete, and 
struck her colours. The settees were the Medusa, of ten 
guns and eighty men, and the Aigle, of eight guns and fifty 
men; which, on observing the fate of the brig, tacked to the 
eastward, and escaped. The Grasshopper having anchored, 
got her prize afloat, although exposed to the fire of a body of 
troops, and of the Spanish crew, which, having escaped to 
the shore, kept up a constant fire of musketry. The Grass- 
hopper had one man wounded. 

The frigates Caroline and Psyche, Captains Peter Rainier 
and E. B. R. Pellew, having been despatched by Sir Edward 
Pellew, commander-in-chief of the East-India station, in 
search of two Dutch line-of-battle ships which had escaped 
the previous year from Batavia, arrived off Point Panka, 
Java, on the 29th August. It was there ascertained that the 
two ships Pluto and Revolutie were lying in the harbour of 
Griesse in a bad state of repair. The Caroline parted com- 



214 SIR EDWARD PELLEW AT GRIESSE. [1807. 

pany m chase, and the Psyche anchored at Samarang. On 
the night of the 31st, the Psyche's boats, commanded by 
Lieutenant Lambert Kersteman, assisted by Charles Sullivan, 
midshipman, boarded, and gallantly brought out, two vessels 
at anchor in the road, although defended by the batteries 
of the town, an 8-gun schooner, and a large merchant-brig. 
Having collected the boats and destroyed the prizes, the 
Psyche on the following morning (September 1st) chased two 
ships and a brig which had been at anchor outside. The 
pursuit continued till 3h. 30m. p.m., when the strangers bore 
up for the land, and ran ashore about nine miles to the 
westward of Samarang, in a position to open upon the 
Psyche a heavy fire. The Psyche anchoring in three fathoms 
water, brought her broadside to bear upon the enemy. In a 
short time the Hesolutie, armed merchant-ship, surrendered, 
and just as the boats were ordered out to board the second 
ship — the Dutch national 24-gun corvette Scipio — she also 
struck. The brig was the Ceres, in the Dutch East-India 
Company's service, mounting twelve guns, and having a crew 
of seventy men, which also surrendered. The three vessels 
were got off without damage, and the Scipio was taken into 
the service, and named the Samarang. 

When Captain Pellew returned to Madras with the in- 
telligence, the commander-in-chief made his preparations, and 
on the 20th November sailed from Malacca with the fol- 
lowing : — 

Guns. Ships. 

( « „ , \ Eear-Adm. Sir Edw. Pellew, Bart, (red) 

74 I Cullodei1 J Captain George Bell 

( Powerful „ Fleetwood B. E. Pellew 

36 Caroline .... „ Henry Hart (acting) 

32 Fox . . „ Hon. Archibald Cochrane 

, o ( Victoire .... Commander Thomas Groube 

(Samarang ... „ Ei chard Buck 

14 Seaflower . . Lieut. Wm. Fitzwilliam Owen 

Jaseur 1 ..... „ Thomas Laugharne 



A detachment of troops under Lieutenant-Colonel Lock- 
hart accompanied the expedition. The squadron arrived off 
Point Panka on the 5th December, and a communication 
was made to the Dutch commodore, demanding the sur- 

1 This vessel shortly afterwards foundered at sea with all hands. 



1807.] SIR EDWARD PELLEW AT GRIESSE. 215 

render of the ships of war at Griesse. The boat, though 
under a flag of truce, was detained, and the officer and his 
crew placed under arrest. The Dutch commodore then ac- 
quainted Sir Edward with the unwarrantable stej^s he had 
taken, and refused to give up the ships. 

The Culloden and Powerful, having been lightened, com- 
menced ascending the river leading to Griesse, cannonading a 
battery at Sambelangan in passing, which battery, in return, 
fired red-hot shot, and did considerable damage to some of 
the ships. The navigation of the river to the mouth of the 
harbour was most intricate, and the ships grounded several 
times. The Culloden remained aground some time, and was 
compelled to take out guns and start water ; but remained 
fast. 1 After dark the admiral struck his flag, and proceeded 
on board the Caroline, which ship had got several miles 
ahead of the squadron, and had succeeded in reaching the 
harbour's mouth. Next morning the Culloden floated off, 
and the squadron proceeded, led by the Fox, the Culloden 
being second, and the Caroline third. The Dutch, finding 
the British squadron in earnest, disavowed the conduct of 
the commodore, and released the boat's crew, — entering into 
a treaty for the surrender of the Dutch shipping. 

In the meanwhile, however, the two line-of-battle ships, the 
Sheer hulk, and a 40-gun merchant-ship, had been scuttled 
by order of the commodore. On the 11th the work of 
destruction was completed by burning, and the guns and 
military stores at Griesse and at Sambelangan were de- 
stroyed. The Fox lost her foreyard, and was much damaged 

1 The following characteristic anecdote of Sir Edward Pellew may be 
thought interesting. After passing Sambelangan, the Culloden struck 
softly on a shoal, and the Caroline, being the ship next astern, found 
herself suddenly gaining upon the ship ahead, when the admiral was 
seen on the Culloden's poop ordering the Caroline's helm a-starboard. 
This could not be done without running stem into the Culloden. The 
order not being attended to, the admiral, much excited, repeated it, 
exclaiming at the same time, "We are on shore." Instantly the 
Caroline's anchor was let go, and she brought up by the stern, the pre- 
caution having been taken of getting a cable out of the gun-room port. 
At this time her jib-boom was over the Culloden's quarter ! Captain 
Hart was then sent for, and Sir Edward Pellew expressed himself highly 
satisfied with the good seamanship displayed on board the frigate. The 
fact was, Sir Edward dreading that the Caroline should go on shore 
preferred the alternative of her running foul of his own ship. 



216 CAPTURE OF DANISH ISLANDS, ETC. [1807. 

by hot shot ; and Lieutenant Samuel Allen and several men 
were wounded. 

On the 21st of December the Danish island of St. Thomas, 
in the West Indies, surrendered to an expedition under Rear- 
Admiral the Hon. Sir Alexander Inglis Cochrane and 
General Bowyer ; and on the 2oth the island of Santa 
Croix capitulated to the same force. 

The French having occupied Portugal, a British squadron, 
under Rear- Admiral Sir Samuel Hood, consisting of the 
74-gun ships Centaur, York, and Captain, and 64-gun ship 
Intrepid, Captains William H. Webley, Robert Barton, Isaac 
Woolley, and Richard Wortley, with the frigates Africaine, 
AJceste, Shannon, and Success, together with transports, con- 
taining troops under Major-General Beresford, sailed for 
Madeira. On the 24th of December the squadron anchored 
in Funchal Bay, and on the 26th, without opposition, took 
possession of the islands. 



1808.] LINNET AND COURIER. 21T 



1808. 

On the 16 th of January, in the forenoon, the 14-gun brig 
Linnet, Lieutenant John Tracy, being off Cape Barfleur, ob- 
served a large lugger in chase of a merchant-ship and brig. 
Aware that the Linnet's sailing qualities were not such as to 
enable her to close the lugger except by stratagem, Lieute- 
nant Tracy ably manoeuvred so as to join company with the 
merchant-ships, and with them apparently endeavoured to 
escape. At 6h. 30m. p.m., it being quite dark, the lugger, which 
was the Courier, of eighteen guns and sixty men, closed with- 
the merchant-ship ; but as she was gallantly defended, the 
Courier was about to haul off. Just at this time, however, 
the Linnet arriving within musket-shot of the lugger, poured' 
into her a well-directed broadside, accompanied by a volley 
of musketry, which fortunately cut away the Courier's main- 
lug halyards. The lugger was then hailed and ordered to 
surrender ; but instead of compliance, the main halyards 
were again bent, and the sail rehoisted. The Linnet ac- 
cordingly reopened her fire, and was so fortunate as to cut 
away the lugger's halyards no less than ten times. After 
continuing the running fight in this manner till 8h. 50m., 
the Courier, being in a sinking state, surrendered, having 
had her second officer killed and three men wounded ; but 
the Linnet sustained no loss whatever. 

On the 30th of January, the 16-gun brig Delight, Com- 
mander Philip Cosby Handfield, in an attempt to recapture 
four Sicilian gun-boats, grounded under the batteries of 
Heggio. Captain Handfield was killed, and Captain Thomas 
Secconibe, of the Glatton, who was on board the brig, mor- 
tally wounded and taken prisoner. The Delight was burnt 
by the survivors of her crew. 

On the 7th of February, the 8-gun schooner Decouverte, 
Lieutenant Colin Campbell, chased two privateers and a ship, 
their prize, off St. Domingo. One of the privateers escaped, 
bi;t the remaining two vessels were driven on shore and 



218 BOAT ACTIONS. [1808. 

destroyed. On the 9th, this schooner engaged and captured, 
after a gallant action, the French schooner privateer Dorade, 
mounting one long 18-pounder, on a pivot, and two long 
8-pounders, with a crew of seventy-two men, seven of whom 
were found dead on her decks, and three wounded. The 
crew of the Decouverte numbered only thirty-seven men and 
"boys, of whom three men were dangerously and one mortally 
wounded, and Lieutenant Campbell (though not officially 
reported) slightly wounded. 

On the 8th of February, the boats of the 32-gun frigate 
Meleager, commanded by Lieutenant George Tupman, as- 
sisted by Lieutenant "William Swinburn and Lieutenant of 
marines John Dehane, cut out from under St. Jago de 
Cuba, the French armed felucca Renard, without loss. 
Eighteen of the French crew, originally forty-seven men, 
escaped to the shore. 

On the 13th of February, while the cutter and jolly-boat 
of the 20-gun ship Confiance were rowing guard off the 
mouth of the Tagus, Robert Trist, the master's mate in 
charge of them, perceived a French gun-boat at anchor be- 
tween the forts of Belem and San Julien, which he gallantly 
boarded, and carried without loss. The prize had on board 
100 stand of arms, and was commanded by Enseigne de 
vaisseau Gaudolphe. She mounted one long 2 4 -pounder 
and two brass sixes, and of her crew of fifty men, three were 
killed and nine wounded. Mr. Trist was deservedly pro- 
moted in consequence. This is a naval medal boat action. 

On the 2nd of March, the 1 8-gun brig Sappho, Commander 
George Langford, being off Scarborough, chased and brought 
to action the Danish brig Admiral Yawl, Captain Jorgenson, 
mounting on her upper deck twelve carronades, 18- pounders, 
and on her main deck sixteen long 6-pounders : total twenty- 
eight guns, with a crew of eighty-three men. After a close 
engagement of half an hour, in which the Sappho had two 
men wounded, the Danish brig, having had her second officer 
and one man killed, struck her colours. The naval medal is 
granted for this action. 

On the 4th of March, the 18-pounder 36-gun frigate San 
Fiorenzo, Captain George Nicholas Hardinge, sailed from 
Pointe de Galle, Ceylon, on her return to Bombay. On the 
Cth, at 7h. A.M., being off Cape Comorin, the French 40-gun 



1808.] SAN FIORENZO AND PIEMONTAISE. 219 

frigate Piemontaise, Captain Epron, was discovered on the 
starboard beam, bearing north-east, and making sail after four 
East-India ships, passed shortly before by the San Fiorenzo. 
The San Fiorenzo hauled to the wind, and stood in-shore, 
when the Piemontaise, finding herself pursued, bore up and 
made all sail, followed by the British frigate. Having made 
the private signal, which remained unanswered, the San 
Fiorenzo hoisted her colours. The pursuit continued until 
llh. 40m. p.m., at which time the British frigate, on the 
larboard tack, ranged up alongside the Piemontaise to lee- 
ward, and a spirited action, at 200 yards' distance, took 
place ; but which continued only for about ten minutes, when 
the French frigate made sail ahead. The San Fiorenzo, 
which in this short engagement had only three of her men 
wounded, also made sail, and at daylight on the 7th had 
gained so much on her opponent, that the latter, finding an 
action unavoidable, hoisted her colours, and wore across the 
bows of the British ship, in order to bring her broadside to 
bear. At 6h. 20m. a.m., the San Fiorenzo having also wore, 
the Piemontaise fired her broadside, and the engagement con- 
tinued at point-blank distance, until 8h. 15m., when the Pie- 
montaise ceased firing, and bore up, leaving her antagonist 
with her main-topsail-yard cut in two, main-royal-mast shot 
away, and her standing and running rigging so much cut as 
to disable her for the time from making sail in chase. The 
San Fiorenzo's loss on this day amounted to eight seamen 
and marines killed, and fourteen wounded. 

Her damages being repaired, the San Fiorenzo was again 
under a crowd of sail in pursuit of the Piemontaise, of which 
she managed to keep sight during the night, and at daylight 
on the 8th the enemy was about four miles distant, bearing 
east. At 9h. a.m. the San Fiorenzo bore up under all sail 
for the Piemontaise, which ship did not on this occasion 
appear desirous of avoiding an action ; but perceiving that 
the intention of the British frigate was to gain the weather 
gage, the Piemontaise hauled to the wind and tacked. At 
4h. p.m. the two ships, passing on opposite tacks within 
eighty yards, recommenced the action, and at the second 
broadside a grape-shot killed Captain Hardinge, when the 
command of the San Fiorenzo devolved on Lieutenant 
William Dawson. The Piemontaise having reached her 



220 CAPTURE OF THE PIEMONTAISE. [1808. 

opponent's beam, wore round, and a close engagement ensued, 
which lasted till 5h. 49m., when her rigging and sails being 
cut to pieces, and her lower masts and bowsprit badly 
wounded, the French ship surrendered, in token of which 
some of the crew waved their hats. The loss of the San 
Fiorenzo in the third day's action amounted to five, in- 
cluding the captain killed, and Lieutenant George Moysey 
(severely), and seven men wounded ; total, in three days : 
13 killed and 2-3 wounded. The Piemontaise had on board 
200 lascars and prisoners, which augmented her crew to 566 
men, of whom forty-eight were killed and 112 wounded. The 
San Fiorenzo, when she commenced the action, mustered only 
186 men and boys at quarters. 

According to the Gazette letter, the Piemontaise mounted 
fifty guns — long 18-pounders on the main deck, and 36- 
j)ounder carronades on the quarter-deck and forecastle. The 
metal of the San Fiorenzo, though not equal to this, was 
such as would have rendered her, had she been fully manned, 
an eligible opponent for the French frigate ; but with her 
reduced and sickly crew, the advantage possessed by the 
enemy was very great. Moreau, the second captain, who it 
will be remembered made himself notorious by his savage 
and drunken brutality to Captain Larkins, 1 dreading to 
meet the countrymen of him whom he had treated so infa- 
mously, is said to have leaped overboard just before the boat 
of the San Fiorenzo arrived alongside to take possession of 
the prize. 

On the 9th, all three lower masts of the prize fell over the 
side ; but being taken in tow by the British frigate, the two 
ships on the 13th anchored in the Roads of Colombo, amidst 
the cheers and congratulations of all present. At this 
place, the remains of the noble Hardinge were interred with 
all the honours which could be observed. Lieutenant Daw- 
son, in his official letter, mentions in high terms the conduct 
of Lieutenants Edward Davis and George Moysey, and the 
master, William Donovan, also of Lieutenant Samuel Ash- 
more, in command of the marines. The Piemontaise was 
added to the British navy under the same name, as an 
18-pounder 38-gun frigate. A sword of 100 guineas' value 

1 See p. 169, ante. 



1808.] BOATS OF EMERALD AT VIVERO. 221 

was presented to Lieutenant Dawson by the Patriotic Fund 
in testimony of his gallant and skilful conduct on the death 
of his captain. The naval medal was also granted, in 1847, 
to the surviving participators. 

On the 13th of March, while the 36-gun frigate Emerald, 
Captain Frederick L. Maitland, was cruising off the north 
coast of Spain, a large French schooner was discovered lying 
in the harbour of Vivero, when the frigate stood in to 
attempt her destruction. At 5h. 30m. p.m., two forts, one 
mounting eight and the other five 24-pounders, opened on 
the frigate, and Captain Maitland, anxious to prevent the 
enemy from making any further dispositions for defence, 
despatched a party of seamen and marines, under Lieutenant 
Charles Bertram, with Lieutenants of marines Giles Meech 
and John Husband, Masters' mates Matthew Mildridge and 
Edward Saurin, to storm the outer battery, while the 
Emerald stood in and engaged the inner one. The Spaniards 
were speedily driven out of the right-hand fort, by the de- 
tachment under Lieutenant Bertram, and the guns spiked; 
while the Emerald's third lieutenant, William Smith, at the 
head of another party, proceeded to attack the fort, which 
the Emerald was engaging on the left. On landing about 
a mile below the fort, Lieutenant Smith's party was opposed 
by a body of soldiers ; but after a scuffle the enemy re- 
treated, closely pursued by the British, who by these means 
missed their way to the fort, and returned. In the mean 
while, however, the fort had been silenced by the fire of the 
frigate. Daniel Baird, midshipman, was despatched by 
Lieutenant Bertram to board the schooner, which, having 
been run on the rocks by her crew, was surrounded by the 
men posted among the rocks, who vigorously engaged the 
British party ; but Lieutenant Bertram coming up to the 
support of Mr. Baird, the French were quickly dispersed. 
The schooner, which was the Apropos, of eight 12-pounder 
carronades, and a complement of seventy men, from the 
Isle of France with despatches, having gone on shore at high 
water, it was found impossible to bring off, and she. was 
therefore set on fire, and at lh. a.m. on the 14th blew up. 
Nine seamen and marines were killed, and Lieutenant Ber- 
tram (severely), both lieutenants of marines, Mr. Mildridge, 
and eleven seamen and marines wounded. Lieutenant Ber- 



222 CHILDERS AND LOUGEN. [1808. 

tram was for his gallantry promoted to the rank of com- 
mander. Ke wards were conferred on the abovenamed 
officers by the Patriotic Fund. A naval medal action. 

On the 14th of March, the brig-sloop Childers, 1 armed 
with fourteen 12-pounder carronades, Commander William 
Henry Dillon, while cruising in the Baltic, fought a very 
gallant action with the Danish 18-pounder 18-gun brig 
Lougen. After engaging for some time, the Childers, owing 
to the injury she had sustained from the heavy armament of 
the Lougen, and being unable to bring the latter to close 
quarters, was under the necessity of discontinuing the action, 
and to put into Leith. Out of a crew of only fifty-six men 
and boys, the Childers had her clerk, Joseph Roberts, and 
one seaman killed ; and her commander (severely), John 
Batten and Charles Parker, midshipmen, and six men 
wounded. Previously to this, the boats of the Childers cut 
out a galliot from the port of Midbe. A sword of 100 
guineas' value was presented to Commander Dillon by the 
Patriotic Fund ; and he was shortly afterwards promoted. 
This is a naval medal action. 

On the 22nd of March, the Danish 74-gun ship Prindtz 
Christian Frederick, Captain Jessen, was chased and driven 
on shore near Greenall, on the coast of Jutland, by the 
64-gun ships Stately and Nassau, Captains George Parker 
and Robert Campbell. The ship surrendered before taking 
the ground ; and as soon as the prisoners were removed, it 
being found impracticable to get the ship afloat, she was set 
on fire and destroyed. The Stately's loss amounted to two 
seamen and two marines killed ; and Lieutenant Edward 
Cole, the boatswain, John Limming, James Davis, master's 
mate, twenty-three seamen, and two marines wounded. 
The Nassau had one seaman killed, one missing, and sixteen 
wounded. The loss on board the Danish ship amounted to 
fifty-five killed and eighty-eight wounded. 

On the 15th of March, about sixty miles to the southward 
of Ceylon, the 32-gun frigate Terpsichore (on account of her 
weakness mounting only twenty-six long 12-pounders and 
two 6- pounders), Captain William Augustus Montagu, dis- 

1 This brig, measuring only 202 tons, was built in 1778, and her force 
was so paltry that the merchants at Leith refused to put their vessels 
hound to Gottenberg under her protection. 



1808.] TERPSICHORE AND SEMILLANTE. 223 

covered, on the weather beam, a strange ship under a press 
of sail. The stranger, which was the French 36-gun frigate 
Semillante, Captain Motard, taking the Terpsichore for an 
Indiaman, hoisted English colours, and closing with her at 
6h. 45m. p.m., commenced action at the distance of 100 
yards. The engagement lasted until 7h. 10m., when some 
combustible matter, thrown on board the Terpsichore, com- 
municated to the cartridge-boxes on the main deck, and 
occasioned a very destructive explosion, which set the ship 
on fire, and completely unmanned three guns. The enemy 
then endeavoured to escape ; but the Terpsichore making- 
sail in chase, the action was renewed at 7h. 20m. After a 
short time, the Semillante again made sail to the south-west. 
The Terpsichore had suffered so much aloft, and her masts 
were so badly wounded, that it was found impracticable 
to follow her antagonist for nearly an hour, when sail was 
again made in chase. At midnight the two ships were about 
a mile and a half asunder. During the 16th, 17th, and 
18th, the Semillante gradually increased her distance, and at 
sunset on the last-named day was no longer in sight. On 
the next morning the French frigate was again seen, and on 
the 20th, at lOh. 30m. a.m., a heavy squall favouring the 
Terpsichore again brought her within shot of the Semil- 
lante ; but the latter opening a fire from her stern-chasers, 
and by cutting away her stern-boat, starting water, and 
throwing a quantity of lumber overboard, finally succeeded 
in evading her gallant pursuer. The Terpsichore, in her 
action, sustained a loss (chiefly by the explosion) of Lieu- 
tenant Charles Jones and twenty men killed, and twenty- 
two wounded (two mortally). The loss of the Semillante is 
not mentioned. 1 

1 The Semillante was, upon the whole, most fortunate. After running- 
the gauntlet of the British squadron in the East Indies, this ship, in 
company with the frigate privateer Bellone, reached Port Louis, Isle of 
Prance, in the month of November, 1805. Here she" was blockaded by 
the 32-gun frigate Pitt, Captain Walter Bathurst, and by the Terpsichore. 
On the 27th January, 1806, the two French frigates evaded the Pitt and 
put to sea, when they steered for Isie Bourbon ; from thence the Semil- 
lante returned to Port Louis unobserved. On the 21st November, 1807, 
after having undergone various adventures and being deprived, by cap- 
ture, of her consorts, the Semillante was stretching over towards the Isle 
of France, when she was observed from the 12-pounder 36-gun frigate 



22-i DAPHNE, ETC. AT FLODSTRANDT. [1808. 

On the night of the 22nd of March, the 18-pounder 36-gun 
frigate Aigle, Captain George Wolfe, belonging to a squadron 
watching the port of L'Orient, chased two French frigates, 
and followed and partly assisted by the 74-gun ship Inipe- 
tueux, Captain John Lawford, on the 23rd drove on shore 
one of them (supposed to have been the 36-gun frigate 
Seine) on the Pointe des Chats, near L'Orient, where the 
ship was seriously damaged. The conduct of Captain Wolfe 
throughout the chase was exceedingly gallant ; and the 
captain himself (in the left arm and hip), Lieutenant John 
Lambe, and twenty seamen and marines were wounded, 
seven severely. The loss .on board the French frigates was 
supposed to have been heavy. 

On the 23rd of April, the 20-gun ship Daphne, Captain 
Francis Mason ; 1 8-gun sloop Tartarus, Commander William 
Russell; and gun-brig Forward, Lieutenant Daniel Shiels, 
discovered a Danish convoy at Flodstrandt, on the coast of 
Denmark, laden with provisions for the relief of Norway, 
consisting of seven brigs, three galliots, and a sloop. The 
vessels were secured to the shore by hawsers, and protected 
by a strong fort, mounting ten guns. The boats, under the 
orders of Lieutenant William Elliott, with Hugh Stewart, 
master, Lieutenant of marines Richard Boger, Midshipmen 
George Beazely, James Durrell, Thomas Elliott, George Moore, 
and George H. Ayton, of the Daphne ; and Lieutenants 
Richard Gittings and William Patterson, Midshipmen John 
Septford, Charles Lutman, and Francis Andrews, of the 
Tartarus, were towed near the shore by the Forward. The 
approach of the boats being discovered, the Danes aban- 
doned their vessels ; but as soon as the boats' crews had 
boarded, a heavy fire of grape and musketry was opened 
upon them from the castle, another battery of three guns, 

De"daigneuse, Captain William B. Proctor. Unfortunately, however, 
the Dedaigneuse was in very bad sailing condition, or the cruise of the 
Semillante might have been at an end. The Dedaigneuse continued the 
chase while there was a prospect of success, but the French frigate suc- 
ceeded in reaching Port Louis. The Semillante, after her action with 
the Terpsichore, being found too weak to carry her armament, shipped a 
cargo of colonial produce, and thus valuably freighted reached in safety 
a port of France in February, 1809. Captain Motard deserved the 
highest praise for the ability displayed by him throughout his long 
voyage. 



1808.] SPANISH CONVOY ATTACKED OFF CADIZ. 225 

and from the crews of the vessels drawn up on the beach. 
The ten vessels were, notwithstanding, brought out. Lieu- 
tenant Elliott, Mr. Stewart, master of the Daphne, and 
three men were wounded. 

On the 4th of April, while the 38-gun frigate Alceste, 
Captain Murray Maxwell ; 28-gun frigate Mercury, Captain 
James A. Gordon; and 18-gun brig Grasshopper, Commander 
Thomas Searle, lay at anchor about three miles from St. Se- 
bastian light-house, near Cadiz, a large convoy, protected 
by twenty gun-boats and a train of flying artillery, was 
observed coming down close under the land from the north- 
ward. At 3h. p.m., just as the Spanish convoy was abreast 
of Rota Point, the Alceste and squadron weighed and stood 
towards the enemy's vessels, and at 4h., the shot and shells 
passing over them, the British vessels opened their fire. 
The frigates devoted their principal attention to the gun- 
boats, while the brig was stationed upon the shoal, to the 
southward of the town, and so close to the batteries as to 
drive the Spaniards from their guns by discharges of grape 
from her carronades, which also kept a division of gun-boats 
in check, that had come out of Cadiz to assist those with 
the convoy. The conduct of the Grasshopper is thus noticed 
in the official letter of Captain Maxwell : " It was the 
general cry in both ships, ' Only look how nobly the brig 
behaves.'" The first lieutenant of the Alceste (Allen Stew^ 
art) having volunteered to go in with the boats and board 
the convoy, Captain Maxwell sent them under that officer, 
accompanied by Lieutenants of marines Philip Pipon and 
Richard Hawkey ; Master's mates James Arscott and Tho- 
mas Day ; Midshipmen J. S. Parker, Thomas Adair, Charles 
Croker, Abraham M c Caul, and Thomas H. M c Lean. The 
boats of the Mercury, under Lieutenant Watkin O. Pell, 
with Lieutenant Robert J. Gordon, Lieutenant of marines 
James Whylock, Master's mates Charles Du Cane and 
Mam-ice K. Comyn, soon followed, and dashing in among 
the convoy, notwithstanding the tremendous fire kept up by 
the batteries and from the gun-boats and boats of the 
enemy's squadron in Cadiz, seven tartans were brought out, 
two gun-boats destroyed, and several others driven on shore! 
This very gallant service, performed at the entrance of Cadiz, 
and in sight of eleven sail of the line, was attended with the 
VOL. II. o 



226 ATTACK ON THE GAROTTA. [1808. 

comparatively small loss of one man mortally and two 
slightly wounded on board the Grasshopper, and none in the 
boats. The brig was hulled in several places, and was much 
damaged in masts, rigging, and sails. The naval medal is 
granted for this action to all three ships. 

The 12-pouDder 36-gun frigate Nymphe, Captain Conway 
Shipley, and 18-gun sloop Blossom, Commander George 
Pigot, cruising off Lisbon, obtained intelligence that the 
20-gun brig Garotta, fitted out by the French, and manned 
with 150 men, was lying above Belem Castle, ready for sea. 
Captain Shipley himself rowed into the Tagus in the night 
to reconnoitre her position, and having ascertained it, de- 
termined to attempt her capture. The boats of both ships, 
under the command of Captain Shipley, after making two 
attempts to proceed on this service, on the night of the 
23rd of April, put off from the Nymphe, at 9h. p.m. The 
whole force comprised eight boats, and 150 officers and men, 
in two divisions ; the larboard division consisted of the 
Nymphe's gig, Captain Shipley ; her large cutter, Lieutenant 
Bichard Standish Haly ; launch, Lieutenant Thomas Hoclg- 
kinson ; and barge, Michael Baven, master's mate. The 
other division included the Blossom's gig, Commander Pigot ; 
the first cutter, Lieutenant John Undrell ; launch, Lieu- 
tenant William Cecil; and the Nymphe's small cutter, 
Thomas Hill, master's mate. To prevent separation, orders 
were given for the boats to tow each other until discovered 
by the enemy, when they were to cast off and make the 
best of their way alongside — the larboard division to board 
on the larboard side, and the starboard division on the star- 
board side. As in the event of success the captors might 
have some diificulty in avoiding the dangerous shoals, Henry 
Andrews, master of the Nymphe, was stationed in the jolly- 
boat, upon the northern extremity of the South Catchop, 
near Bogue Fort, to hoist a light on the approach of the 
brig. 

The boats reached the entrance of the Tagus in good 
order, near the top of high water ; but Captain Shipley, 
anxious to secure a good tide to bring off the prize, waited 
until the tide slacked, hoping to board before the ebb made 
strong. Unhappily, the flood had no sooner ceased than a 
fresh in the river, caused by the heavy rains, came down at 



1808.] DEATH OF CAPTAIN SHIPLEY. 227 

the rate of six or eight miles an hour. The boats, however, 
at about 2h. 30m. a.m., got within hail of the brig (which 
was lying moored close under the guns of Beleni Castle, 
having in addition, and for her protection, a heavy floating 
battery), and the signal was given to cast off and proceed to 
board. In an instant the gallant Captain Shipley, in his 
gig, darted from his companions, and, in a few minutes, 
having jumped into the fore-rigging of the C4arotta, was in 
the act of cutting away the boarding-netting, when he 
received a musket-ball in ohe forehead, and fell dead into 
the river. The captain's brother, Mr. Charles Shipley, a 
volunteer on the occasion, immediately ordered the men to 
shove off in the gig, and endeavour to pick up the captain. 
In dropping astern, the gig unfortunately got foul of the 
cutter, Lieutenant Haly, then in the act of boarding on the 
larboard quarter ; the cutter, in her turn, dropped foul of 
the launch, and all three boats fell foul of a caulking stage, 
moored astern of the brig. The cutter, having got clear 
of the other boats, then endeavoured to regain her station 
alongside the brig ; but, the tide coming down like a sluice, 
this was found utterly impossible, and the boats were obliged 
to yield to it and relinquish the enterprise. One seaman 
was killed in the cutter, and William Moriarty, midship- 
man, and one marine wounded. The starboard division did 
not get near enough, or make any attempt, to board. 

The body of the brave Captain Shipley was shortly after- 
wards washed on shore and recovered, when it was found 
that his wound was quite sufficient to have caused his 
death, and that it was not in any degree accelerated by his 
having fallen overboard. 1 The loss of Captain Shipley was 
deeply deplored. " No man ever possessed in a greater 
degree," says a writer in the Naval Chronicle (vol. xx. 
p. 289), " the power of inspiring all whom he commanded 
with sentiments similar to his own ; what those sentiments 
were, his life, short, alas ! as it was, and his glorious fall, 
have revealed." 

On the 23rd of April, the 18-gun brig Grasshopper, Com- 

1 It is a well-known fact, that not one man in thirty who falls over- 
board in the Tagus, when the tide is running, is ever recovered : the 
numerous and powerful eddies immediately draw the body below the 
surface. 

Q2 



228 GOREE WITH FRENCH CORVETTES. [1808. 

mander Thomas Searle, accompanied by the 14-gun brig 
Rapid, Lieutenant Henry Baugh, cruising off Faro, on the 
coast of Portugal, chased two Spanish vessels, protected by 
four gun-boats, which took shelter under a battery near 
Faro. The brigs having anchored within grape-shot of the 
battery and gun-boats, after a severe action of two hours 
and a half, drove on shore two of the latter, compelled the 
remaining two to surrender, and the Spaniards to quit their 
guns. The two vessels, which were from South America, 
and contained cargoes valued at £30,000 each, were taken 
possession of and brought out, as well as the two gun-boats. 
The Grasshopper had one seaman killed, her captain (slightly) 
and three seamen severely wounded ; and the Rapid, three 
seamen wounded. The loss on board the captured gun-boats 
amounted to forty in killed and wounded. Captain Searle, 
in his official letter, spoke in high terms of Lieutenant 
William Outfield, also of the master, Henry Bell, and the 
purser, Thomas Bastin : the former, for conducting the brig 
under the batteries ; and the latter, for having, in the absence 
of the second lieutenant, taken charge of the aftermost guns. 
Commander Searle and Lieutenant Baugh were promoted, 
and the naval medal has been granted to those engaged. 

On the 22nd of April, at 6h. a.m., the Gor6e, of eighteen 
long sixes and eight 12-pounder carronades, with a crew of 
120 men and boys, Captain Joseph Spear, lying at anchor in 
Grande Bourg Bay, Marie Galante, discovered the French 
16-gun corvettes Palinure and Pilade, bearing south-east. 
After making a signal for an enemy to the 18-gun brig 
Superieure, Commander Andrew Hodge, at anchor a few 
miles to the north-west, the Goree, at 9h. a.m., slipped, and, 
with a breeze at east-south-east, stood off shore towards the 
corvettes, which hove to and awaited her coining up. At 
lOh. a.m. an action commenced within pistol-shot, which had 
lasted about an hour, when the Superieure and some other 
vessels approaching, the corvettes bore up and made all sail, 
leaving the Goree with her fore and main topsail-yards shot 
away in the slings, and all her masts badly wounded ; but 
with only one man killed and four wounded. The enemy's 
vessels had sustained a loss together of fifty men killed and 
wounded. The Goree, being quite disabled for present action, 
also bore up and re-anchored at Marie Galante. By noon 



1808.] CAPTURE OF RONCO AND CONSORTS. 229 

the Superieure got within three miles of the corvettes, 
which were steering for the Saintes, and before they reached 
the anchorage a running fight took place, between the Supe- 
rieure and the Pilade, which was continued until close under 
the batteries on the Saintes, when the Superieure hauled up, 
having sustained little damage. When the action ceased, the 
32-gun frigate Circe and 18-gun brig Wolverine, Captains 
Hugh Pigot and Francis Augustus Collier, were within two 
miles of the Superieure. 

On the 29th of April, the 16-gun sloop Falcon, Lieutenant 
John Price, being off the island of Endelau, observed nine 
large boats hauled up on the beach. Three boats were sent 
in, which succeeded in burning them, although defended by- 
some Danish troops. Lieutenant Price, learning from a 
market-boat which he had also captured, that some vessels 
laden with pieces of ordnance intended for a battery con- 
structing at the entrance of Kyeholm were expected, the 
boats were sent away every night, and on the 7th of May, 
under the command of James Ellerton, master of the Falcon, 
they fell in with and attacked two vessels, anchored close 
under the batteries of Lindholm, which were instantly 
boarded and carried without loss. One boat was brought 
safely out ; but the other, containing a 13-inch mortar and 
400 shells, grounding, was destroyed. 

On the 2nd of May, the 18-pounder 36-gun frigate Unite, 
Captain Patrick Campbell, captured, in the Gulf of Venice, 
the Italian 16-gun brig Ronco ; and on the 31st of the same 
month, the Unite discovered and chased three other Italian 
brigs of war, two of which were captured after a long and 
arduous pursuit. The three brigs, being fine vessels of 
about 340 tons each, were added to the British navy, under 
the respective names of Tuscan, Cretan, and Roman. 

On the 7th of May, at daylight, the 18-gun brig Redwing, 
Commander Thomas Ussher, cruising off' Cape Trafalgar, 
discovered a Spanish convoy, protected by seven armed 
vessels, mounting in all twenty-two heavy long guns, with 
crews to the number of 271 men, coming down along-shore. 
The wind being very light, the Redwing was unable to close 
with them until 7h. a.m., when, having arrived within point- 
blank shot, the Spanish gun-boats furled their sails and swept 
towards the brig, as if with the intention of boarding. 



230 WIZARD AND REQUIN. [1808 # 

Having arrived within musket-shot, the Redwing opened a 
spirited and well-directed fire, which was so admirably kept 
up, that the gun-boats, panic-stricken, retreated and ran on 
shore on the rocks, and a great portion of their crews 
perished in the heavy surf, notwithstanding the noble exer- 
tions of the Redwing's boats' crews to save them. Four 
merchant vessels were sunk by the fire of the Redwing, and 
seven others and a 4-gun mistico captured ; but two with a 
gun-boat effected their escape. Only one seaman was wounded 
on board the Redwing ; but her lower masts were both struck 
by 24-pound shot, and her rigging and sails much damaged. 
In the boats of the brig one seaman was killed, and John 
Davis, master, Robert L. Horniman, purser, and one seaman 
were wounded. The weather and every circumstance greatly 
favoured the operations of the gun-boats, and nothing but a 
high state of skill and discipline on board the Redwing 
could have brought about so favourable a termination. The 
naval medal is granted for this action. 

On the 10th of May, the 16-gnn brig Wizard, Com- 
mander Abel Ferris, being in latitude 40° 30' north, longi- 
tude 6° 34' east, with the wind at west, discovered and 
chased a brig to leeward, bearing east-north-east, and steering 
to the southward under all sail. This vessel was the French 
brig Requin, of equal force, Captain Berard. The pursuit con- 
tinued throughout the day and night ; but, on the 11th, at 
Ih. a.m., the wind diedaway,and the Wizard's crew had recoiu^se 
to the sweeps, by which she was enabled to get sufficiently 
near at 7h. 45m. for the Requin to fire her stern-chasers. 
The Wizard, having hoisted her colours, returned the fire, 
and at 9h. the French brig rounded to, with her studding 
sails set, and fired her broadside, which enabled the Wizard 
to pass under her opponent's stern, and, after raking her, to 
take a position on the Requin's lee quarter. The action 
continued with much spirit on both sides, until lOh. 30m., 
when the Requin filled and made sail. Although the Wizard 
had received much injury to her masts, sails, and rigging, the 
pursuit was prosecuted with untiring energy, the crew mean- 
while knotting and replacing the standing and running 
rigging, and fishing the wounded spars. 

The crew passed the second night at their quarters, work- 
ing at the sweeps, whenever the wind fell light, and on the 



1808.] CAPTURE OF THE GRIFFON. 231 

12th, at 6h. lorn, a.m., the Wizard had approached suffi- 
ciently near to fire her bow guns; but her opponent's sailing- 
qualities were so much superior, that the moment a breeze 
came, the Wizard was left astern, and at 7h. a m. was again 
out of gun-shot. At midnight the brigs were about two 
miles and a half apart, and the AMcan coast right ahead, 
distant seven or eight miles. This most arduous chase con- 
tinued until the 14th, at 4h. a.m., when the Requin was 
right ahead, distant about two miles and a half, steering for 
Tunis Bay, which she reached at 5h. a.m., and where, this 
being a neutral port, she lay in safety. The Wizard stood 
into the bay after her, and passed so close to the fugitive 
brig, that her name, "Le Requin" was read on her stern; 
after which she made sail out of the bay. The Wizard was 
obliged to repair to Malta, where her lower masts were 
shifted and a new main-yard supplied. One man was killed 
and five wounded on board her. This harassing chase of 370 
miles, performed in light airs and calms, in eighty-eight hours, 
was highly creditable to the Wizard's crew ; and it is to be 
regretted that the brig's dull sailing should have deprived 
them of the prize their valour and skill would have gained. 

On the 11th of May, the 20-gun ship Bacchante, Captain 
Samuel Hood Inglefield, cruising off Cuba, brought to action 
the French 16-gun brig Griffon, commanded by Lieutenant 
Gautier. After sustaining a running action of thirty minutes, 
by which time she was within 200 yards of the breakers off 
the Cape Antonio, the colours of the Griffon were hauled 
down. 

On the 10th of May, the 18-pounder 32-gun frigate Tartar, 
Captain George E. B. Bettesworth, sailed from Leith Roads, 
in quest of the Dutch 36-gun frigate Guelderland, and on 
the 12th arrived off the coast of Norway. On the loth, 
the Tartar made the islands to the westward of Bergen, 
and, on hoisting Dutch colours, some boats came off from 
the shore, from whom Captain Bettesworth learnt that the 
Guelderland and convoy had sailed some days previously for 
the East Indies. By the aid of the men who came off in 
these boats, Captain Bettesworth was enabled to conduct the 
frigate through a most intricate passage, until within five or 
six miles of Bergen, when the pilots wisely refused to take 
the ship nearer, for destruction only could have been the 



232 TARTAR AT BERGEN. [1808. 

result. Determined, however, if possible, to take the ship off 
the town of Bergen, and endeavour to cut out any shipping 
that might be in the harbour, Captain Bettesworth, accom- 
panied by his first lieutenant, Thomas Sykes, and the master, 
John Jervis White, left the ship in the frigate's boats, and 
proceeded towards the town. The boats had arrived near 
Bergen, when the guard-boat attacked them, which Lieutenant 
Sykes, in the launch, boarded and carried. The firing thus 
occasioned alarmed the town, otherwise a large Indiaman 
lying under a battery might have been surprised and carried 
off. Finding nothing likely to be done in consequence of a 
chain being across the harbour's mouth, Captain Bettesworth 
returned to the ship, leaving the launch in charge of Lieu- 
tenant Sykes, to watch the motions of the Indiaman, and 
take her if possible. Soon afterwards a schooner and five 
gun-boats quitted the harbour, which the launch for a time 
engaged ; but the gun-boats, having more important prey in 
view, made all speed towards the frigate, and the launch, 
under the guidance of two fishermen, pressed by Lieutenant 
Sykes, made the best of her way after them. 

Upon the arrival of Captain Bettesworth on board the 
Tartar, she was got underweigh with the intention of pro- 
ceeding to Bergen, but the wind died away before she was 
half through the intricate passage. The gun-boats before 
mentioned had in the meanwhile approached within half gun- 
shot, and, taking their position on the Tartar's bow, kept up 
a well-directed fire, which did considerable execution, and to 
which no adequate return could be made. Captain Bettes- 
worth, in the act of pointing a gun, had his head taken off 
by one of the first shot fired. Henry Fitzburg, midshipman, 
was shot nearly at the same time. The command of the 
ship, in the absense of the first lieutenant, then devolved on 
Lieutenant Herbert Caiger. A light air of wind springing 
up, the Tartar's broadside was brought to bear on the enemy, 
by which one boat was sunk, and, after some firing, the 
remainder took refuge under the batteries of Bergen. While 
returning down the passage she had entered, the Tartar 
picked up her launch, when Lieutenant Sykes assumed the 
command, and, under the guidance of the Norwegian fisher- 
men, extricated the ship with the utmost difficulty from her 
perilous situation. In many parts the channel was so narrow 



1808.] VIRGINIE AND GUELDERLAND. 233-. 

that it was necessary to boom the frigate off the rocks with 
spars. On the 20th, the Tartar returned to Leith Roads 
with the body of Captain Bettesworth on board. 

On the 19th of May, at 4h. p.m., in latitude 46° north, 
longitude 14° west, the 38-gun frigate Yirginie, Captain 
Edward Brace, while standing on the starboard tack, with 
the Mind at north-east, observed and chased a ship right 
ahead. At 4h. 30m., the stranger, which was the Dutch 
12 -pounder 3G-gun frigate Guelderland, Captain Pool, pre- 
viously alluded to, bore up, and at 7h. 40m., the Virginie 
having nearecl her, both ships fired a gun, and the Guelderland 
hoisted French colours. At 9h. 45m., the Guelderland, 
being hailed from the Virginie, answered that she was a 
Dutch ship of war ; upon which the latter commenced firing, 
and, after an action of an hour and a half (during which the 
Guelderland wore three times), having her masts and bow- 
sprit shot away, and sustained a loss of twenty-five men 
killed and fifty wounded, including her commander, the 
Guelderland was surrendered. The Virginie had only one man 
killed and two wounded. The first lieutenant of the Virginie, 
John Davis, was promoted to be a commander, and Nathaniel 
Norton, midshipman, made lieutenant. This is a naval medal 
action. 

On the 12th of May, the 18-pounder 32-gun frigate 
Amphion, Captain William Hoste, being on her way from 
Toulon to Majorca, discovered a frigate lying at anchor in 
the Bay of Rosas, under the protection of some heavy 
batteries. This was the French frigate-built store-ship 
Baleine, of 800 tons, mounting twenty-six or thirty guns 
(probably 12-pounders), with a crew of 150 men. At 
lOh. 10m. a.m. the Baleine hoisted French colours, and 
at lOh. 30m. commenced firing on the Amphion as she 
approached, as did also a battery of sixteen long 24-pounders, 
on the left of Rosas, Fort Bouton, which mounted several 
heavy guns, and a low battery of eight 24-pounders, on the 
right-hand side of the bay. The Amphion, having to work 
in, returned the fire, on different tacks, as she best could, and 
at llh. the Baleine slipped her cables, hoisted her staysails, 
and ran on shore, close under Fort Bouton. At llh. 30m. 
the Amphion anchored, with springs on her cable, inside the 
anchorage which the Baleine had quitted, when she opened 



234 DESTRUCTION OF THE BALEINE. [1808. 

a smart fire on the ship and batteries, which was returned 
by the enemy, who fired hot shot, some of which set the 
Amphion on fire. At lh. 30m. p.m. the Baleine was observed 
to be in flames, and some of her crew were seen escaping to 
the shore. Supposing that she had surrendered, Lieutenant 
William Bennet was sent in the jolly-boat to take possession, 
but on his approach the boat was fired at. Regardless of the 
shot, Lieutenant Bennet and his boat's crew stood up in the 
boat and gave three loud cheers, after which they returned 
to the Amphion. At 2h. 20m. the Amphion cut her cable, 
and made sail out of the bay, having gallantly effected the 
irreparable injury, if not destruction, of the French ship. 
The Amphion had one man killed and five wounded. 

On the 24th of May, at noon, the hired armed cutter 
Swan, mounting ten 12-pounder carronades, with a crew of 
forty men and boys, Lieutenant Mark Robinson Lucas, being 
off* the island of Bornholm, on her way to Sir Samuel Hood, 
with despatches, observed a cutter under the land standing 
towards her. The Swan hove to, and hoisted a Dutch jack 
for a pilot. At 2h. p.m., the stranger having approached 
within a short distance, the Swan made sail in chase, and at 
4h. p.m. arrived within shot, when the cutter opened her fire, 
and the battery of Bornholm also fired at the Swan. The 
stranger, in endeavouring to get a long gun aft, to bear over 
her tanrail upon her pursuer, came up in the wind, and by 
this accident enabled the Swan to get within musket-shot, 
and after an action of twenty minutes her opponent blew up 
and sank. The Danish cutter appeared to have been a 
vessel of about 120 tons, and to have mounted ten guns. 
The Swan received no damage, nor had she a man hurt. 

On the 4th of June, during a calm, the 14-gun brig 
Tickler, Lieutenant John Watson Skinner, being in the 
Great Belt, was attacked by four Danish gun-boats, and after 
an action of four hours, during which her commander and 
fourteen seamen were killed and twenty-two wounded, out 
of a crew of fifty men, was compelled to surrender. 

On the 9th of June, a small squadron, consisting of the 
Thunder bomb, Captain James Caulfield, and gun-brigs 
Charger, Piercer, and Turbulent, Lieutenants John Aitkin 
Blow, John Sibrell, and George Wood, convoying seventy 
sail of merchant vessels, was attacked off the south end of 



1808.] ACTIONS IN THE GREAT BELT. 235 

Saitholm, by twenty-five Danish gun-vessels. The Turbulent, 
being in the rear, at about 5h. 30m. p.m., became exposed to 
a heavy fire, to which the best return was made from her 
1 8-pounder carronades. The Thunder afforded her all the 
assistance possible, and by a discharge of rockets and one- 
pound shells, kept the enemy at bay for a time ; but the 
Turbulent was at length surrounded and captured. Taking 
their prize in tow, the gun-vessels pursued the Thunder ; 
but the latter having got her 6-pounders to bear out of her 
stern-ports, and having cut away her launch and jolly-boat 
(previously knocked to pieces), succeeded in beating off her 
pursuers, and the Danes retired, after securing ten or twelve 
sail of the convoy. Lieutenant Wood was honourably 
acquitted for the loss of the brig. 

On the evening of the 11th of June, the 36-gun frigate 
Euryalus, Captain the Hon. George Heneage L. Dundas, and 
1 8-gun sloop Cruiser, Commander George Charles Mackenzie, 
cruising in the Great Belt, having discovered several vessels 
at anchor near the shore, four boats, under the orders of 
Lieutenant Michael Head, with Francis Wemyss, James W. 
O. Ricketts, Bernard Yeoman, Jacob Richards, Philip Gay- 
more, Richard Moffat, and Edward Loveday, midshipmen, 
were sent to destroy them. A Danish gun-boat, mounting 
two long 18-pounders, with a crew of sixty-four men, lying 
moored close to a 3 -gun battery, and protected by a body of 
troops on the beach, was boarded and brought out, and two 
large vessels, fitted as troop-ships, were burnt. In the Bri- 
tish boats only one man was wounded, but the Danes had 
seven men killed and twelve wounded. A sword value fifty 
guineas was presented to Lieutenant Head, by the Patriotic 
Fund. 

On the 19th of June, the Naze of Norway distant seven 
or eight leagues, the 16-gun brig Seagull, mounting fourteen 
24-pounder carronades and two long sixes, Commander 
Robert Cathcart, fell in with the Danish 20-gun brig Lougen, 
which mounted eighteen long 18-pounders and two long- 
sixes, with a crew of 160 men (whose action with the Chil- 
ders has already been mentioned), running to the eastward 
with a fresh westerly breeze. The Seagull made all sail in 
chase, and at 4h. 30m. p.m., having arrived within range of 
the Lougen's long guns, the Danish brig commenced the 



23G SEAGULL AND LOUGEN. |_1808i 

action. The wind dying away about this time, the Seagull, 
by means of her sweeps, got sufficiently near to use her car- 
ronades with effect, and at 5h. was enabled to return the 
enemy's fire ; but her sweeps were, after a short time, de- 
stroyed, and her standing and running rigging much cut by 
the Lougen's shot. The action had not continued more than 
twenty minutes, when six Danish gun-boats, each armed with 
two long 24-pounders, and a crew of sixty or seventy men, 
rowed from under cover of the rocks towards the Seagull ; 
and, taking a position on each quarter, raked her with great 
execution, while the Lougen kept up a constant fire on the 
larboard bow with equal effect. By 6h. 30m. p.m. five of the 
Seagull's larboard carronades were dismounted, and the brig 
almost unrigged ; she, however, continued her defence, and, 
after sustaining the fire of her numerous foes until 7h. 30m. 
p.m., at which time she had five feet water in the hold, the 
Seagull struck her colours. Out of a crew of ninety-four 
men the Seagull lost her second lieutenant, Abraham B. 
White, the master, Andrew Martin, three seamen, and three 
marines killed ; her captain severely, Villiers T. Hatton, first 
lieutenant, dangerously, Thomas Wilson, boatswain, eleven 
seamen, and six marines wounded. Total : eight killed and 
twenty wounded. Scarcely was the Seagull in possession of 
her conquerors, and the survivors of her crew removed, when 
the brig went down, thus affording incontrovertible evidence 
of her noble defence. Commander Cathcart was promoted 
on his return to England, but Lieutenant Hatton, although 
highly spoken of in the official letter, was passed over 

On the 26th of June, two boats of the 64-gun ship Stan- 
dard, Captain Thomas Harvey, cruising off the island of 
Corfu, were despatched, under the orders of Lieutenant 
Bichard Cull, and Captain of marines Edward Nicolls, in 
chase of an Italian gun-vessel and a French despatch-boat. 
After a row of two hours, exposed to a hot sun, the boats 
succeeded in getting within musket-shot of the gun-boat 
Volpe, mounting one long 4-pounder, with a crew of twenty 
men, which was boarded by Captain Nicolls, and carried 
without loss ; but the despatch-boat escaped. 

On the 23rd of June, the 22-gun ship Porcupine, Captain 
the Hon. Henry Duncan, drove on shore and destroyed a 
French vessel, near Civita Yecchia. On the 9th of July, 



1808.] BOATS OF THE PORCUPINE IN THE ADRIATIC. 237 

being becalmed under Monte Circello, on the coast of Ro- 
mania, two gun-boats and a merchant vessel were discovered 
running down under the land to the westward, which were 
chased under the guns of Port d'Anzo, by the boats com- 
manded by Lieutenant George Price. The boats were re- 
called, to chase three other vessels coming down from the 
westward, but were not able to prevent these from joining 
the gun-boats, in the harbour of D'Anzo. 

One of these latter vessels, a large 6-gun polacre, being 
observed farther out than the rest, Captain Duncan deter- 
mined on sending the boats to endeavour to capture her, and 
they were accordingly despatched on the 10th, at night, 
under Lieutenant Price, who was accompanied by Lieutenant 
Francis Smith, Lieutenant of marines James Benwick, and 
B. J. Featherstone, Charles Adam, John O'Brien Butler, mid- 
shipmen, and George Anderson, captain's clerk. The vessel, 
whose crew consisted of thirty men, fully prepared for the 
attack, was secured to the beach (which was lined with sol- 
diers), close under the guns of two batteries, a tower, and 
three gun-boats ; but, in the face of this, the gallant assail- 
ants dashed on, and in a short time were in full possession 
of the polacre. After an hour and twenty minutes of hard 
and hazardous work, the prize was brought out, notwith- 
standing the wind was light and baffling ; and this desperate 
service was effected with no greater injury than eight men 
wounded, including Lieutenant Price (severely on the head 
and right leg) and Mr. Butler. Lieutenant Price was re- 
warded by promotion. Those present in the boats are en- 
titled to the naval medal. 

Still on this coast, the Porcupine, on the 21st July, drove 
on shore, near Monte Circello, a polacre ship, which was 
destroyed by the boats under the command of Lieutenant 
Francis Smith without loss. 

On the 8th of August another very gallant exploit was 
performed, at the island of Planosa, by the Porcupine's cut- 
ters and jolly-boat, in which were Lieutenants Smith and 
Ben wick, and Midshipmen Henry Parry, Edward Barry, and 
G. D. Lane, and George Anderson, clerk. Although the 
polacre ship which they attacked was moored within thirty 
yards of a battery mounting six or eight guns, which opened 
a heavy fire of grape upon the boats, and was also protected 



238 SEAHORSE AND TURKISH SQUADRON. [1808. 

by a party of soldiers on the beach, and one of her own guns 
judiciously placed, she was boarded and carried, with the 
loss of one seaman killed, and Lieutenant Benwick and one 
seaman mortally, and seven other men severely or mortally 
wounded. The prize was brought out, and proved to be 
the Concepcion, of four guns, from Genoa, bound to Cyprus. 

Towards the close of the year 1807, Vice- Admiral Lord 
Collingwood appeared with his fleet off the Dardanelles, and 
entered into an understanding with the Sublime Porte, that 
no Turkish ships of war were to cruise in the ^Egean Sea, 
and that no tribute was to be exacted from the inhabitants 
of the Greek islands. In order to enforce the observance 
of the compact on behalf of the Greeks, on quitting the 
Archipelago, his lordship ordered the 38-gun frigate Sea- 
horse, Captain John Stewart, to cruise in the neighbour- 
hood. A band of Epirots, formerly in the service of Russia, 
but which, by the treaty of Tilsit, were no longer required, 
had, it appeared, taken possession of two small islands, at 
the entrance of the Gulf of Salonica, called Droino and 
Saraguino, from which, having large boats, they laid the 
coasts as far as the Dardanelles under contribution, and 
captured all vessels bound to Constantinople ; thereby inter- 
cepting the tribute from those places (which was principally 
paid in corn), on its way to the Turkish capital. TJpon 
pretence of crushing these marauders, Captain Stewart was 
applied to by the Turkish authorities, to know if he would 
interfere with any squadron sent down the Dardanelles for 
that purpose ; but Captain Stewart, aware that his com- 
pliance with this departure from the terms of the agreement 
would be taken advantage of, replied that he would repel 
with all his force any attempt made in violation of the 
existing treaty. The Porte, however, understanding that 
the Seahorse was the only British ship of war in the Archi- 
pelago, despatched a squadron of two frigates, two corvettes, 
two mortar-vessels, and some xebecks, upon the service in 
view, which at the latter end of June anchored off Dromo. 
A party having landed from the squadron, surrounded the 
pirates' town, which was situated on a peak of the island. 
The freebooters, in this dilemma, had the thought to de- 
spatch one of their boats to Sira, near Tino, where the 



1808.] SEAHORSE AND BADERE ZAFFER. 239 

Seahorse was at anchor, to acquaint Captain Stewart Avith 
the circumstances. 

On the 1st of July the boat arrived alongside the Sea- 
horse, and Captain Stewart immediately gave orders to 
weigh, directing his course towards Dromo. On the 5th of 
July, at oh. 45m. p.m., two ships and a galley were discovered 
from the Seahorse, between the islands Scopolo and Dromo, 
and standing to the southward, which were soon made out 
to be Turkish ships of war. One of these was the Badere 
Zaffer, bearing the broad pendant of Commodore Scandril, 
which was a very fine ship of 1,300 tons, mounting on her 
main deck thirty brass guns, of three different calibres, as 
follows : in midships on each side was a French 36-pounder, 
and next to it, forward and aft, were four 24-pounders, the 
remaining ten being 18-pounders, and on the quarter-deck 
and forecastle were twenty-two long 12-pounders, also of 
brass : total, fifty-two guns. The crew numbered 543 men. 
Her consort was the Ali Fezan, and mounted twenty-four 
long brass 12-pounders, on the main deck, and in midships 
on the upper deck two mortars were placed, which of course 
were of no service in her approaching contest; her crew 
consisted of 230 men. The Turkish commodore did not 
offer to retreat, but, confident in his strength, continued the 
same course, and hoisted no colours. 

At 9h. 30m. p.m., the Seahorse having arrived on the 
weather-beam of the Badere Zaffer, shortened sail, and, 
through the medium of his Greek pilot, Captain Stewart 
hailed the Turkish commodore, and ordered him to sur- 
render the ship to a British frigate. A direct refusal being- 
returned, the broadside of the Seahorse, double-shotted, was 
fired into her, which was quickly responded to by the 
Badere Zaffer. With a light air of wind a little abaft the 
starboard beam, the two ships continued to engage with 
great animation, but the Badere Zaffer gradually edged off 
the wind to close with her consort, then about two miles on 
her larboard beam. Having effected a junction with the 
Ali Fezan, the helm of the Badere Zaffer was put hard 
aport, in order to lay the Seahorse (which had continued to 
keep her station on the weather-beam of her enemy) on 
board ; but as this mode of warfare was not to be preferred, 



240 SEAHORSE AND BADERE ZAFFER. [1808. 

in consequence of the large number of men in the Turkish 
ship, the Seahorse also hauled sharp up, and, having sufficient 
way, crossed the bows of her enemy, whose sails were all 
aback, and in much confusion. A most destructive raking 
fire was poured into her in passing, after winch the Seahorse 
tacked and bore up with the intention of again closing the 
Badere Zaffer, which had by this time got before the wind. 
The Ali Fezan, however, was, at about 10h., observed 
coming up on the weather-beam, upon which the Seahorse 
again hauled up, and, passing astern of this new opponent, 
poured in her starboard broadside with great precision and 
effect. The Seahorse then bore up, and continued firing 
into the Ali Fezan for about ten minutes, when an explosion 
took place near her fore hatchway. The Seahorse continuing 
to pursue the larger opponent, the Ah Fezan availed herself 
of the earliest opportunity, and, hauling her wind, made 
sail towards Pelagnisi, which port she reached in great- 
distress. 

At about lOh. 35m. the Seahorse ranged up on the lar- 
board beam of the Badere Zaffer, and, shortening sail, re- 
newed the action, both ships being now before the wind. 
At llh. the Turkish commodore made another attempt at 
boarding, but the British crew were too expert, and the 
Seahorse again crossed the bows of the Badere Zaffer ; but 
so close were the two ships on this occasion that the jib- 
boom of the Turkish ship grazed the mizen-rigging of the 
Seahorse, and carried away the vangs of her gaff. The 
forecastle and bowsprit of the Badere Zaffer were at this 
time observed to be crowded with men in expectation of 
boarding, and amongst these the aftermost carronades of 
the Seahorse were fired with great effect. In a short time 
the action was renewed, the Seahorse being then on the 
starboard side of the enemy, and the former continued to 
pour in broadside after broadside, until the Turkish guns 
were silenced. The Turkish frigate, although repeatedly 
hailed, returned no answer ; and at length, about lh. a.m. 
of the 6th, the Seahorse ceased firing upon her sullen foe, 
having so crippled her masts and yards, and her topmasts 
being shot away, that escape was impossible. The Seahorse 
then brought to on the larboard quarter of her enemy to 



1808.] SEAHORSE AND EADERE ZAFFER. 241 

repair the damages to the rigging, and also to refresh the 
crew, whose continual exertions had been very trying. 

At daylight the Seahorse passed under the stern of the 
Badere Zaffer, which was steering before the wind under 
the remains of her foresail. Receiving no answer to his 
hail, Captain Stewart ordered another broadside to be fired 
into her, and was about to repeat it, when the Turkish flag 
was hauled down. This act, it appears, had been performed 
without the sanction of the Turkish commodore, who, sitting 
in his chair, which was placed on a sort of wooden awning 
or shed, erected over the quarter-deck, gave orders for his 
men to continue the fight. But his officers, aware of the 
impossibility of escape, making prisoner of the stubborn 
chief, surrendered the ship, who was shortly afterwards 
taken on board the Seahorse. " Apparently unacquainted 
with the forms of civilized warfare," writes Mr. James, 
a Scandril had no idea of delivering up his sword in token of 
submission, and when told that he must do so, the Maho- 
metan commander complied with great reluctance, observing, 
as his eyes bent upon the forfeited weapon, ' that it was a 
Damascus blade of great value.' " Had the Turks once 
succeeded in gaining the deck of the Seahorse, their numbers 
would have rendered them formidable, and although they 
would doubtless, in the end, have been beaten off, yet it 
must have been attended with great loss to the British ; the 
watchful care, therefore, of the master, Thomas Curtis (who 
served in the same capacity on board the Wilhelmina, in her 
gallant action with the Psyche), which defeated the move- 
ments of the enemy, deserves every praise, and great honour 
is due to Captain Stewart, his officers and crew. The 
lieutenants were George Downie (who was promoted), 
Thomas Bennett, and Richard Glynn Vallack. The loss on 
board the Seahorse consisted of five men killed and ten 
wounded, and her masts were wounded, but immaterially. 
The carnage on board the Turkish ship was awful, 170 men 
were killed and 200 wounded ; and so much was the ship 
shattered that it was with difficulty she could be kept afloat. 
She however reached Malta, but, on being surveyed, was 
found to be badly put together and unfit for the British 
navy. The Patriotic Fund voted Captain Stewart a sword, 

VOL. II. R 



242 DEATH OF LIEUTEXANT SPEARING. [1808. 

value 100 guineas. The naval medal is granted for this 
action. 

On the 3rd of July, while the 18-gun ship- sloop Wan- 
derer, Commander Edward Crofton, and 4-gun schooners 
Subtle and Ballahou, Lieutenants George Augustus Spearing 
and George Mills, were cruising between the islands of 
Anguille and St. Martin, intelligence was received which 
led to the despatch of Lieutenant Spearing with the boats of 
the ship and schooners, containing together 135 men, to 
land and attack the French part of the island of St. Martin's. 
The landing was effected with a trifling loss, and six guns- 
were spiked in the lower fort ; but, on ascending the 
heights, which were covered with the prickly pear, to storm 
the upper battery, Lieutenant Spearing 1 was shot through 
the chest, and several of his gallant followers were killed. 
The remainder endeavoured to regain the boats, but were 
greatly outnumbered and made prisoners. The Wanderer, 
which, with the two schooners, in the meanwhile had been 
firing at the batteries to cover the advance of the storming 
party, now ceased and hoisted a flag of truce. On com- 
municating with the commandant, it was ascertained that 
the garrison consisted of 900 men, and that the detachment 
from the ships had in the whole sustained a loss of seven 
killed and thirty wounded. 

On the 1st of August, the 74-gun ship Kent, Captain 
Thomas Rogers, and 16-gun brig Wizard, Commander Abel 
Ferris, being in the Gulf of Genoa, discovered a deeply- 
laden convoy at anchor under the protection of a large gun- 
boat off the town of Noli. The boats of the two ships were 
immediately despatched under Lieutenants William Cash- 
man, James Lindsay, and Fairfax Moresby, Captain Henry 
Rea, and Lieutenants John Hanlon and Patrick Grant of the 
marines, all of the Kent ; and Lieutenant Alexander Bis- 
sett, of the Wizard. The boats were boarded ; but being 
secured to the beach by chains from the mastheads, it was 

1 The remains of the gallant young officer in command of this unfor- 
tunate attack were delivered up, but afterwards buried on shore with 
military honours, the French commandant and part of the crew of 
Lieutenant Spearing's vessel attending the ceremony, while the British 
vessels, as they lay at anchor in Marigot Bay, with their colours half- 
mast, together with the French batteries, fired minute-guns. 



1808.] COMET WITH ESPIEGLE AND SYLPHE. 243 

found necessary to land in order to get them clear. The 
boats therefore pulled to the shore, exposed to a heavy fire 
from several guns advantageously planted, and from a large 
number of regular troops assembled on the beach. The 
gun-boat, mounting two heavy guns, and manned with forty- 
five men, was captured with all the vessels, and the guns 
on the shore destroyed. This service being effected under 
cover of the Wizard's guns, was attended with no greater 
loss than one seaman killed and one mortally wounded. 

On the 11th of August, at 8h. 30m. A.M., the 18-gun 
ship-sloop Comet, Commander Cuthbert F. Daly, being in 
lat. 46° north, long. 5° 4' west, cruising off the French 
coast, discovered three sail in the north-east. These were 
the French 18-gun corvette Diligente and 16-gun brigs 
Espiegle and Sylphe, from L'Orient bound to Martinique. 
At 9h., having discovered the character of the strangers, 
Commander Daly, without hesitation, stood towards them, 
and soon afterwards the Diligente and her consorts tacked 
and made all sail to the northward. At noon, the Diligente 
having outsailed the brigs, again tacked and stood to the 
southward, and the Comet continued to pursue the two 
brigs. At 3h. 30m. a.m., the Espiegle, which was the head- 
most of the two, tacked and passed to windward of the 
Comet, at the distance of a mile and a half. At 5h. the 
Sylphe hoisted her colours, and commenced firing her stern- 
chasers. At 5h. 20m., having arrived within pistol-shot of 
the latter, the Comet opened her fire, and after a running 
action of twenty minutes, the Sylphe, being much disabled, 
and having lost, out of a crew of ninety-eight men and boys, 
five men killed and five wounded, struck her colours. The 
Comet had not a man hurt ; but her main and mizen 
topmasts were badly wounded, and rigging and sails much 
cut. The Diligente and Espiegle made no attempt to save 
their consort ; but this does not detract from Commander 
Daly's great merit in venturing to become the assailant where 
the disparity was so great against him. The Sylphe, being a 
fine brig of 343 tons, was added to the British navy under . 
the name of Seagull. Lieutenant James Tomkinson, first of 
the Comet, was very highly spoken of in Commander Daly's 
official letter, but was not promoted until 1810. The 
Comet's commander received immediate advancement. This 

e2 



244 WAR WITH RUSSIA. [1808. 

is a naval medal action. The Espiegle succeeded in rejoining 
the Diligente, but on the 16th was chased and captured by 
the 38-gun frigate Sibylle, Captain Clot worthy Upton, and 
added to the British navy under the name of Electra. 

England having become involved in a war with Russia, in 
consequence of the treaty of Tilsit, which united Russia and 
Denmark in a league with France, a large force was ren- 
dered necessary in the Baltic, and a fleet of eleven sail was 
despatched thither under the command of Vice-Admiral Sir 
James Saumarez. More than 200 sail of transports, con- 
taining 14,000 troops, under the command of Sir John 
Moore, accompanied the fleet ; but these were principally 
intended to assist Sweden, the ally of England, against 
Denmark ; but not being required, they returned very 
shortly to England. 

On the 19th of August, a Russian fleet of nine sail of 
the line, three 50-gun ships, and eight frigates and smaller 
vessels, in all twenty-four sail, under the command of Yice- 
Admiral Hanickoff, anchored in Hango Bay, a port of 
Swedish Finland. On the 20th, Rear- Admiral Sir Samuel 
Hood, in the 74-gun ship Centaur, Captain Webley, accom- 
panied by the Implacable, Captain Thomas Byam Martin, 
joined the Swedish squadron of seven sail of the line and 
four frigates in Oro Roads, and on the same afternoon the 
Russians made their appearance in the ofling, and anchored 
at no great distance from the roadstead, where they con- 
tinued cruising, off and on, for several days. On the 22nd 
of August four sail joined the Swedish squadron, which then 
amounted to eleven sail of the line ; but unfortunately more 
than a third of the crews of the ships were on the sick list 
with the scurvy. On the 23rd, the Russians, assuming a 
threatening attitude, stood close into Oro Roads, with a fine 
breeze from west-south-west, but again stood off without 
making any attack. 

On the 25th, at 6h. a.m., the Swedish fleet, accompanied 
by the Centaur and Implacable, weighed, with a fresh breeze 
from north-east, in pursuit of the Russians, which, at 9h., 
were discovered, in number twenty-three sail — Hango-Head 
bearing south-east. Having despatched one ship to Carls- 
crona with the sick, the Anglo-Swedish fleet consisted of 
twelve sail of the line and five frigates, mounting in all 1,156 



1808.] CAPTURE OF THE SEWOLOD. ; 245 

guns, while the Eussian force, already described, mounted 
1,118 guns. Although there was nothing, therefore, on the 
score of comparative force to cause the Russians to decline the 
combat, they made every endeavour to escape. By 8h. p m 
the two British ships were five miles to windward of the 
Swedes, and at 4h. on the following morning this distance 
was doubled, the Implacable being two miles to windward of 
the Centaur, and not more than five miles from the Sewolod 
the sternmost ship of the enemy. At 4h. 30m. this ship' 
commanded by Captain Roodneff, being at some distance 
astern and to leeward of her own fleet, crossed the bows of 
the Implacable on the starboard tack. At 6h. 30m they 
again crossed on opposite tacks, and a quarter of an hour 
afterwards crossed a third time, when the Eussian opened 
fire. At 7h. 30m., the Implacable having again tacked, 
ranged up alongside the Sewolod to leeward, and so vigorous 
a cannonading was kept up by the former, that in less than 
hall an hour the Russian, whose colours had been shot away 
and not rehoisted, ceased firing, and hauled down her pen- 
dant. At this moment the Eussian admiral was observed 
within two miles of the Implacable, bearing down to the 
rescue of the Sewolod, and Sir Samuel Hood recalled the 
Implacable, which accordingly quitted her prize, and rejoined 
the Centaur. The two British ships then bore up for the 
Swedish fleet, about ten miles to leeward. The Implacable's 
loss in this smart action amounted to six men killed, Thomas 
Pickerwell, master's mate, Nicholas Drew, captain's clerk 
and 24 men wounded. Captain Martin spoke in high terms 
of his first lieutenant, Augustus Baldwin. The loss of the 
Sewolod amounted to forty-three killed and eighty wounded 
Vice-Admiral Hanickoff, having ordered a frigate to take 
the disabled Sewolod m tow, again hauled to the wind which 
Sir Samuel Hood observing, the Centaur and Implacable a 
second time proceeded in chase, and obliged the frigate to 
relinquish her charge. The Russians, however, again bore 
up to succour the Sewolod, but a change of wind having 
taken place, enabling them to reach Rogerswick, the body of 
the fleet bore up for that port, where the ships anchored 
about noon, leaving the Sewolod aground on a shoal not for 
Irom the entrance of the harbour. Having floated off the 
Eussian ship swang to her anchors, and, the wind moderating 



246 CAPTURE OF THE SEWOLOD. [1808. 

in the afternoon, Admiral Hanickoff ordered a division of the 
boats of the fleet to proceed to the assistance of the crippled 
ship and tow her into the roads. Sir Samuel Hood, deter- 
mined to prevent this, bore up to endeavour to cut her off 
before the boats could reach. The boats, however, succeeded 
in taking the Sewolod in tow, and in five minutes more the 
ship would have been safe, but at 8h. p.m. the Centaur ran 
her on board. The Centaur, having good way on, shot ahead 
of the enemy, the Sewolod's bowsprit grazing her fore-rigging, 
as did her bows the muzzles of the British ship's guns, which 
at the same moment were discharged with tremendous exe- 
cution. The Sewolod dropped astern of the Centaur, until 
the bowsprit of the former reached the latter's mizen-rigging, 
to which Sir Samuel Hood ordered it to be lashed. This was 
performed in the face of a continual fire of musketry, in a 
most gallant manner, by Captain Webley, the first lieute- 
nant, Paul Lawless (who was severely wounded), and Edward 
Strode, the master, with other brave men. Much valour was 
displayed on both sides, and frequent attempts at boarding 
were made ; but the deliberate fire of the Centaurs marines, 
under Captain George Baile, and the stern-chase guns, effec- 
tually defeated the attempts of the Russians. Sir Samuel 
Hood hoped to be able to carry off the Sewolod, while she 
was lashed to her, but the Russians having let go an anchor, 
both ships took the ground. After half an hour's gallant 
fighting, the Sewolod's colours were again struck, and just at 
this time the Implacable dropped anchor outside the two 
engaged ships, and rendered most essential service in heaving 
the Centaur off the shoal. Two of the Russian ships about 
this time slipped, and appeared inclined to come to the as- 
sistance of the Sewolod ; but finding the Centaur to be again 
afloat, returned to their anchorage. The prize being found 
immovable, with her hold half full of water, it became 
necessary to destroy her; and, after all the prisoners and 
wounded had been removed, she was set on fire and burnt to 
the water's edge. 

In this very gallant action, performed as it was in the 
sight and in defiance of a powerful enemy, the Centaur had 
three men killed, and Lieutenant Lawless, — Morton (boat- 
swain), and twenty-five men wounded; and the Sewolod, 
whose loss in action with the Implacable had been made 



1808.] RECRUIT AND DILIGENTE. 247 

good by a reinforcement of 100 men from the Russian fleet, 
sustained by the fire of the Centaur the loss of 180 men 
killed, wounded, and missing ; making the total number of 
killed and wounded, in her two actions, amount to 303 : the 
total of the killed and wounded in the two British ships 
amounted to 62. The naval medal has been awarded to 
the Centaur and Implacable. 

The Russian fleet (a plan for burning which was set on 
foot, but found impracticable) was blockaded in Rogerswick 
by the British squadron, under Yice- Admiral Sir James 
Saumarez, till the bad weather rendered it dangerous to 
keep the sea, and as soon as they retired from before the port, 
the Russians quitted and returned to Cronstadt for the winter. 

On the 16th of August, the 4-gun schooner Rook, Lieu- 
tenant James Lawrence, being off the mole of Cape St. 
Nicholas, on her way to England with despatches, was 
attacked by two French privateers, one of twelve and the 
other of ten guns, and after a very gallant resistance of one 
hour and a half, in the course of which the commander was 
killed, the mate mortally wounded, and thirteen *out of the 
remaining eighteen men mortally or severely wounded, the 
Rook surrendered. 

On the 6th of September, the 18-gun brig Recruit, Com- 
mander Charles Napier, in lat. 17° 50' north, longitude 58° 
10' west, standing close-hauled on the starboard tack, with 
the wind from the eastward, discovered the French corvette 
Diligente on her weather quarter, steering south. The Re- 
cruit immediately tacked to meet the corvette, and, at 
7h. 30m. A.M. fired two shot at the stranger, passing to wind- 
ward. At 8h. 15m. the Diligente tacked, and soon after- 
wards hoisted French colours. At 8h. 40m., the Recruit 
having tacked, again passed the Diligente, then on the 
starboard tack, and exchanged broadsides within pistol-shot, 
by winch fire Commander Napier was wounded, but not with 
such severity as to compel him to quit the deck. At 8h. 
40m., both vessels having again tacked, passed each other, 
firing their broadsides, after which the Diligente wore to 
rake the Recruit ; but the latter, by bearing up, succeeded 
in bringing the Diligente to close action, and the Recruit 
continued firing her larboard broadside in return for the 
starboard guns of the enemy, until llh. 30m., when the 



248 LAUREL AND CANONNIERE. [1808. 

brig's mainmast was shot away within a few feet of the 
deck. The Diligente then backing her niizen-topsail, drop- 
ped astern, and bearing up under the stern of the Recruit, 
raked her ; she then shot ahead, and luffing round the 
Recruit's bows, poured in a destructive broadside. The 
corvette then ranged along the larboard beam of her an- 
tagonist, intending to repeat this manoeuvre ; but receiving 
a well-directed broadside from the Recruit, which shot away 
her stern-boat, and caused a heavy explosion abaft, the Dili- 
gente put her helm up, and made off before the -wind. 

After repairing a few. of her damages, remounting the 
carronades which had upset, and clearing the wreck of her 
mainmast, the Recruit bore up after the Diligente. At 2h. 
p.m., the corvette finding there was a probability of her 
being overtaken if she continued to run before the wind, 
set her courses and top-gallant sails, and hauled up on the 
starboard tack ; and although every exertion was made on 
board the British brig by erecting a jury-mainmast, it was 
found impossible to close the Diligente, which by 8h. p.m. 
was lost sight of. The Recruit in this gallant action had 
ODly one man killed, and Commander Napier and Lieutenant 
Moses De Willetts wounded. The Diligente reached Mar- 
tinique, and subsequently, on the surrender of that island, 
fell into the hands of the British. Being a ship of 
371 tons, she was added to the navy under the name of St. 
Pierre. 

On the 6th of September, the 22-gim ship Laurel, Captain 
John Charles Woollcombe, arrived off the Isle of France 
from the Cape, and shortly afterwards recaptured a Portu- 
guese ship, on board of which were some ladies belonging to 
the Isle of France. Captain Woollcombe, with praiseworthy 
gallantry, immediately sent in a boat with a flag of truce to 
the governor, General Decaen, requesting him to send out a 
vessel to take on shore the ladies with their baggage. The 
second captain of the French 40-gun frigate Canonniere, 
lying in Port Louis, came off on this service during the 
night, and as he did not return until the next morning, it is 
conjectured, but we hope untruly, that the officer took 
advantage of the circumstance in order to become acquainted 
with the size and force of the Laurel. 

On the 12th, in the afternoon, the Laurel having chased 
a vessel close under the gims of Port Louis, was standing 



1808.] MARIA AND DEPARTEMENT DES LAXDES. 240 

off again, when a sail was discovered on the lee bow steering 
a similar course, which proved to be the Canonniere, bearing 
Commodore Bourayne's broad pendant, mounting forty-eight 
guns, with a crew of 350 men. The Laurel's armament con- 
sisted only of twenty-two long 9-pounders on the main deck, 
with six 18-pounder carronades and two long sixes on the 
quarter-deck and forecastle, and her crew amounted to no 
more than 1 44 men and boys. As the two vessels neared each 
other on opposite tacks, Captain Woollcombe directed the 
master to lay the ship close to the enemy ; which order the 
latter strictly complied with. About 6h. 30m., as the 
Laurel, being to windward, edged away for the Canonniere's 
starboard or weather bow, the latter wore, and being very 
slow in coming round, the Laurel was enabled to give her 
two or three raking broadsides ; but the French frigate 
having at length got round on the starboard tack, discharged 
her broadside with some effect. The wind gradually died 
away, and both ships continued to engage closely until 
8h. p.m., when the Laurel's rigging being much damaged, 
her gaff shot away, and her mizenmast left tottering, the 
ship, having no chance of escape, struck her colours, having 
her master, James Douglas, six seamen (three of whom lost 
a leg), and two marines wounded. This, considering the 
duration of the action, was extraordinary, and can only be 
accounted for by the relative height of the two ships, in 
consequence of which the shot of the Canonniere passed 
over her low antagonist. The Canonniere had five men 
killed, and nineteen wounded. Captain Woollcombe was sub- 
sequently tried by court-martial for the loss of his ship, and 
honourably acquitted, and Captain Josias Rowley, the presi- 
dent, passed a veiy flattering encomium on the defence he 
had made. 

On the 29th of September, Pointe Antigua, Guadaloupe, 
bearing south-west, the gun-brig Maria, armed with 12 car- 
ronades, 12-pounders, and two long 4-pounders, with a crew of 
sixty-five men and boys, Lieutenant James Bennett com- 
mander, chased a sail steering towards the land, which vessel 
proved to be the French 22-gun ship Departement des 
Landes, mounting 16 carronades, 2 4-pounders, and four long 
8-pounders on the main deck, and two brass 6-pounders on the 
quarter-deck, with a crew of 160 men and boys, commanded 
by Captain Raoule. It falling calm just as the Maria got 



250 CARNATION AND PALIXURE. [1808. 

within gun-shot of her opponent, the brig was unable for a 
time to bring her broadside to bear, while the French ship, 
being under the stern of the Maria, was enabled to open her 
fire with destructive effect. By the aid of her sweeps, the 
Maria was at length in a position to return the fire ; but the 
enemy was too strong. The Maria's colours being shot 
away, the enemy hailed to know if she had surrendered ; to 
which Lieutenant Bennett, rehoi sting the ensign, replied 
" No," but shortly afterwards this gallant officer received 
three grape-shot in his body, and fell beneath the colours he 
had rehoisted. The master, Joseph Dyason, continued the 
action for some minutes ; but finding the brig in a sinking 
state, and having, besides her commander, Robert O'Donnel, 
midshipman, and four seamen killed, and nine wounded, the 
British colours, after a noble defence, were hauled down. 
The captors were under the necessity of running the brig on 
shore to prevent her from sinking under them. With refer- 
ence to the loss of the Maria, the circumstances to be 
regretted are the deaths of so gallant an officer as Lieutenant 
Bennett, and of those who fell by his side. 

On the 1st of October, the 18-gun brig Cruiser, acting 
commander Lieutenant Thomas Wells, being off the entrance 
to Gotteuburg, fell in with about twenty sail of armed cutters, 
luggers, and row-boats, one of which, a schuyt, mounting ten 
4-pounders, and thirty-two men, was captured. Lieutenant 
Wells was promoted to the rank of commander a few weeks 
after performing this dashing exploit. 

On the 3rd of October, the 18-gun brig Carnation, Com- 
mander Charles Marshall Gregory, cruising to the eastward of 
Martinique, fell in with the French 16-gun brig Pa] inure, 
Captain Jance, and after an action of an hour and a half, 
the Palinure being much disabled in her spars and sails, 
fell on ' board the Carnation. By this time, however, Cap- 
tain Gregory and most of the officers were either killed or 
severely wounded ; and the boatswain (William Triplet) was 
the commanding officer. The French crew, emboldened by 
the absence of any endeavour to complete the victory by 
boarding, themselves boarded, and carried the Carnation 
without meeting much resistance. The boatswain and about 
ten brave fellows resolutely opposed the Frenchmen, but 
the remainder of the Carnation's crew basely quitted their 



1808.] AFRICA WITH GUN-BOAT FLOTILLA. 251 

quarters, and the British brig became a prize to the Palinure. 
The Carnation, out of 117 men, had her commander, Mor- 
gan Thomas, purser, and eight men killed ; and Lieutenants 
Samuel B. Deecker and James Fitzmaurice severely, Anthony 
Wetherell, master (mortally), and twenty-seven seamen and 
marines wounded, fourteen mortally. The captain of the 
Palinure was confined to his cot with the yellow fever, and 
the brig was fought by Enseigne de vaisseau Huguet, who 
greatly distinguished himself on the occasion. 

On the 31st of October, at daylight, the 32-gun frigate 
Circe, Captain Hugh Pigot, cruising off Port Royal, Mar- 
tinique, discovered the Palinure, under jury-masts, coming 
down before the wind, which, hauling close round the 
Diamond Rock by the aid of her sweeps, got under the 
protection of a battery on Pointe Salomon. The Circe 
arriving within shot, an action ensued, and in fifteen minutes 
the Palinure, having seven men killed and eight wounded, 
hauled down her colours. The Circe had one man killed 
and one wounded. 

On the 15th of October, the 64-gun ship Africa, Captian 
John Barrett, accompanied by the Thunder bomb, and two 
gun-brigs, together with a convoy of 137 vessels, sailed from 
Carlscrona, and, on the 20th, the latter anchored in the 
roadstead of Malmo. At a little past noon, a flotilla of gun- 
boats was observed advancing to the attack of the convoy ; 
and the Africa, which, for the better security of her charge, 
had anchored eight miles to the southward of Amag, weighed 
and stood towards them. At Hi. p.m. the wind died entirely 
away, and twenty-five large Danish gun-boats and seven 
armed launches, mounting in all eighty heavy long guns, and 
carrying upwards of 1,600 men, rowed towards the Africa. 
At 2h. 50m. the gun-boats, which in the calm were able to 
choose their own position, stationed themselves on the bow and 
quarter of the Africa, and commenced a vigorous fire of round 
and grape; to which galling fire the Africa could make only a 
very poor return from her bow and stern chasers, and from 
a few of her foremost guns. Twice were the Africa's 
colours shot away, when the Danes advanced cheering to 
take possession ; but being received with much warmth, 
they returned to their places of impunity. The action 
continued until 6h. 45m., when night closing in, all firing 



252 CAPTURE OF THE JENA. [1808. 

ceased ; but had daylight continued for another hour, the 
Africa must have been sunk or captured. The Africa, in 
this most annoying contest, had her three lower masts and 
yards badly wounded, and her standing and running rigging 
and sails much cut. Her quarter-boats were completely de- 
stroyed, and the boats on her booms rendered unserviceable. 
The loss amounted to nine seamen and marines killed ; 
Captain Barrett (slightly), Lieutenants of marines Thomas 
Brattle and John George Richardson, one midshipman, the 
captain's two clerks (not named in the despatch), and forty- 
seven seamen and marines wounded. The ship was so much 
disabled, that she returned to Carlscrona to refit. 

On the 8th of October, the 3 6 -gun frigate Modeste, Cap- 
tain the Honourable George Elliot, cruising off the Sand- 
heads, in the Bay of Bengal, captured, after a chase of nine 
hours and a running fight of fifty minutes, the French 18-gun 
corvette Jena. The Jena was perfectly unrigged before she 
struck, but had no one killed or wounded. The Modeste 
was unfortunate enough to lose her master, William Donovan 
(described as a very clever officer), killed, and one seaman 
was wounded. The prize was added to the British navy 
under the name of Victor. 

Some regulations having been adopted by the British 
government with reference to neutral vessels, the French 
government found it necessary to employ their ships of war, 
for the purpose of conveying troops, provisions, and stores, 
to then colonies. The Sylphe, Diligente, and Espiegle, were 
thus despatched, laden almost as store-ships, and we have 
now to record a most gallant action with a fine frigate 
similarly freighted. 

On the night of the 10th of November, Captain Michael 
Seymour, in the 18-pounder 36-gun frigate Amethyst, while 
off the Isle of Groix, standing in for the French coast 
on the starboard tack, with the wind at east-north-east, 
discovered a large ship on her weather quarter, coming- 
down before the wind. Just before observing this ship, 
several shot were fired from the battery at Larmour, ap- 
parently at the Amethyst, but in fact at the stranger who 
was quitting port without giving the prescribed notice. 
The Amethyst instantly wore to intercept the stranger, 
which was the French 40-gun frigate Thetis, Captain 





-&r. 



1808.] AMETHYST AND THETIS. 253 

Jacques Pinsum, from L'Orient, bound to Martinique, having 
.on board troops, and 1,000 barrels of flour. The Thetis 
continuing her course, was at 9h. p.m. withiu a quarter of a 
mile of the Amethyst ; and Captain Seymour, from the 
non-observance of his signals, being by this time aware of 
the character of the chase, burnt false fires and blue lights 
to acquaint the ships in the offing, which were soon an- 
swered from the 74-gun ship Triumph, Captain Sir Thomas 
M. Hardy ; which ship bore about east-north-east, but was 
too far astern to be able to take any part in the contest. 

The Thetis, with her pursuer on her starboard quarter, 
continued steering about west, going nine and sometimes 
ten knots under all sail ; but not wishing to be encumbered 
with unnecessary canvass when on the eve of an action, the 
two ships, at 9h. 15m., took in their studding sails and 
royals. The Thetis, in the hope of disabling her antagonist, 
then rounded to on the starboard tack to fire her broadside ; 
but this was skilfully avoided by the Amethyst, which was 
thereby enabled to range up on the starboard beam, to 
windward of the French ship, and a most spirited contest 
ensued, as the two ships again paid off with their heads to 
the westward. At 9h. 40m., the Amethyst being a little in 
advance of her opponent, the Thetis made an attempt to 
luff across her stern, but being too near, fell on board the 
Amethyst, running her jib-boom between that ship's main 
and mizen rigging. The two ships, however, were going too 
rapidly through the water to allow of their remaining long 
thus connected, and they quickly resumed their former 
positions. At a little past 10k, the Amethyst being again 
somewhat ahead of the Thetis, Captain Seymour ordered the 
helm hard a-starboard, and bore up athwart the bows of the 
Thetis, pouring in a heavy raking broadside, then shifting 
the helm, the Amethyst avoided the enemy's return broad- 
side, and brought to on her larboard beam. 

The action then raged as before ; but ten minutes after- 
wards the British frigate's mizenmast fell, broke and da- 
maged the wheel, and encumbered the quarter-deck. The 
Thetis had now a chance of escape ; but before she was able 
to profit by this disaster of her opponent, her own mizen- 
mast fell, and the ships were again upon a par. At Ilk 
the Thetis put her helm up in order to board the Amethyst. 



254 AMETHYST AND THETIS. [1808. 

The latter patiently awaited the attack, and just as the bow 
of the Thetis struck that of the Amethyst, a heavy and well- 
directed broadside cleared her forecastle, on which were 
assembled numerous troops ready for the assault. The 
Thetis then dropped alongside, and the fluke of the Amethyst's 
best bower anchor hooked the foremost port of the Thetis's 
forecastle, 1 and held her fast. The action was continued, 
without intermission till past midnight, during which the 
Thetis was several times set on fire. Being completely 
silenced, the French frigate was boarded at about half-past 
12h. and taken possession of. A few prisoners had been 
received from the Thetis, when the cable having been cut 
which was holding them together, the two ships separated, 
and shortly afterwards the fore and main masts of the prize 
fell over the side. 

The loss of the two ships in this long and most skilfully 
conducted action was very severe. The Thesis commenced 
the action with 436 men, including 106 soldiers, out of 
whom she had her captain and 134 2 officers and men killed, 
and 102 wounded, — more than the half of her ship's com- 
pany. The Amethyst had her rigging and sails cut to 
pieces, her mizenmast shot away close to the deck, fore and 
main masts badly wounded, and three feet water in her 
hold when the action ceased. Out of a crew of 261 men 
and boys, Lieutenant of marines Bernard Kendall, ten 
seamen, and eight marines were killed ; Lieutenant of 
marines Samuel John Payne (dangerously), Richard Gibbings, 
master's mate (mortally) ; the boatswain, Leonard Taylor ; 
Lawford Miles, midshipman ; Thomas Gilson, captain's clerk ; 
thirty-two seamen, and twelve marines wounded. Total : 
twenty killed or mortally wounded, and fifty dangerously and 
slightly wounded. 

The two ships were in most respects well matched. Their 
weight of metal was nominally the same, but the Thetis 

1 The official account states, that the bower anchor entered the fore- 
most "main-deck" port, which seems scarcely possible if the anchor was 
stowed, which it in all probability was ; the forecastle port it might have 
hooked without any difficulty, and we have therefore adopted this 
notion. 

2 Captain Seymour's biographer in the Naval Chronicle, vol. xxi. 
states that 172 was the number killed. 



1808.] DEATH OF CAPTAIN COOMBE. 255 

mounted two guns more than the Amethyst. The real 
difference between English and French shot, of the same 
nominal weight, has been already shown at vol. i. p. 175. 
The first lieutenant (Goddard Blennerhassett) was promoted 
to the rank of commander ; and Captain Seymour, in his 
official letter, named in terms of much satisfaction, Lieute- 
nants William Hill and Edward Thomas Crouch, and the 
master, Robert Fair, 1 which latter rendered himself parti- 
cularly serviceable. The Thetis, being a fine ship of 1090 
tons, was purchased into the service, and named the Brune. 
For this action Captain Seymour was honoured with a o-old 
medal, and the silver naval medal has recently been granted 
to the surviving participators. 

Shortly after the action ceased, the Triumph arrived up ; 
and about twenty minutes after the Triumph, the 38-gun 
frigate Shannon, Captain Philip B. Y. Broke, which latter 
took the dismasted prize in tow. 

On the 28th of November, Commander William Coombe, 
of the 16-gun brig Heureux, having obtained information 
that seven vessels, ready for sea, were lying in the harbour 
of Mahaut, Guadaloupe, resolved with his boats to endeavour 
to cut them out. Having a pilot for the boats, and a guide 
to conduct the parties intended to storm the two batteries 
under the protection of which the vessels were at anchor] 
Captain Coombe with three boats departed on this service' 
and after rowing for six hours, the boats lay upon their oars 
to await the setting of the moon. At 4h. a.m. on the 29th 
they pushed forward; and after some minutes of despe- 
rate fighting, Captain Coombe, with nineteen men, succeeded 
in boarding and carrying a schooner of two guns and thirty- 
nine men. Lieutenant Daniel Lawrence, assisted by Robert 
Daly, purser, and about forty-five men, in the mean time 
landed, and spiked the two 24-pounders upon the nearest 
battery, and then proceeded and boarded a brig. Both the 
prizes were got underweigh ; but before they could clear the 
harbour, the shore was lined with soldiery and field-pieces, 
and, grounding, became exposed to a very severe fire. Cap- 
tain Coombe was in the act of giving orders to abandon the 
vessels, when he was struck by a 24-pound shot, and ex- 

1 Mr. Fair was made a lieutenant, and afterwards gained the rank of 
captain. 



256 DESTRUCTION OF THE CIGNE. [1808. 

claiming "I die contented ; I die for my country !" expired. 
Lieutenant Lawrence, who was wounded in the arm, after 
abandoning the captures, succeeded at about Gli. a.m., without 
any additional loss, in returning to his ship. This exploit 
is distinguished as a naval medal boat action. 

On the morning of the 12th of December, the French 
16-gun brig Cigne, and two armed schooners, laden with 
provisions and stores for Martinique, were discovered at 
anchor off the Pearl Rock, by Lieutenant John Brown, of 
the brig Morne-Fortunee, intelligence of which was imme- 
diately signalled to acting Captain Francis Augustus Collier, 
who in the 32-gun frigate Circe, was in charge of a small 
squadron, stationed between that rock and the town of 
St. Pierre. Captain Collier observing one of the schooners 
endeavouring to reach St. Pierre's, determined to cut her off 
if possible, and the Circe in company with the 18-gun ship- 
sloop Stork and 16-gun brig Epervier, Commanders George 
Le Geyt and Thomas Tudor Tucker, with the schooner 
Express, Lieutenant William Dowers, stood in shore accord- 
ingly. Unable to avoid the Circe, the schooner ran on shore 
under a four-gun battery, which was flanked by two other 
batteries, and the vessel was farther protected by a party of 
soldiers who had been tracking her along shore from her 
anchorage near the Pearl Rock. The Circe, Stork, and gun- 
brig anchored within pistol-shot of the batteries, and after 
.a short time silenced them, and drove the troops from the 
beach. 

Before completing this service, however, Captain Collier, 
observing that the Cigne and remaining schooner were 
landing their cargoes, ordered Lieutenant Brown to remain 
by the schooner on shore, and await the arrival of the Eper- 
vier to destroy her ; then making sail, he stood with the 
Circe, Stork, and Express, towards the Cigne and consort. 
These two vessels were now lying close to the rock, under 
the protection of four batteries and a considerable number 
of field-pieces and troops on the mainland. Judging it 
practicable, notwithstanding the formidable nature of the 
defences of the vessels, to effect their capture, the barge and 
two cutters of the Circe were placed under the command of. 
Lieutenant James Crooke, with William Smith, master, 
William Collman, purser, and — Thomas, carpenter ; but the 



1808.] DESTRUCTION OF THE CIGNE. 



257 



orders of Lieutenant Crooke were, not to proceed to the 
attack of the brig until the guns of the Circe and Stork had 
caused her fire to slacken. The boats of the Stork were 
also manned, ready to co-operate at the proper time with 
the boats of the Circe. The Circe and Stork then stood in 
to engage the batteries and vessels ; but they had scarcely 
commenced firing, when Lieutenant Crooke most gallantly 
but unadvisedly, without waiting for the Stork's boats or 
the issue of the fire of the two ships, dashed on at the 
Cigne The attack was most unfortunate— the boats were 
defeated with dreadful slaughter. One boat was taken, the 
second sunk and the third, in a disabled state, reached 
the ship ; but out of the sixty-eight men who had embarked 
only twelve returned. Nine men were killed, twenty-one 
wounded, and twenty-six missing, being prisoners or drowned. 
Lieutenant Crooke and Mr. Collman were both badly 
wounded, the former in four places. 

As it was by this time quite dark, the Circe and Stork 
were obliged to stand off shore ; and soon afterwards they 
were joined by the 18-gun brig Amaranthe, Commander 
Edward Pelham Brenton. At daylight on the 13th the 
Cigne got underweigh, and, assisted by her boats and sweeps 
endeavoured to reach St. Pierre's ; but Captain Brenton 
having gallantly volunteered his services to destroy her with 
the Amaranthe that brig was taken in tow by the boats of 
the Circe and Stork, and every exertion made to bring her 
near the enemy. At lOh. a.m., the Cigne took the ground 
near several batteries to the northward of St. Pierre's, and 
the Amaranthe, after much exertion, during which she was 
exposed to a constant fire from guns and batteries erected on 
every point of land available for the purpose, succeeded in 
getting tolerably close to her. The Amaranthe's well- 
directed fire soon compelled the crew of the Cigne to quit 
the vessel, when her boats, commanded by Lieutenant James 
Hay in company with those of the Circe and Stork, gal- 
lantly boarded and carried the French brig, in the face of a 
heavy fire from the batteries and troops drawn up on the 
beach. The Cigne having bilged, it was found impossible to 
get her off, and she was therefore destroyed. The second 
schooner being also on shore, was destroyed oy the Ama- 
ranthe s boats and the schooner Express. Joshua Jones, the 



VOL. II. 



258 DESTRUCTION OF THE CIGNE. [1808. 

master of the brig, was wounded on this occasion, and one 
man belonging to the Express was killed and three wounded. 
Thus this service was at length performed ; and but for the 
unhappy rashness of Lieutenant Crooke, who, however, paid 
dearly for it, must have been effected with little or no 
casualty, instead of the lamentable loss with which it was 
attended. Captains Collier and Brenton were promoted for 
this service, and the naval medal has been awarded to all 
engaged in it. 



1809.1 CONFIANCE AND TOPAZE. 259 



1809. 

On the 8th of December of the preceding year, Captain 
James Lucas Yeo, in command of a small expedition, which 
he, by permission of Rear- Admiral Sir W. Sidney Smith, 
had fitted out, consisting of the 20-gun ship Confiance, two 
Portuguese brigs, and some smaller vessels, having on board 
500 Portuguese troops, under Lieutenant-Colonel Marques, 
landed and took peaceable possession of the district of 
Oyapok, in French Guyane. Having succeeded thus far, 
Captain Yeo determined to attempt the capture of Cayenne ; 
and after much hard fighting against Victor Hugo and his 
troops, the town surrendered on the 14th of January, 1809. 
The British, in making the conquest of this extensive terri- 
tory, sustained a loss of Lieutenant of marines John Read, 
killed, and twenty-three men wounded ; and the Portuguese, 
of one killed and eight wounded. Since the 15th of 
December, the men landed from the Confiance had not slept 
in their beds, and for three weeks their fatigue was incessant ; 
nor were their hardships lessened by the weather, which was 
throughout very inclement. The naval medal is granted for 
the taking of Cayenne. 

On the 13th of January, while the Confiance was lying at 
anchor in the harbour of Cayenne, having only twenty-five 
seamen and twenty negroes on board, and commanded by 
Mr. George Yeo, the captain's brother (a mere lad, whose 
only officer was Edward Bryant, midshipman), the French 
40-gun frigate Thopaze appeared in the offing. The Con- 
fiance was instantly got underweigh by her youthful com- 
manding officer, and stood out to meet the enemy ; who, 
discouraged by the bold front assumed by the British sloop 
of war, hauled to the wind and made for another port, at 
which we are about to record her capture. 

On the 1st of January, at daylight, the 10-gun brig Onyx 
(eight 18-pounder carronades and two long sixes, and a crew 
of seventy-five men and boys), Commander Charles Gill, 

s2 



260 ONYX AND MANLY. [1809. 

cruising in the North Sea, came in sight of a sail on the lee- 
bow, standing to the southward. The stranger, which was 
the Dutch (late British) 16-gun brig Manly (twelve 18- 
pounder carronades and four brass sixes, with ninety-four 
men and boys), Captain W. Heneyman, hoisted her colours, 
and hove to, awaiting the attack. At 8h. a.m. the Onyx 
bore down and brought the Manly to close action ; and 
continued to engage until lOh. 30m., when the Dutch brig, 
having had five men killed and six wounded, several of her 
guns disabled, and her masts and rigging much damaged, 
struck her colours. The Onyx had only three men wounded. 
Commander Gill, who obtained post rank, mentioned in his 
official letter in such strong terms the assistance received 
from his first lieutenant, Edward Wm. Garrett, that that 
officer also obtained promotion. Lieutenant "William Tre- 
wren, the acting master, G. D. Louis, and the purser, 
Zachariah Webb, were also honourably mentioned. The 
Manly was restored to her station in the British navy. The 
naval medal is granted for this action. 

On the 2nd of January, the 32-gun frigate Aimable, 
Captain Lord George Stuart, being off the Texel, chased for 
twenty-four hours and captured, after a running fight of a 
few minutes, the French corvette Iris, of twenty-two carro- 
nades (24-pounders) and two long 8-pounders, with a com- 
plement of 140 men, commanded by Captain Macquet. The 
Aimable had two men slightly wounded, and the Iris two 
men killed and eight wounded. The prize, being a fine new 
ship of 587 tons, was added to the British navy as a 28-gun 
ship, and named the Rainbow. 

On the 5th of January, at noon, latitude 39° 24' north, 
longitude 11° 41' west, the 38-gun frigate Loire, Captain 
Alexander Wilmot Schomberg, fell in with, and at 8h. p.m., 
after a short action, captured the French 20-gun corvette 
Hebe, bound to St. Domingo, having on board 600 barrels of 
flour. The Hebe measured 601 tons, and was added to the 
British navy by the name of Ganymede, a Hebe being 
already in the service. Another deck was put upon her, 
and she mounted in the British service, in the whole, thirty- 
two guns. 

On the 22nd of January, at 7h. a.m., the 18-gun ship- 



1809.] CAPTURE OF THE TOPAZE. 261 

sloop Hazard, Commander Hugh. Cameron, cruising off 
Guadaloupe, discovered in the south-west a ship and a 
schooner, standing in for the land. The Hazard bore up for 
the ship, which was the French 40-gun frigate Topaze, Cap- 
tain Lahalle, from Brest, bound to Cayenne, with 1,100 
barrels of flour, but finding that port blockaded, was now on 
her way to Guadaloupe. At 9h. a.m. the 12-pounder 
32-gun frigate Cleopatra, Captain Samuel J. B. Pechell, hove 
in sight in the south-east, and about the same time the 
38-gun frigate Jason, Captain William Maude, was also seen 
to the southward. The Topaze, having now no alternative, 
ran close in shore, and at llh. a.m. anchored, with springs on 
her cable, under a small battery to the southward of Pointe 
Noire. At 4h. 30m. p.m., the Cleopatra being within musket- 
shot of the frigate, and about 200 yards from the shore, the 
Topaze opened her fire. The Cleopatra having anchored on 
the enemy's starboard bow, returned her opponent's fire, and 
in a short time having shot away the outer spring of the 
Topaze, that ship tailed in shore, having her head towards 
the Cleopatra, who raked her with considerable effect. About 
forty minutes after the commencement of the action, the 
Jason and Hazard arrived up ; the frigate anchoring on the 
starboard quarter of the Topaze, whilst the Hazard engaged 
the battery. Thus assailed, the French frigate, having no 
chance of escape, at 5h. 20m. p.m., hauled down her colours. 
The Cleopatra, which alone sustained any loss, had two men 
killed and one wounded ; her damages were chiefly confined 
to her rigging. The Topaze, out of 430 men, had twelve killed 
and fourteen wounded. The prize (the same ship which 
captured the Blanche) was added to the British navy as an 
18-pounder 38-gun frigate, and named the Alcmene, a Topaze 
being already in the service. 

On the 8th of February, the boats of the 32-gun frigate 
Amphion, Captain William Hoste, and 18-gun brig Redwing, 
Commander Edward A. Down, under cover of the fire of the 
two ships, landed on the island of Melita, and destroyed two 
warehouses and brought off three guns, although the place 
was defended by upwards of 400 French troops. The boats 
were commanded by Lieutenant Charles G. R. Phillott. 

On the 10th of February, the French 18-pounder 40-gun 



262 CAPTURE OF THE JUNOtf. [1809. 

frigate Junon, Captain Rousseau, was chased off the Virgin 
Islands by the 16 -gun brigs Asp and Superieure (the latter 
with only four guns mounted), Commanders Robert Preston 
and William Ferrie. The Asp was soon left far astern, but 
the Superieure continued with the most persevering gallantry 
to follow the enemy. In the course of the day, the 38-gun 
frigates Latona and Horatio, Captains Hugh Pigot and 
George Scott, joined in the pursuit, and the Horatio succeeded 
in getting alongside of and engaging the enemy. Sub- 
sequently the 18-gun corvette Driver, Commander Charles 
Claridge, aided in the chase and running fight, and the 
Junon at length surrendered 'to her united foes. The con- 
spicuous conduct of Commander Ferrie in the Superieure 
has lately been acknowledged by the grant of the naval 
medal to those engaged in that brig. 

The Horatio had George Gunter, midshipman, and six 
seamen killed ; and Captain Scott, Lieutenant Manly Hall 
Dixon, Andrew Lock, boatswain, and fourteen seamen badly, 
and Lieutenant of marines Richard Blakeney, Robert King, 
master's mate, and seven men slightly wounded. The Latona, 
not having been able to get close to the enemy, had only one 
midshipman, John Hoope, and five men . slightly wounded, 
and on board the Driver one man only was wounded ; 
making the total loss seven killed and thirty-three wounded. 
The Junon's loss, out of a crew of 323 men, amounted to 
130 in killed and wounded : a tolerable proof that the ship 
was not given away. There is no doubt that the principal, 
if not the whole of this loss, was caused by the Horatio's 
fire ; and, indeed, the French commanding officer refused to 
deliver up his sword except to Captain Scott. The Junon's 
foremast fell soon after she had surrendered, and her damages 
were very extensive. Being nearly a new ship, she was 
added to the British navy under the same name. Lieutenant 
Dixon, senior of the Horatio, was promoted to the rank of 
commander, and the naval medal has been granted for that 
ship also. 

On the 14th of February, the 38-gun frigate Belle Poule, 
Captain James Brisbane, chased the French frigate-built 
26-gun store-ship Var, and drove her for protection under 
the fortress of Velona, in the island of Corfu. On the 15th 



1809.] CAPTURE OF MARTINIQUE. 263 

the Yar was attacked at her anchorage, and after a slight 
resistance hauled down her colours, the crew escaping to the 
shore. The prize measured 770 tons, and, under the name 
of Chichester, was added to the British navy. 

On the night of the 28th of February, the British 
12-pounder 32-gun frigate Proserpine, Captain Charles Otter, 
watching the French fleet in Toulon, was captured by four 
frigates, after a most gallant resistance and using every 
practicable means of escape. Out of 211 men and boys, 
which comprised at the time the crew of the British frigate, 
she had one seaman killed and ten wounded, one mortally. 

On the 24th of February, Martinique was surrendered to 
the undermentioned British force : — 

Guns. Ships. 

!Eear-Adm. Hon. Sir Alex. Inglis Cochrane, 
KB. (red) 
Captain Thomas F. Pinto 

( Pompee ._ Commodore George Cockburn 
h . \ York . . ._. Captain Robert Barton 
' 1 Belleisle . . „ William Charles Fahie 

( Captain . . „ James Atholl Wood 
64 Intrepid . . „ C. J. W. Nesham. 
Frigates, &c. — Acasta, P. Beaver ; Penelope, John Dick ; Ethalion, 
Thos. Cochrane ; iEolus, Lord Wm. Fitzroy ; Circe, F. A. Collier ; 
Ulysses, Edw. Woolcombe ; Cleopatra, S. J. B. Pechell ; Gloire, James 
Carthew ; Eurydice, James Bradshaw. Sloops, &c. — Cherub, T. T. 
Tucker ; Fawn, Hon. Geo. A. Crofton ; Goree, Com. R. Spear ; 
Pelorus, Thos. Huskisson ; Star, Wm. Paterson ; Stork, G. Le Geyt ; 
Amaranthe, E. P. Brenton ; Demerara, W. Dowers ; Eclair, G. J. 
Evelyn ; Forester, John Richards ; Frolic, T. Whinyates ; Liberty, 
John Coode ; Pultusk, Geo. Pringle ; Recruit, Chas. Napier ; Wol- 
verine, John Simpson ; Snap, J. P. Stewart ; Express, Wm. Malone ; 
Haughty, John Mitchell ; Swinger, Fras. Bligh ; Mosambique, Wm. 
Atkins ; Port d'Espagne, David Kennedy ; Surinam, John Lake ; 
Ringdove, Geo. Andrews ; Bellette, Geo. Saunders ; Bacchus, C. D. 
Jeremy ; Subtle, Chas. Brown. 

To the above was added a fleet of transports, containing 
about 10,000 troops, commanded by Xieutenant-General 
Beckwith. Six seamen were killed and nineteen wounded 
while serving on shore with the military. The naval medal 
is granted for all the abovenamed ships. 

On the 24th of February, a British squadron, consisting of 
the following — 



264 DESTRUCTION OF THREE FRENCH FRIGATES. [1809 

Guns. Ships. 

( p I Rear-Adm. Hon. Robert Stopford (blue) 

\ Caesar j Captain Charles Richardson 

j Defiance . . „ Henry Hotham 

( Donegal . . „ Peter Heywood (acting) 

38 Amelia . . „ Hon. Frederick P. Irby 

drove on shore and destroyed, under the powerful batteries of 
the town of Sable d'Olonne, the three French 40-gun frigates 
Italienne, Calypso, and Cybele. The Defiance and Donegal 
alone sustained any loss, the former having bad two men 
killed and twenty-five wounded, and the latter one killed and 
six wounded ; but all the ships suffered materially in masts 
and yards by the fire of the batteries. The loss sustained 
by the frigates amounted in the whole to twenty-four killed 
and fifty-one wounded. In the previous chase of the French 
frigates, the Amelia was distinguished. 

After performing this important service, Rear-Admiral 
Stopford returned to his station off the Chasseron light- 
house, and discovered at anchor in Basque Roads 1 the 

1 Previously to the Basque Roads affair, Captain Lucius Hardy- 
man, in the Unicorn, had command of the in-shore squadron. The 
French, in order to drive away such an obstruction to their coasting 
trade, commenced erecting mortar batteries, which induced the first 
lieutenant of the Unicorn (Samuel Roberts) to volunteer to go in and 
destroy the enemy's works, although it was well known that a number 
of troops and four gun-boats were employed protecting the engineers. 
The boats of the squadron were signalled to rendezvous at the point of 
attack ; but by mistake all took the wrong direction, and proceeded in 
for Oleron Lighthouse. With the Unicorn's boats alone, Roberts 
pushed on, expecting to be joined by the others. On arriving at the 
point, he found nine instead of four gun-boats drawn up in line abreast. 
To have boarded would have been madness ; but a retreat was not 
relishable, and the boats drew up within pistol-shot of the enemy, 
waiting the arrival of reinforcements ; neither party fired, and the 
suspense was borne for a quarter of an hour, when, finding no succour 
at hand, the launch opened fire from her carronade, and the gun-boats 
a fire of musketry. The French gun-boats, each armed with a long gun 
in the bow, and swivels at their gun-wales, and full of soldiers, returned 
the fire with interest ; and a retreat was inevitable, but Roberts effected 
this with great skill and bravery. The launch being towed by the other 
boats, kept up a smart fire, which prevented the gun-boat3 from board- 
ing ; and in this manner a running fight took place, and continued until 
within a mile of the Unicorn. Lieutenant Hamilton's head was carried 
off by a cannon-shot, and one of the barge's crew (the barge commanded 
by T. L. P. Laugharne, mate), killed ; several men were wounded. — 
Marshall. 



1809.] 



BASQUE ROADS. 



265 



following ships, which were commanded by Rear-Admiral 
Willauniez : — 



SO 



Guns. Ships. 

120 Ocean 

\ Foudroyant 
\ Varsovie 

!Tourville 
Jean Bart 
Tonnerre 



Guns. Ships. 

f Aquilon 
I Re"gulus 
74 -I Cassard 
Jemappes 
I Patriote 
50 Calcutta (fMe) 



40-gun frigates Pallas and Hortense 

On the 26th, in moving this squadron to Aix Roads, the 
Jean Bart got on the Palles Shoal and was totally wrecked. 

On the 25th of February, Rear-Admiral Stopford was 
joined by Captain Beresford in the 74-gun ship Theseus, 
with the Revenge, Hero, Triumph, and Valiant, Captains 
Hon. Charles Paget, James Newman Newman, Sir Thomas 
Masterman Hardy, and Alexander Robert Kerr. With the 
before-named eight sail of the line, and the frigates Amelia, 
Amethyst, Naiad, and Emerald, Captains Irby, Seymour, 
Thomas Dundas, and Maitland, and 18-gun sloop Dotterel, 
Commander Anthony Abdy, Rear- Admiral Stopford con- 
tinued blockading the above force until the 7 th of March, 
when Admiral Lord Gambier arrived and took the command. 
Some changes and additions having taken place, it will be as 
well to give a complete list of the British ships assembled in 
Basque Roads on the 17th of March : — 

Ships. 

i' Adm. Lord Gambier (blue) 
Captain Sir Harry Neale, Bart. 
William Bedford 
\ Rear- Adm. Hon. Robt. Stopford (blue) 
( Captain Charles Richardson 



Guns 
120 



80 



74 



Gibraltar . 

Hero 

Donegal . 
Resolution 
Theseus. . . 
Illustrious 
Valiant . . . 
Bellona . . . 
Revenge . 



Henry L. Ball 
James N. Newman 
Pulteney Malcolm 
George Burlton 
John P. Beresford 
William R. Broughton 
John Bligh 
Stair Douglas 
Alexander Robert Kerr 



On the 19th Lord Gambier received an intimation from 
the Admiralty that an attempt was to be made to destroy 



266 



ARRIVAL OF LORD COCHRANE. 



[1809. 



the enemy's fleet by fire-ships, and that twelve transports 
would be fitted for that purpose and sent to him, together 
with several bomb-vessels. Captain Lord Cochrane, who had 
just arrived at Plymouth from the Mediterranean, was 
appointed to conduct the expedition, under the orders of 
Lord Gambier ; and on the 3rd of April, in the Imperieuse, 
joined the fleet in Basque Roads. Some delay taking place 
in the arrival of fire-ships, eight transports were selected for 
this purpose, and the cargoes of three captured chasse-marees, 
consisting of tar and resin, applied to this use. The Mediator 
store-ship was also fitted as a fire-ship ; and three explosion- 
vessels, of a most destructive nature, were equipped under 
the immediate inspection of Lord Cochrane. Between the 
6th and the 12th, the ^Etna and fire-ships, and a transport 
laden with Congreve rockets, and having Mr. Congreve on 
board, arrived ; when the frigates and smaller vessels now 
with the fleet were as follow : — 



Captain 



Guns. Ships, 

oo j Indefatigable 

( Imperieuse 

Aigle „ 

36 < Emerald „ 

( Unicorn „ 

Pallas . . 

Mediator (flute) .... „ 

Beagle „ 

Dotterel Com 

Foxhound ., „ 

1n i Lyra „ 

iU j Eedpole 



32 



18 



Bombs 
14 



j Thunder , 
\ ^Etna . . . 



12 



Insolent Lieut. 

Encounter „ 

Conflict „ 



Contest 

Martial 

Fervent 

..Growler 

Schooner Whitim 



Lieutenant Henry 
Nimrod and King George, Mates 
Mekeek. 



John Tremaine Rodd 
Lord Cochrane 
George Wolfe 
Fred. Lewis Maitland 
Lucius Hardyman 
Geo. Fran. Seymour 
James Wooldridge 
Francis Newcombe 
Anthony Abdy 
Pitt Burnaby Greene 
William Bevians 
John Joyce 
James Caulfield 
William Godfrey 
John Row Morris 
James Hugh Talbot 
Joseph B. Batt 
John Gregory 
William Walker 
John Edward Hare 
Richard Crossman 
Wildey. Hired armed cutters 
Edward Tapley and Thomas 



The French fleet was now commanded by Yice-Admiral 
Allemand, who anchored the ships in a double line with their 
heads to the north-east. The van ship of the outer line bore 



1809. 1 



POSITIONS OF THE FLEETS. 



267 



due south of the battery on the southern point of the Isle 
d'Aix, and was distant from it 640 yards. The two lines 
were about 250 yards distant from each other, and 170 yards 
between the ships of their own line. At about 700 yards in 
advance of the outer or northernmost line were the three 
frigates Pallas, Hortense, and Indienne. 

The following elucidation of the positions occupied by the 
ships may be serviceable : — 

Indienne. Hortense. Pallas. 
Foudroyant. Varsovie. Ocean. Kegulus. Cassard. Calcutta. 

Tonnerre. Patriote. Jemappes. Aquilon. Tourville. Elbe. 

At the distance of 110 yards in front of the line of 
frigates, a boom half a mile in length, composed of the 
largest cables, which were floated by buoys, was thrown 
across the channel leading from Basque Roads to the anchor- 
age of Aix, and moored by the heaviest anchors to be 
procured, having its northern extremity within 100 yards of 
•the rocks, which lay off the southern end of Aix. The 
line-of-battle ships were so moored that the broadside of 
each bore upon the boom. We here insert a sketch of the 
scene of warfare. 




OHv/jmyifiilW 






A 




268 ATTACK BY FIRE-SHIPS. [1809. 

The batteries protecting the anchorage mounted upwards 
of thirty guns (36-pounders), and several mortars. The 
French ships were fully prepared for the threatened attack, 
and a large number of boats and armed launches assembled 
near the boom every night to be ready to tow away the fire- 
ships and to protect the boom. The ships were all lying with 
their topgallant-masts on deck, topmasts struck, and sails 
unbent. 

On the 11th of April the Imprrieuse anchored near the 
Boyart shoal, and the Aigle, Unicorn, and Pallas a short dis- 
tance to the north-west of the Imperieuse, to be in readiness 
to receive the crews of the fire-ships on their return, and 
support the boats of the fleet appointed to accompany the 
fire-ships. The Whiting, King George, and Nimrod, which 
had been fitted for throwing Congreve rockets, also took up 
a position near the shoal. The -ZEtna was placed near the 
north-west of Aix, covered by the Indefatigable and Fox- 
hound. The Emerald, Beagle, Dotterel, Conflict, and 
Growler were stationed at the east end of the island, to 
create a diversion, and the Redpole and Lyra, with ligpts 
hoisted which were screened from the enemy's view, were 
stationed one near the shoal at the north-west of the island, 
and the other close to the Boyart shoal, to direct the fire- 
vessels in their course to the attack. The line-of-battle 
ships were in Basque Roads, about seven miles from the 
French fleet. 

About 8h. 30m. p.m., the night being very dark, the wind 
blowing strong from north-west, and the tide running two 
and a half miles an hour, the Mediator and other fire-vessels 
cut their cables and made sail. One of the explosion-vessels 
was swept from the stern of the Imperieuse by an early 
abandoned fire-ship ; but the remaining two — one conducted 
by Lord Cochrane in person, assisted by Lieutenant William 
Bissell and four seamen — proceeded towards the Isle of Aix, 
and when within three-quarters of a mile of the French line 
were ignited. Each vessel containing 1,500 barrels of powder 
started into puncheons up-headed, and secured together by 
cables passed round them, and jammed together with wedges, 
having moistened sand rammed down between them, and on 
the top of this mass of gunpowder lay more than 300 live 
shells and many thousand hand-grenades. 



1809.] BREAKING THE BOOM. 269 

Many of the fire-ships were ignited and abandoned too 
early, but others were admirably conducted, and especially 
the Mediator. This ship, moving rapidly by the strength of 
the wind, and a tide running nearly four knots, broke the 
boom, and opened a clear passage for her followers. So 
determined was her gallant captain to do the work effectually, 
that himself and his crew were nearly falling sacrifices to 
his perseverance. The gunner, James Segges, was killed ; 
and Captain "Wooldridge, Lieutenants Nicholas B. Clements 
and James Pearl, and one seaman were blown out of the 
ship ; they were picked up, the three latter slightly, but 
Captain Wooldridge severely scorched. On board the other 
fire-ships two seamen were killed belonging to the Caesar ; 
and acting Lieutenant William Flintoft and one seaman 
died from fatigue in the boat. Masters' mates Richard 
Francis Jewers and John Conyers, of the Gibraltar, were 
both severely scorched by powder. Among those who 
waited the proper time before setting fire to the trains of 
their vessels were Captains Wooldridge (above mentioned), 
Newcombe, of the Beagle, and Joyce, of the Redpole ; and 
Lieutenant John Cookesley, of the Gibraltar : all of whom 
were exposed to imminent danger in their endeavours to 
regain the advanced .frigates, having to pull against a strong 
tide and heavy head-sea, exposed to the fire of the enemy 
and flight of the Congreve rockets, which took every direction. 
The boats of the fleet, under direction of Bear-Admiral 
Stopford, had been ordered to support the fire-ships, and 
were assembled alongside the Caesar for that purpose ; but, 
in consequence of the boisterous state of the weather, the 
rear-admiral did not think it expedient to proceed with 
them. The sky soon became illumined by the glare of so 
many burning objects ; the flashes of the guns from the 
forts and enemy's ships, the flights of shells and rockets 
from the fire-vessels, conspired to form a scene of the most 
awfully grand description. At the commencement of the 
attack, the wind was so strong that the explosions of the 
fire-vessels were not heard on board the British fleet ; but 
the effect of the heavy filing after a time lulled it con- 
siderably. 

At about 9h. 30m. one of the fire-vessels exploded close 
to the boom, about 120 yards from the Indienne, and ten 



270 FRENCH snips ON SHORE. [1809. 

minutes afterwards a second, much closer to her, blew up- 
At 9h. 45m. the Mediator broke through the boom, and 
became a target for the French ships ; and the frigates in 
advance cut their cables and made sail. The Hortense 
passed to windward of some of the fire-ships, into which she 
discharged several broadsides, after which she ran down with 
her consorts to the rear of the line-of-battle ships. A fire- 
vessel fouled the Regulus, and remained attached for a quar- 
ter of an horn-, but the ship escaped without material injury. 
The Ocean cut to avoid a fire-ship, but while aground the 
fire-ship grappled her, and in this situation the Tonnerre and 
Patriote also got entangled. By great exertion the fire- 
vessel was boomed off, but more than fifty men were lost in 
effecting it. Such was the terror inspired by the approach 
of the flaming vessels, that every French ship, except the 
Foudroyant, cut or slipped their cables. The Cassard, how- 
ever, brought up again ; but at midnight thirteen French 
ships were aground, and at daylight on the 12th their 
situations are thus described : — Ocean on the mud, about 
half a mile south-east of her former anchorage ; Yarsovie 
and Aquilon, about 500 yards south-west of the Ocean, on a 
bed of rocks called the Charenton. Near to these were the 
Regulus and Jemappes. The Tonnerre was aground on a 
sand-bank, 200 yards to the eastward of the rock of Pontra, 
and between the isles of Madame and Enet. This ship 
since 2h. a.m. had thrown all her guns, except ten 36- 
pounders, overboard, and had cut away her mainmast ; but 
had already bilged. Close to the wreck of the Jean Bart, 
on the extremity of the Palles, lay the Calcutta. The 
Patriote and Tourville were on the mud on the north side of 
Madame, near the channel of the Charente. The Indienne lay 
about three-quarters of a mile to the eastward of the Ocean, 
upon the mud off Enet. The frigates Hortense and Elbe 
were on the Fontenelles, and the Pallas upon the mud near 
the entrance of the Charente. All the grounded ships, 
especially those on the Palles, were upon the heel, and most 
of them appeared in a very desperate situation. 

The falling of the tide obliged the Imperieuse at daylight 
to weigh and stand out ; Lord Cochrane them made the fol- 
lowing telegraphic signals to the Caledonia, lying in Basque 
Roads. At 5h. 48m. : " Half the fleet can destroy the 



1809.] lord cochrane's attack. 271 

enemy ; seven on shore." At 6h. 40m. : "Eleven on shore." 
At 7h. 40m. : " Only two afloat." At 9h. 30m. : " Enemy 
preparing to heave off." As soon as the tide served, the 
Imperieuse re-anchored close to the Boyart shoal, the south 
end of Isle d'Aix bearing about south-east. 

At 9h. 30m. Lord Gambier telegraphed to the fleet : 
" Prepare with sheet and spare cables out of stern ports, 
and springs ready." At 9h. 35m. the signal was made to 
weigh, and for the captain of each ship to repair on board 
the Caledonia. At lOh. the captains returned to their re- 
spective ships, which, at lOh. 45m., with a light air of wind 
from the north-west, weighed. At llh. 30m. the fleet 
re-anchored at the distance of three miles from Isle d'Aix, 
and about six miles from the grounded ships. The Valiant, 
Bellona, and Revenge, with the frigates and sloops, were 
then ordered to anchor as close as possible to the Boyart 
shoal, to be ready to support the bomb-vessel and gun-brigs 
in bombarding the enemy's ships. Observing this move- 
ment, the Foudroyant and Cassard cut their cables and 
made sail for the Charente ; but both ships ran aground near 
the castle and a little to the southward of Point Fouras. 
As the flood-tide made, all the ships that had grounded 
righted, and their crews were using every exertion to get 
them again into deep water. 

Lord Cochrane observing that the enemy's ships were, 
one by one, getting afloat, and that the Calcutta, Varsovie, 
and Aquilon, which lay in the most eligible positions for an 
attack, were carrying out anchors, unwilling to lose the 
reward of his preceding night's successful labours, got under- 
weigh in the Imperieuse, and, without waiting for orders, 
dropped down with the tide towards the enemy. At lh. 
30m. p.m. Lord Cochrane ordered sail to be made and to 
steer for the grounded ships on the Palles. His lordship 
then made the signal 405 to the admiral, " The enemy's 
ships are getting under sail ;" and ten minutes afterwards, 
378, "The enemy is superior to the chasing ship." At lh. 
45m. No. 3 04, " The ship is in distress and requires imme- 
diate assistance." The intention of these signals was ob- 
viously to induce Lord Gambier to order some of the ships 
near him to the assistance of the Imperieuse, thus single- 
handed advancing upon the enemy. 



272 ATTEMPT TO DESTROY THE FRENCH. [1809. 

At 2h. p.m. the frigate anchored near the Palles shoal 
in five fathoms, and having brought her broadside, by means 
of springs, to bear upon the Calcutta's starboard quarter, 
commenced firing on that ship, and occasionally with her 
bow and forecastle guns at the Varsovie and Aquilon. 
Lord Cochrane perceiving that the shot from the carronades 
of the Insolent, Growler, and Conflict, which had followed 
him, fell short of the Imperieuse, directed some of the 
frigate's main-deck guns to be fired at or near to them. 
The hint answered the purpose, and the brigs took a nearer 
position, but still remained outside the Imperieuse. About 
this time the Jemappes, Patriote, and Regulus succeeded in 
heaving off the bank ; but grounded again on the mud at 
the entrance of the Charente. It was then high water, and the 
Ocean was afloat ; but this ship also grounded again, about 
700 yards nearer the channel of the river. 

At a little past 2h. Lord Gambier made the Indefatiga- 
ble's signal to weigh, and shortly afterwards the remaining 
frigates and smaller vessels were ordered to proceed to the 
assistance of the Imperieuse. At about 2h. 30m. the Valiant 
and Revenge also got underweigh, and proceeded towards 
the scene of action. At 3h. 20m., on the near approach of 
the Indefatigable and other ships, the Calcutta ceased firing ; 
and, as the crew were observed abandoning her, Lord 
Cochrane sent a midshipman alongside to take possession. 
Ten minutes afterwards the Indefatigable anchored on the 
inner and starboard quarter of the Imperieuse, and directed 
her fire at the Calcutta ; but, being hailed by Lord Cochrane 
and informed that the ship had already surrendered, her guns 
were turned upon the Varsovie and Aquilon. The Aigle, 
Emerald, and Unicorn took their stations ahead of the 
Indefatigable. In a short time the Pallas brought up ahead 
of the other frigates, the Valiant close astern of the Inde- 
fatigable, and the Revenge about 700 yards to the north- 
east of the Imperieuse. The British squadron, thus formed 
in a crescent, opened a heavy and destructive fire on the 
Varsovie 1 and Aquilon, both of which, at 5h. 30m., gave 

1 Lieutenant Samuel Roberts, of the Unicom, distinguished himself 
in the following manner : — At intervals, as the smoke cleared away, 
Captain Hardyman observed the crew on board the Varsovie endeavouring 
to strike the colours, entangled at the mizen-peak. The Unicorn's fire 



1809.] DESTRUCTION OF THE TONNERRE, ETC. 273 

token of submission by shewing an English union-jack in 
the mizen chains. About this time the Theseus anchored 
between the Revenge and Valiant. At 6h. the Tonnerre, 
lying just out of range of the Revenge, was set on fire 
by her crew, all of whom landed safely on Isle Madame ; 
and at 7h. 30m. that ship blew up. The Calcutta was set 
on fire by a midshipman of the Imperieuse, and at 8h. 40m. 
this ship, having a quantity of powder and ordnance stores 
in her hold, blew up with a tremendous explosion. 

The Revenge and Imperieuse were the only British ships 
which sustained any loss in attacking the grounded ships. 
The Revenge had two marines killed, and Lieutenant 
James Garland, five seamen, and nine marines wounded. 
The ship was hulled in several places, and her rigging and 
sails were much cut. The Imperieuse suffered in her sails 
and rigging, and had three seamen killed; Assistant Sur- 
geon Gilbert, Mark Marsden, purser, seven seamen, and two 
marines wounded. It is remarkable, that although the bat- 
teries of Aix and 01ero;i kept up a constant fire of shot 
and shells, and the wind was so light that the progress of 
ships under all sail did not exceed two knots an hour, 
the Revenge and Indefatigable were the only British ships 
of the fourteen engaged that suffered at all from them. 

The captain of the Aquilon was killed by the side of Lord 
Cochrane in the boat of the Imperieuse, by a shot from the 
guns of the burning Tonnerre. The Varsovie had upwards 
of 100 men killed and wounded ; but the Aquilon's loss was 
slight, owing to the precaution of her captain, who directed 
her crew to lie down when he found that he could not return 
the enemy's fire. 

As the Ocean, Cassard, Regulus, Jemappes, Tourville, and 
Indienne were all lying aground at the entrance of the 
Charente, three transports were hastily converted into fire- 
ships, and at 5h. 30m. p.m. Rear-Admiral Stopford got 

ceased, but the other frigates continued their fire7 Roberts pushed off 
in the gig, boarded the ship through a lower-deck port, and, accompanied 
by John Newton, the coxswain, made his way (although the crew were 
still at quarters) to the poop. Finding an English jack lying among 
other flags, and amidst a heap of killed and wounded, he sent the cox- 
swain to the mizen-topmast-head with the flag in his hand. The firing 
immediately ceased, and the French captain and his officers delivered up 
their swords to Lieutenant Roberts. — Marshall. 
VOL. II. T 



274 RENEWED ATTACKS. [1809. 

underweigh with the Caesar, accompanied by the three fire- 
ships and the launches of the fleet, fitted to throw Congreve 
rockets, and stood towards Aix Roads, receiving from the 
batteries of Aix and Oleron a passing but ineffectual fire. 
At 7h. 40m. the Caesar took the ground on the southern 
extremity of the Boy art shoal. The Valiant had grounded 
half an hour previously, and, as the tide was ebbing at the 
time, these ships did not float again until lOh. 30m. p.m. 
The Revenge found out a safe anchorage in five and a 
quarter fathoms water at the lowest ebb, where there was 
room for six sail of the line, and it was in endeavouring to 
reach this anchorage that the Valiant grounded. The Inde- 
fatigable and Imperieuse also grounded, but got off again 
without damage. About 8h. all the remaining frigates and 
brigs, except the Imperieuse, weighed and anchored along 
with the Revenge in the Mamusson passage. 

At 2h. A.M. on the 13th, the wind shifted to south-west, 
of which Rear-Admiral Stopford determined to take ad- 
vantage, and return from a position where his ships were 
environed with shoals, and prevented from acting with effect. 
Accordingly the Caesar weighed, and at 4h. A.M. anchored in 
Little Basque Roads. The rear-admiral committed the di- 
rection of the fire-ships to Captain Bligh ; but, owing to 
the state of the wind and weather, nothing could be done 
with them at that time. The Aquilon and Varsovie, in 
possession of the British, being considered immovable, were 
set on fire. In the darkness and confusion these burning 
ships were taken for British fire-ships, and many ships com- 
menced firing upon them ; the captain of the Tourville was 
so alarmed by them, that he abandoned the ship after set- 
ting her on fire in two places. At daylight, however, 
Captain Lacaille perceiving his mistake, and that the ship 
had not suffered by his own rashness, and that the British 
ships were on their return to the Basque Roads, ventured 
back to his ship with about 250 men. 

At 5h. a.m. the Valiant, Theseus, Revenge, Indefatigable, 
Aigle, Unicorn, and Emerald, weighed by signal from the 
Caesar. While the Imperieuse was passing the Indefati- 
gable, Lord Cochrane proposed to Captain Rodd, that if the 
Indefatigable would go on one quarter of the Ocean, he in 
the Imperieuse would take the other. This Captain Rodd 



1809.] RENEWED ATTACKS. 275 

declined, alleging as his reason, that he should not be 
justified in acting without orders, in the presence of two 
senior officers, Captains Bligh and Beresford. At Gh. 30ni. 
the Iniperieuse and Pallas, the latter by direction of Lord 
Cochrane, anchored together with the Beagle and gun-brigs 
in the Mamusson passage, and as soon as the tide served, 
the brigs and bomb-vessels were directed by Lord Cochrane 
to stand in shore, and attack the nearest ship aground at the 
entrance of the Charente, intending to follow with the 
frigates as soon as the rising of the tide would permit him. 
At llh. the Beagle, iEtna, Fervent, Growler, Conflict, Con- 
test, and Encounter, with the rocket cutters Nimrod and 
King George, came to anchor and commenced firing upon 
the Ocean. Regulus, and Indienne. The Beagle, in the most 
gallant manner, took a position upon the three-decker's 
quarter, and continued to ply her guns for five hoars ; but 
unfortunately the strength of the wind and tide prevented 
the two frigates from co-operating. The ..'Etna split her 
13-inch mortar, and at 4h. p.m. the falling tide rendered it 
necessary for the Beagle and gun-brigs, as well as for the 
bomb, to return to their former anchorage, exposed in their 
retreat to a heavy fire from the batteries. The Ocean was 
the principal object of attack, but the Begulus, Indienne, 
Tourville, Cassard, and Jemappes, had some share in the 
engagement. 

On the 14th, at 2h. 30m. a.m., the Tourville got afloat, 
and entered the Charente, but soon afterwards ran on shore 
near Fouras. The Ocean having also floated, again grounded 
near the Tourville ; but the Patriote, Hor tense, Elbe, and 
Pallas got off and ascended the Charente, beyond the reach 
of attack. At 9h. a.m. the Imperieuse was recalled by signal 
from the admiral, and Lord Cochrane was superseded in the 
command of the Aix flotilla by Captain Wolfe, of the Aigle. 
At 4h. 30m. p.m. the Imperieuse weighed accordingly, and 
stood towards Basque Roads, and on the next day sailed for 
England, having on board Captain Sir Harry ISTeale, with 
Lord Gambier's despatches. 

The Ocean having thrown overboard nearly half her guns, 
was after much labour forced through the mud, to the dis- 
tance of 500 yards, and eventually anchored off Pointe des 
Barques. The Cassard was also got off, and reached a place 

t2 ' 



276 COURT-MARTIAL. [1809. 

of safety ; but, on the 15th, the Foudroyant, Regulus, Tour- 
ville, and Indienne, remained aground at the mouth of the 
Charente. The latter, on the 16th, was set on fire by her 
own crew, and destroyed. On the 17th, the Foudroyant 
and Tourville entered the river. On the 19th, the Regulus 
alone remained aground, and the Thunder arrived in Aix 
Eoads, with the intention of destroying her ; but the 
violence of the weather would not permit the attack to be 
made. On the 20th, attempts were made to destroy the 
French ship, which were repeated for several days without 
success. At daylight on the 29th, the spring tides having 
again set in, the Regulus floated, and joined her friends at 
Rochefort ; after which the Caledonia quitted Basque Roads 
and returned to England. 

The affair at Basque Roads was not doomed to terminate 
on the 29th of April. The first lord of the Admiralty, 
having determined to move a vote of thanks to Admiral 
Lord Gambier, and the captains, officers, and seamen em- 
ployed in the fleet on the occasion of the destruction of the 
French ships, received a notification that it was the inten- 
tion of Lord Cochrane, who was a member of parliament, 
in the event of his doing so, to move an amendment. This 
having been signified to Lord Gambier, that officer had no 
other course than to demand a court-martial, which accord- 
ingly assembled : the result was, that, after a lengthened 
investigation, Lord Gambier was most honourably acquitted. 
In the face of this acquittal, however, public opinion remained 
much divided, and endeavours were used, by many of those 
employed, to shift the onus of the partial want of success to 
another's shoulders. The appointment of Lord Cochrane to 
conduct the expedition in the first instance gave great dis- 
satisfaction to the many gallant and distinguished officers 
serving in the squadron. This gave rise to a want of una- 
nimity ; consequently, the admiral felt disposed to consider 
Lord Cochrane as grasping at too much authority ; and, on 
the other hand, the captain considered that many difficulties 
remained in his way, which it was in the power of the 
admiral to remove. 

The charges brought against Lord Gambier were made 
entirely by Lord Cochrane j and during the evidence ad- 
duced on the part of the defence and prosecution, the 



1809.] CONFLICTING OPINIONS. 277 

following were the opinions given by the different witnesses : 
Rear- Admiral Stopford, in answer to the question whether, 
when the Iniperieuse made the signal that the enemy's ships 
were on shore, and that the fleet might destroy them, he 
would with his experience have thought it prudent or 
proper to send or lead the fleet in for that purpose, said, 
" In my opinion, the dislodgement from the anchorage of the 
enemy's ships by fire-ships removed but a small part of the 
obstacles. With the wind as it then was (strong from the 
north-west), and the broadsides of the enemy's ships still 
commanding the approaches, we should have been so crippled 
in going into and in working out of the passage a little more 
than a mile in breadth, that I think I should not have 
risked the ships, had they been under my command." 

Captain Pulteney Malcolm said (in answer to the question, 
whether he thought the ships ought to have gone in before 
the three French ships which commanded the channel had 
left their positions on the Palles shoal), " Had it appeared 
to me that there was no other chance of destroying those 
ships than by such an attack, it ought to have been made." 
" Certainly there was not a delay, on the part of the 
admiral, of more than half or three-quarters of an hour. 
This was the only time which could possibly be called 
delay." 

Captains Burlton, Ball, and Newman, were not aware of 
any blame attaching to Lord Gambier. 

Captain Broughton " thought it would have been more 
advantageous, had the line-of-battle ships, frigates, and small 
vessels, gone in at half-flood, between eleven and twelve 
o'clock, and conjectured that the discomfited French ships 
would have made very little resistance." 

Captain George Francis Seymour said, " I have my doubts 
whether line-of-battle ships would have succeeded by going 
in. There was water sufficient for them to have gone in at 
eleven o'clock. It was a point where the discretion of the 
commander-in-chief might be fairly used. I confine myself 
to the depth of water." 

Captain Francis Newcombe stated, " The risk, I think, 
as the wind and tide were, was rather too great ; and our 
want of the perfect knowledge of the anchorage further to 
the southward between the Palles and Oleron :" — and he 



278 THANKS OF PARLIAMENT. [1809. 

thought that everything had been done that was practi- 
cable. 

Captain Alexander R. Kerr and Captain Beresford said 
that there was no blame to be attached to the conduct of 
Lord Gambier. 

The sketch of the anchorage and shoals given in a fore- 
going page will, however, we think, be the best apology for 
Lord Gambier, especially as the exact positions of them 
were unknown to the most experienced men on board the 
British ships ; and when it is borne in mind that uncertain 
currents and eddies and variable winds for the most part 
prevailed on the day after the ships had been driven on 
shore, the loss which in all probability would have resulted 
from the employment of line-of-battle ships in such dangerous 
soundings might have more than counterbalanced the injury 
inflicted upon the enemy. The thanks of parliament were 
eventually given, and those serving in the ships have been 
awarded the naval medal. 

On the 15th of March, the boats of the Arethusa, Captain 
Robert Mends, were sent away, under the orders of Lieutenant 
Hugh Pearson and Lieutenant of marines Octavius Scott. At 
daylight the party landed, and destroyed more than twenty 
guns mounted on the batteries of Lequito, on the north coast 
of Spain. The French guard threw down their arms and 
begged for quarter. Three men were wounded in the perfor- 
mance of this service. On the 1 6th, the same party captured 
a number of chasse-marees in the river Andero, and destroyed 
their cargoes. On the 20th, Lieutenant Elms Steele, of the 
same ship, landed with a party of seamen and marines, and 
destroyed the guns at Baigno, during which time Lieutenant 
John Fennel, of the marines, and John Elliot, purser, de- 
stroyed the signal-posts. Lieutenant Pearson on the same 
day destroyed the guns at Paissance. 

On the 1st of April, in the evening, the boats of the 
28-gun frigate Mercury, Captain the Honourable Henry 
Duncan, were despatched under the orders of Lieutenant 
Watkin Owen Pell, assisted by Lieutenant Robert J. Gor- 
don, the master, Richard Hildyard; Lieutenant of marines 
James Whylock ; the carpenter, Jeremiah Crawley; George 
Anderson, captain's clerk ; Midshipmen John Sterling, John 
Wilkes, William Parker, and Charles Adam, and acting 



1809.] AMETHYST AXD NIEMEN. ~ 279 

Surgeon Robert Williams, to cut out from the port of 
Povigno, on the coast of Istria, two gun-boats moored close 
to two heavy batteries. The Leda, one of the boats, mounted 
one 24-pounder and six large swivels. Although fully pre- 
pared with boarding nettings triced up, she was carried; 
but a fog coming on, deranged the plan of attack, and put a 
stop to further proceedings. The prize was towed out under 
the fire of five guns mounted on an island. In performing 
this service, one seaman was killed, and Lieutenant Pell 
(who had previously lost a leg) 1 wounded severely in two 
places, and three seamen slightly wounded. The Patriotic 
Fund Committee voted a sword, value fifty guineas, to Lieu- 
tenant Pell. 

In the forenoon of the 5th of April, Cordouan light- 
house bearing east by north, distant about forty leagues, the 
18-pounder 36-gun frigate Amethyst, Captain Michael Sey- 
mour, being on the larboard tack with the wind at east, 
observed a ship steering to the westward. The 36-gun 
frigate Emerald, Captain Frederick Lewis Maitland, being in 
company, but at some distance to the northward, joined in 
pursuing the stranger, which, on perceiving the two frigates, 
hauled to the wind on the larboard tack. The chase was 
the 40-gun French frigate Niemen, Captain Dupotel, laden 
with provisions for the Isle of France. At noon the Niemen 
was half topsails down from the deck of the Amethyst, and 
the pursuit continued with a slight advantage to the Ame- 
thyst throughout the day ; but at sunset the chase was still 
hull down to windward, and consequently at dark was lost 
sight of. 

Captain Seymour concluding that the stranger would 
resume her course to the westward on losing sight of her 
pursuers, at 9h. p.m. bore up south-west, under easy sail, 
the wind at the time blowing in squalls from east-north-east ; 
and at 9h. 40m. discovered the object of his pursuit on the 
weather beam. The Amethyst immediately crowded sail in 
chase, whereupon the Niemen wore and hauled up south 
by west. At llh. 30m. the Amethyst fired her bow guns, 
which were responded to from the stern chasers of the 
Niemen. At lh. 15m. a.m. on the sixth, the Amethyst 

; ' See p. 2, ante. 



280 AMETHYST AND NIEMEN. [1809. 

having reached the larboard quarter of the Niemen, was 
enabled to fire a broadside, upon which the latter again 
wore. The Amethyst followed, and at lh. 45m. ranged 
close alongside the enemy to windward. After an ex- 
change of broadsides, the Amethyst, having shot ahead of 
the Niemen, bore up across her bows, raked her, and then 
hauled up on the same tack, and took her station on the 
French ship's starboard bow. At 2h. 45m. the Niemen 
fell on board the Amethyst on her starboard beam and 
quarter ; but in a few minutes got clear, and, wearing, bore 
up south-west. About 3h., the Amethyst having again 
obtained a position on the larboard and weather beam of the 
Niemen, renewed the action, and shortly afterwards the 
latter caught fire in the larboard hammock-netting ; at 
3h. 15m. her mizenmast and maintop-mast were shot away. 
The Niemen having caught fire in the maintop also, her 
mainyard was lowered half-way down the mast, so that she 
was wholly unable to make sail, and her guns offered a very 
ineffectual return to the animated fire of the Amethyst. At 
3h. 25m., the Niemen having ceased firing, the Amethyst 
discontinued the action, and, bearing up under her opponent's 
stern, brought-to to leeward. At 3h. 30 m. the Amethyst's 
main and mizen masts fell over the starboard quarter, and 
about the same time the Niemen's mainmast went by the 
board. Both ships then paid round off before the wind. 
The Arethusa, Captain Robert Mends, at 3h. 45m. joined 
from the eastward, and having approached within gun-shot 
on the Niemen's larboard quarter, the latter hoisted a light, 
and fired a shot at the Arethusa and another at the Ame- 
thyst ; but on the discharge of a few of the Arethusa's 
foremost guns, the French frigate lowered the light in token 
of submission. 

The Amethyst had two lieutenants and thirty-seven men 
absent in prizes, and out of the 222 men and boys, which 
were all she had on board, six seamen and two marines were 
killed, and Lieutenants of marines Henry Waring and 
Samuel Prytherch, her boatswain, Lacey, twenty-four seamen, 
and ten marines wounded. The Niemen mounted forty-six 
guns, and commenced the action with 319 men and boys; 
of whom forty-seven were killed and seventy-three wounded. 
The day after her capture the Niemen's foremast fell over 



1809.] CAPTURE of d'hautpolt. 281 

the side, and she was taken in tow by the Arethusa. The 
prize, being only nine months old, was a great acquisition to 
the navy, to which she was added under the same name. 

There is a great similarity between this action and that 
of the Amethyst and Thetis, 1 in the manner of conducting 
it, in the comparative force of the combatants, and also 
in reference to the intrusion of a third party. It is quite 
evident, however, that in both cases the capture was vir- 
tually effected by the Amethyst. Captain Seymour was 
created a baronet of the United Kingdom, and the first 
lieutenant, William Hill, promoted to be commander. The 
naval medal is granted for this action. • 

A small squadron, under Captain Philip Beaver, of the 
Acasta frigate, having succeeded on the 14th of April in 
gaining possession of the rocky islands known as the Saintes, 
near Guadaloupe, a fire was opened from Morne-Russel upon 
three French line-of-battle ships at anchor in the roads 
beneath ; in consequence of which, these, which were the 
74-gun ships Courageux, Polonais, and D'Hautpolt, quitted 
their anchorage, and stood out to sea. The escape of the 
French squadron was immediately perceived by Commander 
Hugh Cameron, of the 18-gun ship-sloop Hazard, belonging 
to the in-shore squadron, and information was signalled to 
Rear- Admiral Sir Alexander Cochrane, who, with a squadron 
of five sail of the line, was blockading the port. Shortly 
afterwards the French ships were observed from the 74-gun 
ship Pompee, Captain William C. Fahie, and at lOh. p.m. 
that ship endeavoured to arrest the progress of the enemy ; 
but, having a strong breeze in their favour, the ships were 
enabled to defeat the object. At lOh. 15m. the 18-gun 
brig Recruit, Commander Charles Napier, having got up 
with, gallantly opened fire upon the enemy's sternmost ship, 
and was soon afterwards closed by the 74-gun ship Neptune, 
bearing the rear-admiral's flag ; but the latter again dropped 
astern. At 4h. a.m. on the 15th, the Recruit, by her 
superior sailing, again got close up with the enemy's rear 
ship, D'Hautpolt, and, assisted distantly by the Pompee, 
continued a galling fire upon her. A running action, in 
which all three French ships participated occasionally, was 

1 See p. 252, ante. 



282 ATTACK ON PESARO. [1809. 

kept up throughout the day; but at 8h. p.m. the ships 
separated, each steering a different course. The Recruit and 
Pompee persevered in chasing D'Hautpolt, until the former, 
being disabled aloft, dropped astern. The frigates Latona 
and Castor, Captains Hugh Pigot and William Roberts, 
during the 16th, hove in sight and joined in the chase, and 
the latter very gallantly brought the French ship to action. 
On the morning of the 17th the French ship surrendered. 

The Pompee, in her action, was very much disabled in 
masts and rigging, and her loss amounted to Edward Casey, 
boatswain, and eight men killed ; Captain Fahie, William 
Bone, first lieutenant ; Lieutenant of marines Charles Ed- 
ward Atkins, and twenty-seven men wounded. The Nep- 
tune had one man killed and four wounded ; Castor, one 
seaman killed and five wounded ; and Recruit, the serjeant 
of marines wounded. So sensible was Sir Alexander Coch- 
rane of Commander Napier's gallantry, that he appointed 
him to the prize, which, under the name of Abercromby, 
was added to the British navy ; and his conduct was further 
marked by his promotion. The naval medal is awarded to 
those present in the Pompee, Castor, and Recruit. 

On the 23rd of April, a squadron, consisting of the 
Spartan, Amphion, and Mercury, Captains Jahleel Brenton, 
William Hoste, and the Hon. Henry Duncan, anchored off 
the town of Pesaro. Captain Brenton not wishing to injure 
the town, then occupied by French troops, sent a flag of 
truce to demand the surrender of all the vessels in the 
harbour, to which an answer was returned by the French 
commandant to the effect that in half an hour he would 
decide. At the expiration of thirty-five minutes, observing 
the troops assembling in the streets, and the inhabitants 
dismantling the vessels, Captain Brenton ordered the flag of 
truce to be hauled down, and a shot to be fired over the 
town. Shortly afterwards the frigates and the gun and 
mortar boats of the squadron opened fire upon the town. 
At half an hour past noon, several flags of truce were hung 
out, and Captain Brenton made the signal for the firing to 
cease. Lieutenant George Wickens Willes, of the Spartan, 
having entered the harbour, learnt that the commandant had 
retreated with the military, when the boats of the squadron 
were despatched to bring out the vessels, and the marines, 



1809.] THRASHER AND BOULOGNE FLOTILLA. 283 

under Lieutenant Thomas Moore, were sent to cover them. 
By 6h. 30m. p.m. thirteen vessels, deeply laden, were brought 
off. At 7h. the castle at the entrance of the harbour was 
blown up, and the British returned to their ships without 
having either sustained or caused any loss of life. 

On the 26th of April, early in the morning, the 12-gun brig 
Thrasher, Lieutenant Josiah Dornford, weighed from Dun- 
geness and stood over for Boulogne. Upon nearing the coast, 
forty sail of gun-vessels were observed coming out of the har- 
bour, including six brigs and two schooners. The Thrasher, 
though only armed with 1 8-pounder carronades and two long 
4-pounders, with a crew of sixty men, gallantly engaged the 
flotilla, and by her superior sailing was enabled to run along 
the enemy's lines, engaging both sides, while, from her 
position, the batteries could not fire upon her without en- 
dangering their own vessels. After engaging from 7h. a.m. 
till 2h. p.m., Lieutenant Dornford considered it prudent to 
withdraw from under the batteries ; but not until he had 
succeeded in sinking three, driving six on shore, and com- 
pelling many others to return into port. Commander W. 
B. Dolling, in the 18-gun brig Trompeuse, arrived up at the 
close of the engagement, and reported Lieutenant Dornford's 
gallantry to Commodore Owen. 

On the 2nd of May, the Spartan and Mercury chased 
two vessels into the port of Cesenatico (where several other 
vessels were observed), which was defended by two batteries 
and a castle. The coast being very shoal, the boats were 
sent ahead to sound, and the frigates succeeded in entering 
the port about noon. Having anchored within grape range 
of the battery, it was very soon silenced, when the boats 
under Lieutenant Willes landed and took possession of it, 
and turned the guns upon the town. In all twelve vessels 
were captured, the castle and magazine blown up, the battery 
destroyed, and the guns spiked. The British returned to 
their ships without any casualty. 

On the 11th of May, the 38-gim frigate Melpomene, 
Captain Peter Parker, drove on shore a Danish 6-gun cutter 
at Huilbo, in Jutland, after which her boats were despatched 
under Lieutenants James H. Plumridge and George Bennie, 
which, covered by the fire of the frigate, boarded and 
effectually destroyed the vessel in the face of a galling fire 



284 tartar's boats at courland. [1809. 

from the shore. Lieutenant Rennie, two seamen, and three 
marines were severely wounded. 

On the 15th of May, the 3 2 -gun frigate Tartar, Captain 
Joseph Baker, chased on shore near Felixburgh, on the 
coast of Courland, a Danish 4-gun sloop privateer ; the crew of 
which, twenty-four in number, landed with their muskets, 
and joined by some country people, posted themselves be- 
hind the sand-hills near the beach, from whence they could 
annoy the boats in their approach. The Tartar's boats were 
notwithstanding sent away in charge of the first lieutenant, 
Thomas Sykes, assisted by Lieutenant Frederick A. H. 
Parker, in order to bring her off or effect her destruction. 
The boats boarded without opposition, and the guns of the 
privateer were immediately turned upon the party behind 
the sand-hills, which they quickly dislodged. 1 

On the 15th of May, Lieutenant Robert J. Gordon, of 
the Mercury, with a party of marines and a boat's crew, 
destroyed seven trabacculos in the harbour of Rotti, on the 
coast of Istria. Lieutenant Gordon was severely woimded 
by an explosion of gunpowder, but no other person was 
hurt. 

On the 17th of May, in lat. 44° K, long. 11° 20' W., the 
British 10-gunbrig Goldfinch, Commander Fitzherbert Skin- 
ner, discovered the French 16-gun corvette Mouche, and at 
3h. a.m. of the 18th, gallantly brought her to action. The 
long 8-pounders of the Mouche, at the distance she kept 
from her antagonist, were very much more than a match for 
the 18-pounder carronades of the Goldfinch ; but a running 
action was continued till 7h. a.m., when the Mouche, with 
the head of her fore-topmast shot away, bore up, leaving the 
Goldfinch much cut up, and with the loss of three men killed 
and three wounded. 

In the early part of May, a squadron, consisting of the 
64-gun ship Standard, Captain Askew P. Hollis ; 38-gun 
frigate Owen Glendower, Captain William Selby ; and three 

1 Previously to this, one of the men had descended into the cabin of 
the vessel, where he found the end of a lighted candle fixed in an 18- 
pounder cartridge, from which a train was led into the magazine, and 
this was full of powder. With great presence of mind, the man extin- 
guished the candle, by squeezing it between his hands, just as it had 
reached within half an inch of the powder, and but for this presence of 
mind all on board mwt, in another minute., have been blown to atoms. 





&~4*s*-?n^i^/~z<r 



1809.] MELPOMENE AND GUN-BOATS. 285 

sloops, was detached by Yice-Adniiral Sir James Saumarez, 
commanding in the Baltic, to effect the reduction of the 
island of Anholt. A party of seamen and marines, under 
the command of Captain Selby, assisted by Captain Edward 
Nicolls, of the marines, landed ; and on the 18th, after a 
gallant resistance, in which one marine was killed and two 
wounded, the Danish garrison, consisting of 170 men, sur- 
rendered at discretion. 

On the 23rd of May, at lOh. 30m. p.m., the 38-gun frigate 
Melpomene, Captain Frederic Warren, lying at anchor in 
the Great Belt, off Omoe Island, and nearly becalmed, dis- 
covered several large boats standing towards her. The 
frigate was cleared for action, and at llh. p.m. commenced 
firing upon the enemy, now consisting of twenty Danish 
gun-boats. A light air springing up, the Melpomene cut 
and made sail to close her opponents, and the gun-boats 
retreating, a running action continued until lit. 15m. a.m., 
when the latter succeeded in getting out of gun-shot. The 
Melpomene suffered much in her rigging and sails, and had 
five men killed and twenty-nine wounded. 

On the 31st of May, while the 12-pounder 38-gun frigate 
Topaze, Captain Anselm John Griffiths, was cruising off the 
coast of Albania, nine vessels were observed lying at anchor 
in the Road of Demata. which is sheltered by a reef of rocks, 
and protected by the fortress of Santa Maura. Captain 
Griffiths despatched the boats under the orders of Lieutenant 
Charles Hammond, assisted by the acting master, George 
Garson, Lieutenants of marines Edward S. Mercer and 
"William Halstead, and Masters' mates Henry P. Taylor and 
Robert B. Fenwick. Having to row along the outer edge 
of the reef, the boats were exposed to a galling fire of 
musketry, as well as after rounding the point of it ; but, 
dashing on, they succeeded in boarding and bringing out all 
the vessels. This service was effected with the loss of one 
marine, who was killed, and one seaman wounded. Among 
the prizes were a xebeck of eight guns and six swivels, 
and a crew of fifty-five men ; one cutter of four guns ; a 
felucca, mounting three guns ; and two gun-boats of one 
gun each. 

on the 14th of June, in the morning, the 18-gun brig 
Scout, Commander William Raitt, discovering a convoy of 



286 ' CAPTURE OF ISCHIA AND PEOCIDA. [1809. 

fourteen vessels, under the protection of two gun-boats, 
coming round Cape Croisette, made all sail in chase. It 
falling calm, Lieutenant Henry R. Battersby was despatched 
at lh. p.m. with the boats, who drove seven sail into a 
harbour, three leagues to the eastward of the cape, where 
the boats followed. Lieutenant Battersby, being annoyed 
by the fire from the shore, landed and routed the enemy, 
and then stormed a battery, mounting two 6-pounders. In 
the mean time the remaining boats, with Lieutenant John 
Farrant, John Batten, master, and Master's mate Granville 
Thompson, pulled up the harbour and brought out the seven 
vessels, notwithstanding that they were secured to the shore 
by ropes from their mastheads and keels. The British had 
one man killed and five wounded. 

On the 24th of June, Rear- Admiral George Martin, with 
the 80-gun ship Canopus, Captain Charles Inglis ; 74-gun 
ships Spartiate and Warrior, Captains Sir Francis Laforey 
and William Spranger ; 22-gun ship Cyane, Captain Thomas 
Staines ; and 18-gun brig Espoir, Commander Robert Mit- 
ford, together with a flotilla of gun-boats and a fleet of 
transports with troops, anchored to the northward of the 
islands of Ischia and Procida, preparatory to an attack upon 
them. In the evening Captain Staines, in the Cyane, with 
the Espoir and twelve gun-boats, was despatched by the rear- 
admiral to take a station to the southward of the islands, 
to prevent reinforcements or supplies from being thrown in 
from the mainland. 

On the 25th, at 8h. A.M., when lying at anchor two miles 
south by east of Procida, in company with the gun-boats, 
Captain Staines observed a French frigate, a corvette, and 
several gun-boats, coming out of Pozzuoli Bay, upon which 
he made the signal to weigh, and, having a light air from the 
northward, stood towards the enemy with his squadron. At 
8h. 30m. the British opened a distant fire, which was 
returned by the French squadron, consisting of the French 
44-gun frigate Ceres, 28-gun frigate Fama, and several gun- 
boats ; but at 9h. 40m. the firing ceased, the enemy having 
stood in shore again. Ischia and Procida surrendered this 
day to the British forces. 

On the 26th, at 6h. 25m. a.m., the Cyane and Espoir, with 
the British and Sicilian gun-boats, having been detached to 



1809.] CYANE AND ESPOIR WITH CERES. 287 

intercept a flotilla of gun-boats bound to Naples, the former 
commenced an attack upon them, just as the enemy's vessels 
rounded Cape Baia ; and by the prompt and vigorous 
lire of the Cyane, Captain Staines checked the progress 
of the flotilla, and enabled the combined gun-boats to 
close with and capture eighteen French gun-boats, and 
destroy four. The Cyane received twenty-three shot in her 
hull, had masts, yards, sails, and rigging much cut, and her 
loss amounted to two seamen killed ; David Jones, master's 
mate, mortally, and six seamen slightly wounded. On the 
same afternoon, observing a flag of truce on a battery near 
Point Messino, the British boats landed, spiked four 36- 
pounders, captured eighteen gun-boats, and destroyed four. 
At 7h. p.m. the Cyane, Espoir, and twenty-three Sicilian 
gun-boats, stood into Pozzuoli Bay, where the Ceres, Fania, 
and twelve gun-boats lay at anchor. 

Remaining off the anchorage all the previous night, the 
Cyane, on the 27th, was becalmed near the shore, when a 
battery of four guns opened an annoying fire upon her. At 
lOh. a.m. Captain Staines embarked in one of the gun-boats, 
and, leading them to the attack, soon silenced the battery ; 
after which he landed, spiked the guns, destroyed the car- 
riages, and threw a 1 0-inch mortar into the sea, returning to 
the ship without a casualty. At 5h. p.m. on the same day, 
the Cyane and Espoir lying becalmed in the ofling, the 
French commodore weighed, and put to sea with the Ceres, 
Fama, and gun-boats, bound to Naples. At 6h. 50m., the 
Espoir and gun-boats being far astern, and Captain Staines 
observing that the Ceres was at some distance astern of the 
Fama and French gun-boats, determined if possible to bring 
her to action, and ordering the sweeps to be manned, gal- 
lantly pursued her, then not more than three miles from the 
Mole of Naples. At 7h. 20m. the Cyane got within pistol- 
shot of the Ceres, and commenced the action, which she 
continued for some time, although within range of the 
batteries, the corvette, and the gun-boats. At 7h. 30m. 
the Ceres was observed to receive a reinforcement of men 
from Naples. At 8h. 30m. the fire of the Ceres slackened 
considerably, and soon afterwards ceased. The Cyane being 
by this time within a mile and a half of the mole, and 
having expended all her powder, hauled off. Her sails were 



288 BOATS OF BELLEROPHON AT HANGO HEAD. [1809. 

cut to pieces, nearly all her standing and running rigging 
destroyed, fore and mizen masts badly wounded, more than 
forty round shot in her sides, and four guns were disabled. 
The Cyane's loss in killed and wounded consisted of one sea- 
man and one marine killed ; Captain Staines and the first 
lieutenant, James Hall (both dangerously), 1 Lieutenant John 
Ferrier, Juhn Taylor, midshipman, eleven seamen, four 
marines, and one boy wounded. The Espoir (having latterly 
been able to take some share in the engagement), with the 
gun-boats, approached to the assistance of their crippled con- 
sort, and towed her out of the bay. The Cyane's armament 
consisted of twenty-two carronades (32-pounders) on the 
main deck, and eight carronades (1 8-pounders), and two long 
sixes on the quarter-deck and forecastle, with a crew of 175 
men and boys ; while her principal opponent, the Ceres, was 
an 18-pounder 40-gun frigate, fully manned. The naval 
medal has been granted to the survivors present on the 25th 
and 27th. 

On the 19th of June, the boats of the 74-gun ship Belle- 
rophon, Captain Samuel "Warren, were sent away at sunset, 
to attack three vessels at anchor within the islands off 
Hango Head. The boats, under the orders of Lieutenant 
Robert Pilch, with Lieutenants John Sheridan and George 
Bentham, Lieutenant of marines Alfred 0. Carrington, and 
— Mart, carpenter, met with no opposition in capturing the 
vessels ; but it was found necessary, in order to prevent loss 
in returning, to attack a battery, which mounted four 24- 
pounders, and was garrisoned with 103 men. This, after a 
determined resistance, was carried in a very gallant manner, 
the Russians retreating to some boats on the opposite side of 
the island. The guns were then spiked, and the magazine 
destroyed. The boats returned to the ship, having only five 
men wounded. 

On the 5th of July, at 3h. p.m., in latitude 43° 41' north, 
longitude 34° west, the 20-gun corvette Bonne Citoyenne, 
Commander William Mounsey, being on her way from Hali- 
fax to Quebec, with the wind at south, descried on the lee 

1 Captain Staines's left arm was taken out of the socket ; and he was 
also wounded in the side. Lieutenant Hall was promoted to the rank of 
commander a few months afterwards, which promotion, however, he did 
not live long to enjoy. 



1809.] EONNE CITOYENNE AND FURIEUSE. 2S9 

quarter a large frigate taking possession of a merchant ship. 
Notwithstanding the formidable appearance of the stranger 
(which was the French 36-gun frigate Furieuse, but armed 
■en flute, and mounting two long 18 and six long 8-pounders, 
and twelve carronades, 36-pounders, total twenty guns), the 
Bonne Citoyenne immediately wore in chase. The Furieuse, 
observing the approach of the British ship, abandoned the 
merchant vessel, and bore up. At sunset the two ships were 
about five miles apart, and during the night the Furieuse 
was lost sight of, but at 3h. a.m. on the 6tb, was again seen 
on the larboard quarter. The Bonne Citoyenne immediately 
hauled up, and made sail in chase. At 9h. 21m. a.m. the French 
ship hove to, and the Bonne Citoyenne commenced engaging 
within pistol-shot. The action was maintained for six hours 
and fifty minutes, when the Bonne Citoyenne, having taken 
a position athwart the bows of the Furieuse preparatory to 
boarding with all hands, the colours of the latter were hauled 
down at 6h. 16m. p.m. The corvette, in her gallant contest, 
had her fore and main top-gallant masts all shot away, three 
lower masts badly wounded, her standing and running rigging 
cut to pieces, and boats destroyed ; but only one man was 
killed and five wounded. The Furieuse, at the conclusion of 
the action, had five feet water in her hold : her three top- 
masts were shot away, and her yards and lower masts in a 
tottering state. Her loss amounted, out of a crew consisting, 
with military officers and passengers, of 200 men, to thirty- 
five men killed ; and her commander, Lieutenant Kerdaniel, 
tw r o lieutenants, three midshipmen, and thirty-one seamen 
wounded. The two vessels met upon tolerably equal terms, 
as regarded armament ; but the advantages derivable from 
tonnage were greatly on the side of the Furieuse, she mea- 
suring 1,090 tons, and the corvette 511 tons. On the 7th, 
taking her prize in tow, the Bonne Citoyenne proceeded to 
Halifax. On the 8th the main and mizen masts of the 
Furieuse fell, and thus disabled the two ships reached Halifax 
on the 2nd of August. The Furieuse was subsequently com- 
missioned under the same name, and Captain Mounsey, whose 
post commission was dated the day of the action, was ap- 
pointed to command her. The first lieutenant, Joseph 
Symes, was also promoted. Captain Mounsey mentioned in 
his official letter, in terms of high commendation, the second 
VOL. n. u 



290 ACTION WITH RUSSIAN GUN-BOATS. [1809. 

lieutenant, Williams Sandoni ; the master, Nathaniel "Wil- 
liamson ; the purser, John N. C. Scott ; and two passengers, 
who volunteered their services, Messrs. John Black and 
Angus McAuley. The above is a naval medal action. The 
Furieuse had escaped from Guadaloupe on the 14th of June, 
in company with the frigate Felicite, also armed en flute ; and 
her consort was captured on the 17th, by the 38-gun frigate 
Latona, Captain Hugh Pigot, after a three days' chase. 

On the 7th of July, a squadron, composed of the 74-gun 
ships Implacable and Bellerophon, Captains Thomas Byam 
Martin and Samuel Warren ; 38-gun frigate Melpomene, 
Captain Peter Parker ; and 18-gun sloop Prometheus, Com- 
mander Thomas Forrest, was cruising off the coast of Fin- 
land, when a Russian flotilla of eight gun-boats and several 
merchant vessels was observed at anchor under Hango 
Head. The gun-boats, each armed with two heavy long- 
guns, and manned with forty-six men, had taken a most ad- 
vantageous position for defence between two rocks, both of 
which were mounted with guns, from which a fire of grape 
could be poured on their assailants. It was nevertheless 
determined to attack the flotilla, and Lieutenant Joseph 
Hawkey, first of the Implacable, was appointed to command 
the boats (seventeen in number) of the four ships, contain- 
ing 270 officers and men. Among the officers employed 
were the following : — belonging to the Implacable, Lieute- 
nants William Houghton and Frederic Vernon, and Lieute- 
nants of marines James T. Cracknell and James Clarke ; 
Lieutenants Charles Allen, John Sheridan, and John Skekel, 
and Lieutenants of marines George Kendall and Alfred O. 
Carrington, of the Bellerophon ; Lieutenant George Rennie, 
Lieutenant of marines Robert Gilbert, and Midshipman 
John B. Mounteney, of the Melpomene ; and Lieutenant 
James Stirling, of the Prometheus. At 9h. p.m. the boats 
proceeded to the attack, and resolutely pushed on, regardless 
of the fire opened upon them, but without firing a musket 
until close alongside the gun-boats, when the British seamen 
boarded, and carried all before them. 1 Six of the gun-boats 

1 Lieutenant Hawkey, after boarding the first gun-boat, was killed by 
a grape-shot while in the act of boarding a second. The last words of 
this gallant young man were, " Huzza ! Push on, England for ever ! " 
Captain Martin, in his official letter, bears the following handsome testi- 



/ 



1809.] DEATH OF LIEUTENANT HAWKEY. 291 

were captured, one sunk, and one escaped ; and twelve mer- 
chant vessels, laden with powder and provisions for the 
Russian army, and a large armed ship, were also captured. 

Lieutenant Charles Allen, of the Bellerophon, being the 
next senior lieutenant, then assumed command of the party, 
and accomplished the service in the successful manner 
already described. The loss amounted to Lieutenants Haw- 
key and Stirling, J. B. Mounteney, midshipman, Benjamin 
Crandon, second master, eight seamen, and five marines 
killed j and M. Yesey, boatswain, twenty-five seamen, and 
eleven marines wounded. The Russians are reported to 
have had sixty-three men killed. Many escaped to the shore, 
and several perished in attempting to reach it ; and of 127 
prisoners taken, fifty-one were wounded. The naval medal 
has been awarded to those present in the boats upon this 
occasion. 

On the 13th of July, Senegal capitulated to a British 
force, under Captain Edward Henry Columbine (the senior 
officer at Goree), consisting of the 32-gun frigate Solebay ; 
1 8-gun brig Derwent, Commander Frederick Parker ; and 
12-gun brig Tigris, Lieutenant Robert Bones; also a transport, 
containing 166 soldiers of the African corps, under Major 
Charles W. Maxwell, and a number of small vessels. The 
casualties attending this capture, though few, were of import- 
ance j Captain Parker, a gallant young officer, and one mid- 
shipman, were drowned in the surf, in endeavouring to cross 
the bar of the river * one lieutenant of troops died from 
fatigue, and one man was wounded by the enemy's fire. The 
Solebay was totally wrecked in the river. 

On the 14th of July, Lieutenant Henry R. Battersby, at 
the head of a party of seamen, from the 1 8-gun brig Scout ; 
Commander William Raitt, attacked a strong battery, which 
commanded the port of Carri, between Marseilles and the 
Rhone, and carried it without loss. Por his gallantry on 
this and on several similar occasions, Lieutenant Battersby 
was promoted to the rank of commander in the ensuing 

mony to the worth of this officer : — " No praise from my pen can do 
adequate justice to this lamented young man : as an officer, he was 
active, correct, and zealous, to the highest degree ; the leader of every 
kind of enterprise, and regardless of danger, he delighted in whatever 
could tend to promote the glory of his country." 

u2 



292 BOAT ATTACK IX ASPO KOADS. [1809. 

month of September. The above is a naval medal boat 
action. 

On the 25th of July, the boats of the 74-gun ships Prin- 
cess Caroline and Minotaur, Captains Charles Dudley Pater 
and John Barrett ; 32-gun frigate Cerberus, Captain Henry 
Whitby ; and 18-gun sloop Prometheus, were sent away, 
seventeen in number, in charge of Commander Forrest, of 
the latter vessel, to attack four Russian gun-boats and an 
armed brig, lying at Fredericksham, near Aspo Roads, in the 
Gulf of Finland. After dark, the boats, in which were 
Lieutenants James Bashford, John J. Callenan, Robert 
Pettet, John Simpson, Gawen Forster, and Thomas Finni- 
more, and Lieutenant of marines William Wilkins, departed 
on this service. At lOh. 30m. p.m. the attack began, and, 
after a desperate and sanguinary conflict, three of the gun- 
boats, each mounting two long 18-pounders, and having on 
board 137 men, together with an armed brig, were captured 
and brought off. The British loss was very severe, amount- 
ing to Lieutenant Callenan, Second Lieutenant of marines 
William Wilkins, Gordon Carrington, midshipman, and six- 
teen men killed ; and Commander Forrest, Lieutenant Forster, 
George Elvey, Thomas Milne, and John Chalmers, midship- 
men, and forty-six seamen and marines wounded. The Rus- 
sians had twenty-eight killed and fifty-eight wounded. One 
of the gun-boats was so obstinately defended, that every man 
of her crew, forty-four in number, was either killed or 
wounded before she surrendered. For his conduct on this 
and other occasions, the leader of this gallant party was ad- 
vanced to post rank. The naval medal has been awarded to 
those present in this boat action. 

On the 28th of July, in the morning, the 74-gun ship 
Excellent, Captain John West, belonging to the squadron of - 
Captain William Hargood, being off Trieste, chased an enemy's 
convoy into the harbour of Duin, about four leagues to the 
northward of Trieste. At 1 Oh. p.m. the Acorn sloop of eighteen 
guns, Commander Robert Clephan, and 1 6-gun brig Bustard, 
Commander David Markland, with the boats of the Excellent, 
under the orders of Lieutenant John Harper, were detached 
to get possession of the convoy. About midnight the boats, 
covered by the Acorn and Bustard, pushed through a heavy 
fire into the harbour, and while Captain Richard Cummings, 



1809.] WALCHEREN EXPEDITION. 203 

of the marines, landed with a small detachment to dislodge 
the enemy from among the rocks and on the heights, Lieu- 
tenant Harper and his party boarded and earned six heavily 
armed Italian gun-boats, which, together with ten laden ves- 
sels, were brought off. Commander Katly Robinson, master 
of the Bustard, and seven seamen and marines were wou#ded. 
The above is a naval medal boat action. 

On the 28th of July, an expedition sailed from the Downs, 
under Rear- Admiral Sir Richard John Strachan, containing 
nearly 40,000 troops, under Lieutenant-General the Earl of 
Chatham, destined to attack the French shipping in Flush- 
ing, and to destroy the enemy's works in the Scheldt, which 
was to be rendered no longer navigable for ships of war. 
This fleet, including mortar-vessels and about 120 hired and 
revenue cutters, gun-boats, &c, amounted in the whole to 
245 vessels of war, to which were added about 4.00 trans- 
ports with troops. Except the taking of Flushing, no ad- 
vantage was gained by this expensive effort. In that port 
were found three vessels on the stocks, a 74-gun ship, frigate, 
and brig ; the two latter were destroyed at the evacuation 
of the port in December, but the timbers of the former were 
removed to Woolwich, where they were put together, and 
the ship named the Chatham. A frigate of 1,100 tons also 
fell into the hands of the British, and became the 38-gun 
frigate Laurel. The basin, arsenal, and sea-defences of Flush- 
ing were destroyed, and the port rendered unfit for a French 
depot ; but had more energy been used by the commander of 
the land forces, it is believed that the troops might have 
landed, and inarched on to Antwerp. Hundreds of valuable 
lives were sacrificed by the occupation of the island of Wal- 
cheren. The whole business was ill-timed and untoward, 
and few who were present and engaged in it but bear about 
them the effects of the Polder fever, inherent to the low and 
swampy island which for many months they were compelled 
to inhabit. 

On the 14th of August, Commander Nisbet Josiah Wil- 
loughby, of the 18 -gun ship-sloop Otter, while cruising off 
Cape Brabant, Isle of France, observed a brig, a lugger, and 
gun-boat, at anchor under the protection of the batteries of 
Riviere Noire. Conceiving that if an unexpected attack 
could be made, they might be brought off, notwithstanding 



294: BOATS OP OTTER AT THE RIVIERE NOIRE. [1809. 

the powerful batteries which sheltered them, Captain Wil- 
loughby determined to make the attempt with the boats, and 
having stood off until dark, regained the mouth of the river 
at about llh. P.M. At a little before midnight the boats put 
off, commanded by the captain in person, who embarked in a 
six-oared gig ; the launch (containing about twenty men) 
was commanded by Lieutenant John Burns, and the jolly- 
boat by William "Weiss, midshipman. The gig was designed 
to board the gun-boat, the launch the brig, and the jolly-boat 
the lugger. Covered by the darkness, the three boats en- 
tered the harbour unperceived, but having missed the gun- 
boat, they boarded and carried the lugger. Having secured 
this vessel, Captain Willoughby despatched the launch and 
jolly-boat to board the brig, and preceeded himself in search 
of the gun-boat. The launch and jolly-boat got alongside 
the brig, on the deck of which was drawn up a large party 
of soldiers ; but the seamen boarded, and after a smart 
struggle overcame all resistance. The brig's cable was in 
the meanwhile cut by the man left in the launch for the 
purpose. This gallant fellow, whose name we regret our 
inability to record, received a severe wound in the head from 
the mate of the brig, but whom in return he killed with a 
blow from his axe. 

Captain Willoughby, after a vain search for the gun-boat, 
during which he had gone near enough to be hailed by a 
sentry on the innermost battery, arrived on board the brig, 
and finding there was no chance of getting the prize away, 
she being secured to the shore by a chain fast to her keel, 
ordered the prisoners to be removed, and the vessel to be set 
on fire. But as humanity was always a leading feature in 
this gallant officer's character, he was induced to change his 
intention, in consequence of some of the brig's crew being 
wounded, and which would have rendered their removal 
difficult. The vessel was therefore abandoned, and the 
three boats taking the lugger in tow, carried her off under a 
tremendous fire from the batteries, by this time in a state of 
alarm. In order to give the batteries a chance of hitting the 
boats, false fires were continually thrown up from the brig, 
which illumined the river. No greater loss was sustained in 
this daring exploit than one man killed in the launch, and 
another wounded, with the loss of an arm. The lugger's 



1809.] BOATS OF AMPHION AT CORTELAZZO. 295 

masts were much damaged by the fire from the forts. Just 
as the boats cleared the river they were met by Lieutenant 
Thomas L. P. Laugharne, who, observing the heavy firing, 
was proceeding with the cutter to render assistance in case 
any was needed. 

On the 24th of August, Captain William Hoste, in the 
Amphion, reconnoitred the port of Cortelazzo, in the Adriatic, 
in which were discovered six Italian gun-boats and a convoy 
of trabacculos, moored under a battery of four 24-pounders 
in the river Piavie. Finding it impracticable, on account of 
the shoalness of the water, for the frigate to enter the port, 
Captain Hoste determined to send in the boats. To j)revent 
suspicion of his design, the ship was kept out of sight of land 
until the evening of the 26th, when, soon after midnight, 
she anchored at the entrance of the Piavie. At 3h. a.m. a 
party of seamen and marines, under Lieutenants Charles G. 
P. Phillott, George M. Jones, and Lieutenant of marines 
Thomas Moore, landed about a mile to the southward of the 
battery, leaving Lieutenant William Slaughter with the 
boats, to push for the river the moment he should perceive 
that the fort was carried. At 3h. 15m. the alarm was given, 
and at the same instant Lieutenant Phillott and his party 
attacked the fort ; but although surrounded by a ditch and 
a chevaux-de-frise, it was taken, and the preconcerted signal 
made for tne boats to advance. The guns of the battery 
were then turned on the gun-boats, which were also attacked 
by musketry from the marines. The gun-boats were boarded 
by Lieutenant Slaughter and his division, and, after a slight 
opposition, taken possession of, as well as two trabacculos 
with cargoes, which were brought off, and five others burnt. 
Having spiked the guns, and totally destroyed the battery, 
the boats returned to the Amphion at lh. p.m., having only 
one marine wounded, which immunity was chiefly due to the 
exceedingly well-laid and admirably-conducted plan. For his 
distinguished gallantry on this and several previous occa- 
sions, Lieutenant Phillot was promoted to the rank of com- 
mander. Besides the above-mentioned officers, the following 
were present in the boats : — Masters' mates John Dalleny 
and Thomas Boardman ; Midshipmen Joseph Ga])e, Charles 
H. Ross, George Castle, Charles Henry Kempthorn, William 
L. Pees, Thomas Edward Hoste, Francis George Farewell, 



296 BOATS OF MERCURY AT BARLETTA. [1809. 

and Robert Spearman ; also Assistant-Surgeon Jonathan 
Angas. The above is a naval medal boat action. 

On the night of the 7th of September the boats of the 
28-gun frigate Mercury, Captain the Hou. Henry Duncan, in 
command of Lieutenant Watkin Owen Pell, assisted by Lieu- 
tenant Robert J. Gordon, and Lieutenant of marines James 
Whylock, Captain's clerk George Anderson, and the Gunner 
Sandell, each of whom had charge of a boat, entered the har- 
bour of Barletta, near Manfredonia, where they boarded and 
gallantly captured the French national schooner Pugliese, of 
five long G-pounder and two 1 8-pounder guns, and thirty-one 
men, commanded by an enseigne de vaisseau. The schooner, 
when thus boarded, was moored with eight cables inside, and 
close to the mole, on which was posted a large party ot 
troops ; she was also within musket-shot of a castle mounting 
eight guns, and of two armed feluccas. As the rudder and 
sails of the schooner were on shore, the boats took her in 
tow, and so judiciously and speedily was everything per- 
formed, that the prize was carried off and not one of the 
gallant victors wounded. 

On the 10th of September, the 10-gun brig Diana, Lieu- 
tenant William Kempthorne, when standing into the Bay of 
Amarang, in the island of Celebes, discovered the Dutch 
14-gun brig Zephyr lying at anchor close under a fort. Lieu- 
tenant Kempthorne resolved to attempt her capture with 
the boats at night, when the land breeze set in ; and the 
Diana beat about the bay, disguised as a merchant vessel, 
until it became dark, when the boats departed upon this 
enterprise. After a fruitless search of two hours, the boats 
returned, and Lieutenant Kempthorne, conjecturing that the 
Zephyr had shifted her position, and would try to reach the 
shelter of a strong fort in the Bay of Monado, hoisted in the 
boats and made sail in that direction. On the 11th, at day- 
light, the enemy was discovered hull down ahead, and the 
chase was continued with much eagerness. At 4h. 30m. 
p.m., the Zephyr being within four miles of Monado fort, 
was taken aback by the land wind, while the Diana, still 
favoured by the sea breeze, succeeded in getting within half 
gun-shot of her opponent's lee beam before feeling the land 
breeze, when she also filled on the larboard tack. The action 
then commenced, and after engaging about forty minutes, 



1809.] DIANA A>:D ZEPHYR. 297 

tlie Zephyr, encouraged by the appearance of five gun- boats 
sweeping off to her assistance, ran down within pistol-shot 
of the weather-beam of the Diana. Shortly afterwards, her 
main-topsail sheet being shot away, she fell on board the 
Diana, and at about 5h. 40m., just as the British were about 
to board, hauled down her colours. The Diana, taking her 
prize in tow, then stood towards the gun-boats, which were 
sweeping down in line upon her weather-beam ; but they 
dispersed after receiving a few shot from the brig. The 
Diana sustained little damage, and had not a man hurt. The 
Zephyr was much cut up in masts and rigging, and, out of 
forty-five men (the same in number as the Diana's crew), had 
her first lieutenant and four killed, and eight men wounded. 
Lieutenant Kempthorne was promoted to the rank of com- 
mander on the 3rd of April, 1811. This is a naval medal 
action. 

On the 16th of September, Commodore Josias Rowley 
having determined to attack the harbour or bay of St. Paul's, 
Isle of Bourbon (a noted resort of French cruisers), a detach- 
ment of 368 troops, including officers, embarked at Fort 
Duncan, Island of Rodriguez, on board the 36-gun frigate 
Nereide, Captain Robert Corbett ; Otter, Commander Nesbit 
J. Willoughby; and the H.E.I.O.'s armed schooner Wasp, 
Lieutenant Watkins. On the evening of the 1 8th, the Rai- 
sonable, bearing the commodore's broad pendant, being oft" 
Port Louis, Isle of France, was joined by the frigates Sirius 
and Boadicea, Captains Samuel Pym and John Hatley. On 
the morning of the 19th, 100 men from the Raisonable and 
Otter, and the marines of the squadron, 136 in number, 
forming with the troops a total of 604, including officers, 
were put on board the Ncreide, and in the evening the 
squadron stood towards Bourbon. 

By 7h. a.m. on the 21st, the party (including a division of 
seamen commanded by Captain Willoughby), having landed 
without opposition, were in possession of the batteries of 
Lambousiere and La Centiere, when Captain Willoughby 
with his sailors turned the guns of those batteries on the 
shipping, the fire from which had annoyed the troops consi- 
derably. After defeating the enemy in a smart skirmish, 
the British took a third battery, named Le Neuf ; but, the 
French having been reinforced, the British spiked the guns 



298 CAPTURE OF st. paul's. [1809. 

of the first and second batteries, and manned the battery of 
Le Neuf, which then opened upon the French 40-gun frigate 
Caroline and her consorts. The fourth and fifth batteries 
were also taken, and by 8h. 30m. a.m. the town batteries 
(mounting together 117 heavy guns), magazines, eight field- 
pieces, and all the public stores, together with several pri- 
soners, were in possession of the troops under Lieutenant- 
Colonel Keating. The squadron having in the meanwhile 
stood into the bay, opened a heavy fire upon the Caroline 
and two Indiamen — her prizes — as well as on those batteries, 
which, being at a distance from the point of attack, were 
enabled to continue their fire. Having anchored in the road, 
close off the town of St. Paul, measures were taken to secure 
the French ships, all of which, on the near approach of the 
British, had cut their cables and drifted on shore. They 
were got off without having sustained any material injury. 

Of the jDarty under Captain Willoughby, two seamen and 
five marines were killed ; and Lieutenant Edward Lloyd, 
and Lieutenant of marines Matthew Howden of the Baison- 
able, the latter mortally, and Lieutenant of marines Thomas 
E. Pye, of the Boadicea, two seamen, and thirteen marines 
wounded, and one seaman missing. Of the troops, eight 
were killed, forty wounded, and two missing. Total : fifteen 
killed, fifty-eight wounded, and three missing. The ships 
captured were the 40-gun frigate Caroline, of 1,078 tons, 
the H.E.I. C.'s ships Streatham and EurojDe, the 14-gun brig 
Grappler, together with five or six smaller vessels. By 
evening the demolition of the different batteries and of the 
magazines was completed, and the troops and seamen re- 
embarked. 

On the 22nd, in the evening, a French force appealing on 
the hills, Captain Willoughby volunteered his services to at- 
tack them, which being accepted, he landed with a party of 
seamen, and destroyed the storehouses and public property, 
including an extensive government store, containing all the 
law silk of the Indiamen, valued at more than half a million 
sterling. The party re-embarked without sustaining any 
loss. The Caroline was commissioned as a British cruiser, 
and named the Bourbonnaise, and Captain Corbett appointed 
to command her. The vacancy in the Nereide, caused by 



1809.] DESTRUCTION OF ROBUST AND LION. 299 

Captain Corbett's removal, was filled by Captain Willoughby, 
whose conduct richly merited the promotion he received. 

On the 17th of October, in the morning, the boats of 
the 18-gun ship-sloop Hazard and 18 -gun brig Pelorus, 
Commanders Hugh Cameron and Thomas Huskisson, in 
which were Lieutenants James Robertson and Edward 
Flinn, assisted by Midshipmen John S. Brisbane, Hugh 
Hunter, and Ebenezer Scott, and William Fergusson, boat- 
swain of the Pelorus, attacked a privateer schooner moored 
under the batteries of Sainte Marie, island of Guadaloupe. 
Although exposed for some time to a heavy fire of grape 
and musketry, the schooner was boarded and carried ; but 
being found moored to the shore by a chain secured round 
the masthead and by others upon each quarter, she was set 
on fire and soon afterwards blew up. In performing this 
service six men were killed, and Lieutenant Flinn and 
Mr. Fergusson much burnt by the explosion of the priva- 
teer; besides which, seven men were wounded by the 
enemy's fire. 

On the 26th of October, the French 80-gun ship Robust 
and 74-gun ship Lion, belonging to the squadron of Rear- 
Admiral Baudin, which had escaped from Toulon with 
Admiral Ganteaume, were driven on shore near Frontignan, 
in the Gulf of Lyons, by a squadron of six sail of the line, 
commanded by Rear-Admiral George Martin, consisting of 
the following : — 

Guns. Ships. 

80 Canopus i ^ar-Ad Geo. Martin (red) 

r ( Captain Unas. Inglis 

rEenown „ Philip C. C. H. Durham 

Tigre „ Benj. Hallowell 

74 J Sultan „ Edward Griffiths 

I Leviathan „ John Harvey 

I Cumberland „ Hon. Philip Wodehouse 

The French ships were set on fire by their own crews, and 
at lOh. 30m. p.m. blew up with a tremendous explosion, 
the British being at the time becalmed about seven miles 
distant. 

The remainder of a large fleet of armed store-ships and 
transports, which had sailed with Admiral Ganteaume from 
Toulon, boimd to Barcelona, now consisting of seven mer- 



300 DESTRUCTION OF CONVOY IN ROSAS BAY. [1809. 

chant vessels, in charge of the 8-pounder lG-gun store- 
ship Lamproie, Lieutenant de vaisseau La Breteche, the 
two armed bombards Victoire and Grondeur, and xebeck 
Normandie, anchored in the Bay of Rosas, under the pro- 
tection of several powerful batteries. Lord Collingwood 
having determined that an attempt to capture or destroy 
these vessels should be made, despatched Captain Benjamin 
Hallowell, in the Tigre, with a squadron, for the purpose. 
On the evening of the 31st of October, after dark, the 
British squadron bore up for the Bay of Rosas, and anchored 
about live miles from the town, except the brigs Philomel, 
Scout, and Tuscan, which continued underway to cover 
the boats. The following are the names of the officers em- 
ployed on this service : — Tigre : Lieutenants John Tailour, 
A. W J. Clifford, Edward Boxer, William Matterface, Wil- 
liam Hamilton, and John Boulton • Masters' mates James 
Caldwell, Joshua Kynson ; Midshipmen Dey Richard Syer, 
Honourable Robert C. Spencer, Henry Fawcett, George 
P. Bridges, George Sandys, James Athill, Honourable 
George J. Percival, James Montagu, and Frederick Noel ; 
and Assistant-Surgeon Alexander Hosack. Cumberland : 
Lieutenants John Murray, Richard Stuart, and William 
Bradley ', Captain of marines Edward Baillie ; Master's 
mate John Webster ; Midshipmen Charles R. Milbourne, 
Henry Wise, William H. Brady, and Annesley Blackmore. 
Apollo : Lieutenants James Begbie, Robert C. Barton, and 
John Forster ; Masters' mates Henry W. de Chair and 
William Plant ; Midshipmen James Dunderdale and Henry 
Lancaster ; and Captain's clerk John O. French. Topaze : 
Lieutenants Charles Hammond, Nicholas James C. Dunn, 
William Rawlins, Lord Balgonie (Ville de Paris), and Wil- 
liam Halstead (marines) ; Master's mate Alexander Bovter ; 
Carpenter Thomas Canty ; and Midshipmen Joseph Hume, 
Hungerford Luthill, and Harry Nicholas. Volontaire : Lieu- 
tenants Dalhousie Tait (Monarch), Samuel Sison, Honour- 
able J. A. Maude (Ville de Paris), and William Burton and 
Duncan Campbell (marines); Masters' mates John Banna- 
tyne and Thomas Randall ; Midshipmen Richard Harness, 
Henry J. Leeke, and John Armstead (Ville de Paris) ; and 
Carpenter William Middleton. Scout : Lieutenants John 
Farrant and the Honourable W. Waldegrave ; and Mid- 



1809.] CAPTURE OF ZANTE, CEPHALONIA, ETC. 301 

shipman John Davy (from the Ville de Paris). Tuscan : 
Lieutenant Pasco Dunn ; Masters' mates John M c Dougall 
and Charles Gray (both from the Ville de Paris) ; and Mid- 
shipman John Sliddy. The boats, under the command of 
Lieutenant Tailour, put off in perfect order, and as they 
approached the enemy the alarm-gun was fired, on which 
the seamen gave three tremendous cheers and dashed on, 
each division of boats to its allotted station. The Lamproie 
was boarded at all points, and, notwithstanding a determined 
resistance, was carried in a few minutes. The Victoire, 
Grondeur, Normandie, and a felucca, although defended 
with equal bravery, were captured, and this was performed 
in the face of a heavy fire from the castle of Rosas and 
several other batteries, and of repeated volleys of musketry 
from the troops which lined the beach. By daylight on the 
1st of November every French vessel of the eleven was 
either burnt at her moorings, or brought off. The loss was, 
however, severe. Lieutenant Tait and Mr. Caldwell, ten 
seamen, and three marines were killed ; and Lieutenants 
Tailour and Forster, Mr. Syer, seven seamen, and one 
marine severely, and Lieutenants Stuart, Maude, and Begbie, 
Messieurs Webster, Brady, and Armstead, twenty-eight sea- 
men, and five marines slightly wounded. Total : fifteen 
killed and fifty-five wounded. Lieutenant Tailour was 
immediately promoted to the rank of commander, and 
Mr. Syer, whose gallantry had been very conspicuous, and 
whose wound was of a very dangerous description, was also 
promoted by Lord Collingwood in a death vacancy. This is 
a naval medal boat action. 

In the month of October, Zante, Cephalonia, and their 
dependencies, surrendered to a combined naval and military 
force under Captain John W. Spranger, of the 74-gun ship 
Warrior, and Brigadier-General Oswald. Cerigo surren- 
dered about the same time to Captain Jahleel Brenton, of 
the 38-gun frigate Spartan, and a division of troops under 
Major Charles W. Clarke, of the 35th regiment, as did also 
Ithaca to Commander George Crawley, of the Philomel, and 
a detachment of troops under Captain Church. 

On the 2nd of November, the 18-gun corvette Victor, 
Commander Edward Stopford, was chased by the French 
40-gun frigate Bellone ; and, at lOh. p.m., after a running 



302 REDUCTION OF RAS-AL-KHYMA. [1809. 

fight, having her main and mizen masts wounded, fore-top- 
sail-yard shot away, and rigging cut to pieces, hauled down 
her colours. Two of the Victor's men were wounded. 

The town of Eas-al-Khyma, in the Persian Gulf, having 
for some time been a nest for numerous desperate pirates, 
it was deemed necessary to send an expedition thither to 
destroy it. This duty was intrusted to Captain John 
Wainwright, in command of the 12-pounder 36-gun frigate 
ChifFomie. The squadron consisted, besides the Chiffonne, of 
the 18-pounder 36-gun frigate Caroline, Captain Charles 
Gordon, and H.E.I.C.'s cruisers Mornington, Captain 
Jeakes, and Aurora, Nautilus, Prince of "Wales, Fury, and 
Ariel, Lieutenants Conyers, Watkins, Allen, Davidson, and 
Salter, on board which a body of troops had embarked under 
Lieutenant-Colonel Smith. On the 13th of November this 
service was effected, the town being burnt to the ground, 
and the vessels in the port, exceeding fifty in number, 
including thirty large dows, and a quantity of naval stores, 
were completely destroyed. The squadron next visited 
Linga, where twenty large piratical vessels were destroyed ; 
and on the 27th eleven other vessels of the same character 
were burnt at the town of Luffc, and the sea defences of 
both places levelled with the ground. The pirates made a 
desperate resistance at each place, and the loss in performing 
these services consequently amounted to five killed, fifteen 
severely, and nineteen slightly, wounded. 

On the 12th of December, while the 38-gun frigate Thetis, 
Captain George Miller, in company with the brigs Pultusk, 
Achates, and Attentive, Commanders William Elliot, 
Thomas Pinto, and Lieutenant Robert Carr, and schooner 
Bacchus, Lieutenant Charles D. Jeremy, was cruising off- 
Guadaloupe, the French 16-gun brig Nisus was observed at 
anchor under the protection of a fort in the harbour of 
Hayes. In order to cut out this vessel, the boats of the 
squadron, with the marines and a party of seamen, were 
despatched under Captain Elliot, assisted by Lieutenant 
Nathaniel Belchier and Lieutenants of marines John God- 
frey Ruel and Jervis Cooke. The British landed in the 
evening without opposition, and, having proceeded with 
difficulty through a thick wood, reached the rear of the fort, 
which was attacked and carried in gallant style, and the 



1809.] JUNON AND FRENCH SQUADRON. 303 

garrison compelled to retreat. Leaving Lieutenant Belchier 
to destroy the battery, Captain Elliot, supported by the 
squadron, and particularly by the Attentive, boarded and 
carried the corvette, without meeting any severer casualty 
than four men wounded. The Nisus, a brig of 340 tons, 
was added to the British navy under the name of Guada- 
loupe. This is a naval medal boat action. 

On the 14th, the 36-gun frigate Melampus, Captain 
Edward Hawker, cruising off Guadaloupe, after a chase of 
twenty-eight hours, captured the French 16-gun brig 
Bearnais. The Bearnais had one man killed and several 
wounded; and two men were wounded on board the Me- 
lampus by the brig's fire. On the 17th, the French 16-gun 
corvette Papillon, consort of the above, was captured by the 
18-gun corvette Rosamond, Commander Benjamin Walker, 
without much resistance. The Bearnais and Papillon were 
added to the British navy, the former under the name of 
Curieux. 

On the 13th of December, at lh. p.m., latitude 17° 18' 
north, longitude 57° west, as the 18-pounder 38-gun frigate 
Junon, Captain John Shortland, in company with the 
1 6-gun brig Observateur, Commander Frederick A. Wether- 
all, were in the act of boarding an American ship, four large 
sail were seen to the northward. These were the French 
40-gun frigates Benommee, Commodore Roquebert, and 
Clorinde, Captain Saint Cricq, having under convoy the 
40-gun frigates Loire and Seine, armed en flute, and each 
mounting twenty guns, long 18-pounders and 36-pounder 
carroDades. The Junon and Observateur made sail in chase, 
and at 4h. p.m. the strangers were discovered to be frigates. 
At 5h. the Junon made the private signal, on which the 
strangers hoisted Spanish colours. The Junon, still running- 
down towards the frigates, made the Spanish private signal, 
which was correctly replied to by the Benommee. Thus 
deceived, Captain Shortland continued to approach the 
French frigates, until at 5h. 30m., when the enemy hauled 
to the wind in line of battle on the larboard tack. The 
Junon then shortened sail, and, having arrived within a 
quarter of a mile of the Renommee, the latter substituted 
French for Spanish colours, and poured a destructive broad- 
side into the bows of the British frigate. The Junon bearing 



304 CAPTURE OF THE JUNON. [1809. 

up, then ran under the stern of the Benommee', pouring in 
a raking broadside. The Observateur, at about the same 
time, brought to on the larboard tack, and discharged her 
broadside at the French frigate, but at too great a distance 
to do much execution. The Clorinde, the next ship to the 
commodore, then ranged up on the starboard beam of the 
Junon, and between these ships a warm action ensued. 
After the Junon and Clorinde had engaged about ten 
minutes, the Benommee, being some distance ahead of the 
combatants, wore round on the starboard tack and ran the 
Junon on board on her larboard beam ; the Seine and Loire 
also stationed themselves, one ahead and the other astern, 
of the Junon, and kept up a galling fire. The Loire, having 
on board 200 troops, after a time, ran her bowsprit over the 
starboard quarter of the British frigate, in which position 
the deck of the latter became exposed to a destructive fire 
of musketry. In the heat of the action, Captain Shortland 
had one of his legs broken by a grape-shot, and was also 
badly wounded by splinters. The command then devolved 
on Lieutenant Samuel Bartlett Deecker. The Junon was now 
grappled by the Clorinde, and an attempt made to board on 
the starboard quarter ; but being resisted by a few men led 
on by Lieutenant John Green, of the marines, who nobly fell 
in the struggle, the assault failed. The foresail being then 
•set, the Junon disengaged herself from her opponents ; but, 
being again closed with, and boarded on both sides at once, 
the British ensign was hauled down. 

The Junon commenced the action with no more than 
224 men ; and, of this number, had twenty, including Lieu- 
tenant Green, killed ; and forty, including Captain Shortland 
and some officers not named, wounded. The Observateur, 
having hauled to the wind as soon as the impossibility of 
preventing the capture of the Junon was observed, escaped 
without loss. The Benommee, out of a crew of 3 GO, had 
fifteen men killed and three wounded ; and the Clorinde, 
six killed and fifteen wounded. The Loire and Seine, 
which, including 200 troops, mustered each near 400 men, 
escaped without loss. The damages of the Junon were such, 
that her captors, deeming it impossible to carry her to Guada- 
loupe, from which they were within two days' sail, set her 
on fire ; and the English pendant remained flying over the 



1809.] DEATH OF CAPTAIN SHORTLAND. 305 

burning ship until the masts fell. This is another of those 
honourable defeats which adorn the pages of British history. 1 

On the 15th, at lh. p.m., the Observateur arrived off 
Basse-Terre, Guadaloupe, and having telegraphed to the 
38-gun frigate Blonde, Captain Volant Vashon Ballard, that 
an enemy's squadron of five frigates was within six hours' 
sail of her, stood on towards Martinique. The Blonde, in 
company with the 38-gun frigate Thetis, Captain George 
Miller, and 18-gun sloops Hazard and Cygnet, Commanders 
Hugh Cameron and Edward Dix, immediately made sail for 
the channel, between the Saintes and Guadaloupe ; and 
on the next day the 18-gun brigs Scorpion and Ringdove, 
Commanders Francis Stanfell and William Dowers, joined, 
and were detached to reconnoitre Basse-Terre. 

On the 17th, the 32-gun frigate Castor, Captain William 
Eoberts, joined, with information, that on the 15th she had 
been chased by the Renommee and consorts. At daylight 
two strange ships were seen to the northward. These were 
the Seine and the Loire, which had separated from their 
consorts, and were making the best of their way to Basse- 
Terre. Chase was immediately given, and at lOh. a.m., the 
two frigates, finding themselves cut off from their port, 
entered a cove named Anse la Barque, and anchored head 
and stern, under the protection of a strong battery on each 

1 Captain Shortland, a most valuable and distinguished officer, had 
suffered amputation of his right leg above the knee, and of a finger, but 
had there been a probability of saving his life, other operations would 
have been necessary. His sufferings, when the Castor hove in sight, in 
being removed from the captain's cabin to the gun-room, were extreme, 
and not less so, when taken from the frigate to the shore, and in being 
conveyed thirteen miles, in a scorching sun, to the hospital. After beino- 
unable to sit up in his bed during the five weeks subsequent to his cap- 
ture, Captain Shortland expired on the 21st of January, 1810. General 
Ernouf paid every possible respect to his remains, and'he was buried at 
Easse-Terre, with military honours. 

At the capture of Guadaloupe, Lieutenant Deecker and the surviving 
officers of the Junon, who had been landed with Captain Shortland from 
the Loire and Seine, were released ; and on the 20th of February, 1810, 
were honourably acquitted by a court-martial, for the loss of the Junon. 
Lieutenant Deecker being strongly recommended for promotion, was 
made a commander on the 17th of April following. The second and third 
lieutenants of the Junon, George V. Jackson and Henry Conn, had been 
taken on board the Renommee, which ship, with the Clorinde. anchored 
in Brest Road on the 23rd of January, 1S10. 

VOL. II. X 



306 DESTRUCTION OF SEINE AND LOIRE. [1809. 

point of the cove. At 2h. 40m. p.m. a battery on Point 
Lizard, a little to the southward of Arise la Barque, having 
tired at the British squadron and struck the' Ringdove, Cap- 
tain Bowers embarked a party in his boats ; and at 3h. 
landed, and stormed and carried the fort, of which he spiked 
the guns, blew up the magazine, and at 4h. returned to the 
Ringdove without having sustained any loss. In the evening, 
the 12-gun schooner Elizabeth, Lieutenant Charles Finch, 
joined company, and was despatched to sound the entrance 
to the bay, where Lieutenant Finch succeeded in finding a 
safe anchorage. On the same evening, the 36-gun frigate 
Freija, Captain John Hayes, arrived from Martinique. 

On the 18th, at 8h. 30m. a.m., the 74-gun ship Sceptre, 
Captain Samuel J. Ballard, arrived from Martinique just as 
a flag of truce came off from the shore. This the commodore 
speedily dismissed, and made preparation for an immediate 
attack. The Blonde and Thetis were ordered to enter the 
bay, and engage the French frigates, while the Sceptre and 
Freija cannonaded the batteries, and the Hazard, Cygnet, 
Ringdove, and Elizabeth, were ordered to take the boats of 
the squadron in tow. Owing to light winds, the frigates 
found great difliculty in nearing the shore ; but at 2h. 2om. 
p.m. one of the forts commenced firing, and at 2h. 40m. 
the Seine and Loire opened their fire. Having at length 
arrived within a quarter of a mile of the French frigates, 
and within half pistol-shot of a fort, the Blonde anchored 
with springs, and opened her starboard broadside ; and the 
Thetis soon afterwards anchored and commenced firing. At 
3h. 30m. one of the enemy's ships was dismasted, and sur- 
rendered ; and the Thetis, which ship had principally engaged 
her, then brought her broadside to bear on the fort. At 
4h. 20m. the remaining French frigate hauled down her 
colours, and the Blonde and Thetis made sail out of reach of 
the fort. At 5h. 20m., the northernmost frigate having 
caught fire, blew up with a tremendous explosion, and a 
portion of the burning wreck falling on board the other 
frigate, caused her destruction also. 

Just as the night was closing in, the boats of the squadron, 
under the orders of Captain Cameron, covered by the fire of 
the brigs, quitted for the shore, and landed under a heavy 
fire. The British succeeded in storming the fort, but not 



1809.] DEATH OF CAPTAIN CAMERON. 307 

without sustaining a serious loss in the person of Captain 
Cameron, who was wounded by a musket-ball, while gallantly 
hauling down the French colours, and afterwards killed by a 
grape-shot, as he was stepping into his boat to return to the 
Hazard, after having so well executed the service he was 
sent to perform. The principal loss was sustained by the 
Blonde and Thetis ; the former had her first lieutenant, 
George Jenkins, Edward Freeman, master's mate, four sea- 
men, and two marines killed ; and Lieutenant Cpesar W. 
Richardson, Thomas Robotham, midshipman, ten seamen, 
and four marines wounded : the Thetis had six seamen 
wounded : total, including Captain Cameron, of the Hazard, 
nine killed and twenty-two wounded. The first lieutenant 
of the Sceptre, John Wyborn, was promoted for this service, 
his commission bearing date the day of the action. The 
naval medal has been awarded to all the ships engaged on the 
above occasions. 



x2 



308 CAPTURE OF ORESTE. [1810. 



1810. 

On the 10th of January, Commander Richard Arthur, in 
the 10-gun brig Cherokee, perceiving seven lugger privateers 
lying within 200 yards of the pier-head of Dieppe, resolved to 
attack them, and at lh. a.m. on the 11th, favoured with a 
leading wind, stood in, and running between two of the 
luggers, laid one on board ; which, after a fruitless attempt 
to board the brig, was carried. The vessel was the Aimable 
Nelly, of 106 tons, mounting sixteen guns, with a crew of 
sixty men, of whom two were killed and eight wounded. 
The remaining luggers kept up a smart fire of musketry ; 
but the Cherokee succeeded in carrying off her prize. Lieu- 
tenant Vere Gabriel, and James Ralph, boatswain, were the 
only sufferers upon this occasion, both of whom were 
wounded in the hand. Commander Arthur, for this very 
dashing exploit, obtained post rank. The naval medal has 
been awarded for the above gallant performance. 

On the 11th of January, the 18-gun brig Scorpion, Com- 
mander Francis Stanfell, was detached from a squadron under 
Captain Yolant V. Ballard, in the 38-gun frigate Blonde, 
stationed off Basse Terre, Guadaloupe, to bring out a French 
brig at anchor near the shore. At 9h. p.m. the Scorpion, 
while proceeding in search of the intended object of attack, 
which was the French lG-gun brig Oreste, Lieutenant de 
vaisseau Mousnier, perceived her just coming out, having 
cleared the north point of the bay. All sail was made in 
chase, and, assisted by the sweeps, the Scorpion, at llh. p.m., 
brought the French brig to action, which was protracted 
until lh. 30m. a.m. on the 12th, when the Oreste surrendered. 
In the course of the engagement, the Scorpion had to sustain 
the fire of a battery on a point of the land, by which her 
rigging and sails were much cut. The Blonde's barge 
arrived up just as the Oreste had surrendered, and assisted 
in taking possession of the prize. The Scorpion had four 
men wounded, and the Oreste two men killed and ten 



1810.] BOATS f OF FREIJA AT BAIE MAHAUT. 309 

wounded. The first lieutenant of the Scorpion in this 
action was George Charles Blake. The prize was added to 
the British navy, by the name of Wellington. Commander 
Stanfell obtained his post rank on the 19th of March follow- 
ing. The naval medal is awarded for the above capture. 

On the 17th of January, the 36-gun frigate Freija, Cap- 
tain John Hayes, while cruising off Guadaloupe, discovered 
a brig and two other vessels in Baie Mahaut. At 9h. 15m. p.ir. 
four boats, under the orders of Lieutenant David Hope, 
assisted by Lieutenant of marines John Shillibeer, Master's 
mate A. G. Countess, and Samuel Bray, gunner, pushed off 
from the frigate to endeavour to cut them out ; and after 
experiencing great difficulty in finding a passage, Lieutenant 
Hope detained a fisherman, from whom he learnt, that a 
detachment of troops had arrived at Baie Mahaut on that 
evening from Pointe a Pitre. Undismayed by this informa- 
tion, the boats proceeded, and having arrived within a short 
distance of the north-east point of the harbour, were saluted 
by a fire of grape from two batteries. The brig having 
brought her six guns on one side to bear, also opened on the 
boats, which were likewise fired at from men concealed in 
the bushes on the banks. The boats, however, pushed for- 
wards, and the brig was boarded ; the Frenchmen escaping 
to the shore. Leaving Mr. Bray with a few hands on board 
the brig, with directions to cover his landing, Lieutenant 
Hope pushed for the shore ; but although the boats grounded 
at so great a distance that the officers and men had to wade 
up to their waists to get to the beach, they persevered and 
reached the first battery, from which the enemy retreated as 
the British advanced, posting themselves behind a brick 
breastwork, from whence they opened a fire of musketry. 
The Frenchmen were, however, quickly dislodged from this 
position by the bayonets of the marines. The battery 
mounted one 24-pounder and six howitzers. The gun was 
hove over the cliff, the howitzers buried in the sand, and the 
battery and magazine destroyed. Lieutenant Hope, deter- 
mined to finish his work, then dashed at and carried the 
second battery, mounting three 24-pounders, which were 
spiked, and the carriages and guard-house destroyed. Lieu- 
tenant Hope with his party then returned to the brig, which 
was by this time fast in the mud, the crew having cut her 



310 SURRENDER OF GUADALOUPE. [1810. 

cables previously to quitting her ; but, after great exertions, 
she was got afloat. Near the brig were a large ship, and a 
schooner on the mud, which were destroyed. Having com- 
pleted this task, the brig was taken in tow by the boats, and 
carried off Only two men of the party were wounded. 
Owing to the partial suppression of the official letter of 
Captain Hayes, Lieutenant Hope was not promoted until 
June, 1814. 

On the 6th of February, Guadaloupe surrendered to a 
British squadron, under the command of Vice- Admiral the 
Honourable Sir Alexander Cochrane, and a body of troops 
under Lieutenant-General Sir George Beckwith. The naval 
medal has been awarded to those engaged in this capture. 1 

On the 10th of February, latitude 25° 22' north, longitude 
61° 27' west, the 10-gun schooner Thistle, Lieutenant Peter 
Procter, brought to action, at 5h. p.m., the Dutch corvette 
Havik, pierced for eighteen guns, but mounting only ten 
(six long 4-pounders and four 2-pound swivels), with a 
complement of fifty-two men and boys, having on board the 
Batavian Bear- Admiral Buyskes, and valuably laden. The 
engagement continued until 6h. 45m., when the Havik made 

1 The following is an official list of the names of ships and captains to 
which the medals are granted : — Pompee, Vice-Admiral Hon. Sir A. I. 
Cochrane, Capt. C. Dilkes ; Abercrombie, Capt. W. C. Fahie ■ Alfred, 
Capt. J. R. Watson ; Alcmene, Capt. Hon. W. Maude ; Asp, Com. R. 
Preston ; Aurora, Capt. John Duer ; Amaranthe, Com. George Pringle ; 
Achates, Com. T. Pinto ; Attentive, Lieut. Robert Carr ; Bellette, 
Com. D. Sloane ; Ballahou, Lieut. Geo. Mills ; Bacchus, Lieut. D. 
Jeremy ; Blonde, Capt. V. V. Ballard ; Castor, Capt. (act.) W. Roberts ; 
Cherub, Com. T. T. Tucker; Cygnet, Com. Edw. Dix ; Elizabeth, 
Lieut. Fitch ; Freija, John Hayes ; Fawn, Com. Hon. G. A. Crofton ; 
Frolic, Com. Thomas Whinyates ; Forester, Com. J. E. Watt ; Gloire, 
Capt. Jas. Carthew ; Guadaloupe, Com. M. Head ; Grenada, Lieut. S. 
Briggs ; Hazard, Com. W. Elliott ; Loire, Capt. A. W. Schomberg ; 
Laura, Lieut. N. C. Hunter ; Melampus, Capt. E. Hawker ; Morne 
Fortunee, Lieut. F. Wills ; Netley, Lieut. Jackson ; Orpheus, Capt. 
P. Tonyn ; Observateur, Com. F. A. Wetherall ; Perlen, Capt. N. 
Thompson ; Pelorus, Com. Thos. Huskisson ; Pultusk, Com. J. 
McGeorge ; Plumper, Lieut. W. Frissell ; Rosamond, Com. B. Walker ; 
Ringdove, Com. W. Dowers ; Sceptre, Capt. S. Ballard ; Statira, Capt. 
(act.) H. Boys ; Scorpion, Com. F. Stanfell ; Savage, Com. W. Feme ; 
Superieure, Com. H. C. Coxen ; Star, Com. D. Paterson ; Snap, Com. 
J. P. Stewart ; Surinam, Com. A. Hodge ; Subtle, Lieut. C. Brown ; 
Thetis, Capt. Geo. Miller; Vimiera, Com. E. Scobell ; Wanderer, 
Com. William Robilliard. 



1810.] EAINBOW AND AVON WITH NEREIDE. 311 

all sail before the wind ; but at 8h. 30m. the Thistle again 
got alongside, and, after some smart firing, compelled her to 
surrender. The Thistle, out of a crew of fifty men and boys, 
had one marine killed, and her commander and six men 
wounded ; and on board the Havik, one man was killed, and 
the Dutch admiral and seven men badly wounded. Lieu- 
tenant Procter was promoted in the June following, and the 
naval medal has been awarded to the surviving participators. 

On the 9th of February, the French 40-gun frigate 
Nereide, Captain Lemaresquier, unaware of the surrender of 
Guadaloupe, arrived off Basse Terre at night, and sent a boat 
on shore for a pilot. At daylight, discovering that the 
island was in the possession of the British, the frigate made 
all sail, and although pursued by a squadron of one 74-gun 
ship and four frigates, particularly by the Blonde, Captain 
Y. Y. Ballard, effected her escape. 

On the 13th the Nereide was discovered off Abaco Point, 
St. Domingo, by the 22tgun ship Rainbow, Captain James 
Wooldridge, endeavouring to make the windward passage. 
The Bainbow gallantly pursued her ; and on the morning of 
the 14th, when within about a mile of the frigate, the 
18-gun brig Avon, Commander Henry T. Frazer, hove* in 
sight on the larboard bow, and joined in the pursuit, stand- 
ing across the Nereide. At lh. 15m. p.m., the Nereide 
(running with tlie wind on her larboard quarter) fired her 
main-deck: stern-chasers at the Bainbow, and shortly after- 
wards cut away the stern boat to be able to fire her quarter- 
deck chase-guns. At 3h. 30m. the Nereide, having hauled 
up about south-west to avoid the Avon, was enabled to fire 
her larboard broadside at the Bainbow. The British ship 
then hauling up, brought the Nereide to close action, until 
4h., at which time the Avon arrived up, and poured a raking 
broadside into the stern of the enemy. At 4h. 5m. the 
Nereide, having disabled the masts and cut away the greater 
part of the standing and running rigging of the Bainbow, 
wore round, and opened fire upon the Avon, and after a 
running fight between these ill-matched combatants, which 
lasted till oh. (by which time the Avon was in a worse con- 
dition than the Bainbow), the Nereide made sail to the 
northward and left her. Owing to the high firing of the 
French frigate, the Bainbow had only ten men wounded. 



312 LIEUTENANT GUIOX IX BASQUE ROADS. [1810. 

The Avon was much disabled in hull, and had one man 
killed and one mortally wounded ; and Lieutenant Curtis 
Reid, one midshipman, and five men severely wounded. 

On the 13th of February, eight boats belonging to a 
squadron lying in Basque Roads, consisting of the 80-gun 
ship Christian VII., Captain Sir Joseph Sydney Yorke, and 
frigates Armide and Seine, Captains Lucius Hardyman and 
David Atkins, were despatched, unders the orders of Lieu- 
tenant Henry G. Guion, to destroy three vessels which had 
grounded on the reef off Point Chatillon. As the boats 
advanced, nine French gun-boats, each armed with a 
12-pounder carronade and six swivels, pulled out from the 
Isle d'Aix, to prevent the boats from carrying their project 
into effect. Lieutenant Guion, in order to draw the enemy 
within range, feigned a retreat ; but having reached a suffi- 
cient distance, altered his course and pulled direct for the 
gun-boats. They immediately retreated ; but Lieutenant 
Guion, in the barge of the Christian VII., laid one of the 
French boats alongside, and gallantly carried her without 
loss. Lieutenant Samuel Roberts, of the Armide, continued 
the pursuit of the remainder, but was unable to overtake 
them ; he, however, having driven away the defenders of the 
chasse-marees, boarded and set fire to them. Lieutenant 
Guion was shortly afterwards promoted to the rank of com- 
mander. The naval medal has been awarded to the officers 
and men in the boats on this occasion. 

On the 17th of February, Amboyna capitulated to a 
squadron, consisting of the 3S-gun frigate Dover, Captain 
Edward Tucker ; 44-gun frigate Cornwallis, Captain William 
A. Montagu ; and 18-gun sloop Samarang, Commander 
Richard Spencer, in which was embarked a party of the 
Madras European regiment. The proceedings which led to 
this conquest reflect much honour on all concerned, and it 
was accomplished with no greater loss than two privates of 
the Madras regiment, one seaman, and one marine killed ; 
and four soldiers and four seamen wounded. Lieutenant 
Charles J efferys, of the Dover, received a blow on the breast 
from a spent grape-shot, but did not quit his post. An 
armed brigand two cutters fell into the hands of the captors. 
This success led to the capture of the Spice Islands dependent 
on Amboyna, and also of Mauado and its dependencies. 



1810.] BOATS OF SUCCESS AND ESPOIR AT CASTIGLIONZ. 313 

On the 21st of February, latitude 33° 10' north, longitude 
29° 30' west, the 38-gun frigate Horatio, Captain George 
Scott, fell in with, and after a long chase and a running 
fight of one hour, captured the French frigate-built store- 
ship Necessity mounting twenty-six guns, with a crew of 
180 men, commanded by Lieutenant Bonnie. 

On the 4th of April, as the 32-gun frigate Success, Captain 
John Ayscough, and 18-gun brig Espoir, Commander Robert 
]\litford, were running along the coast of Calabria, three 
vessels were discovered on the beach near Castiglione. The 
boats of the two ships, under Lieutenants George Rose Sar- 
torius and Robert Oliver, with Masters' mates George L. 
Coates and Richard Pearce, were sent to destroy them ; but, 
having arrived within musket-shot of the shore, three of the 
boats struck on a sunken rock and swamped, by which acci- 
dent two seamen were drowned, and all the ammunition 
spoiled. The remaining officers and men swam to the beach 
with their cutlasses in their mouths, and, although exposed 
to a smart fire from two G-pounders and four wall-pieces, 
Lieutenant Sartorius and his party gallantly rushed on and 
gained possession of the battery. Having set the vessels on fire, 
spiked the guns, and destroyed the carriages, the three swamped 
boats were recovered, and the party returned to their ships- 
with no additional loss, and only two marines wounded. 

On the 11 th of April, the 10-gun cutter Sylvia, Lieutenant 
Augustus Y. Dnuy, cruising in the Straits of Sunda, en- 
gaged and sunk a large lugger-rigged prahu, which mounted 
three long 18-pounders. On the 26th, while cruising off 
Middleburg, on the coast of Java, three armed brigs, accom- 
panied by two lug-sail vessels, were observed standing in for 
Batavia. The Sylvia chased and brought the sternmost brig- 
to action, which, after a contest of twenty minutes' duration, 
she captured. The prize was the Dutch national brig Echo, 
of eight 6-pounders and forty-six men. The Sylvia, out of her 
small crew of forty-four men and boys, had four killed and three 
wounded ; the Dutch brig, three killed and seven wounded. 
The other brigs, fortunately for the Sylvia, did not offer to 
support their consort, but made all sail away, leaving two ■ 
lugger-rigged transports, each mounting two long 9-pounders 
and defended by 60 men, laden with artillery stores, to 
become the prizes of the Sylvia. Lieutenant Dnuy received 



314 CAPTURE OF SANTA MAURA. [1810. 

promotion. The medal has been granted for the capture of 
the Echo. 

On the 12th of April, the 32-gun frigate Unicom, Captain 
Alexander Robert Kerr, being off the Isle of Rhe, captured 
the late British 22-gun ship Laurel, then named the Espe- 
rance, armed enjlide, from the Isle of France, with a valuable 
cargo of colonial produce. The Laurel was restored to the 
navy under the name of Laurestinas. 

On the 1 6th of April, the fortress and island of Santa 
Maura surrendered to a British squadron, consisting of the 
74-gun ships Magnificent and Montagu, Captains George 
Eyre and Richard H. Moubray ; frigates Belle-Poule and 
Leonidas, Captains James Brisbane and Anselm John Grif- 
fiths ) and 16-gun brig Imogene, Commander Wm. Stephens, 
together with a body of troops under Brigadier-General 
Oswald. Captain Eyre received a severe wound in the 
head, and Captain Stephens in the foot, in storming one of 
the forts ; and in the whole the loss amounted to sixteen 
officers and men killed, eighty-six wounded, and seventeen 
missing of the army ; and of the navy, two seamen and 
six marines killed ; and Captains Eyre and Stephens, Lieu- 
tenant Vernon Lanphier, Captain of marines William H. 
Snowe, Lieutenant of marines Arthur Morrison, six seamen, 
and twenty-seven marines wounded. Total : twenty-four 
killed, 127 wounded, and seventeen missing. The French gar- 
rison at the capitulation numbered 714 officers and men. 

On the 24th of April, the boats of the 10-gun cutter 
Surly, and gun-brig Firm, Lieutenants Richard Welch and 
John Little, boarded and brought off from the mouth of the 
Piron the French privateer Alcide. The privateer had been 
chased ashore, and was protected by the fire of 400 troops. 
The service was creditably performed by Sub-Lieutenant 
Joseph Hodgkin, of the Firm, who was promoted in conse- 
quence. The Firm had the second master killed and one man 
wounded. The naval medal is granted for this action. 

Towards the end of April, Captain Nesbit J. Willoughby 
(acting), in the 36-gun frigate Nereide, arrived off the Isle 
of France, from the Cape of Good Hope, where he fell in 
with a squadron under Captain Henry Lambert, which had 
been also sent from the cape to cruise off the Mauritius, and 
endeavour to capture or destroy the enemy's possessions. 




Aj}J 




1810.] BOATS OF NEREIDE AT JACOTEL. 315 

Captain Willoughby was immediately despatched by Captain 
Lambert to cruise off the south-east coast ; and, arriving off 
the river Noire, observed a large ship at anchor between 
two forts, which the Nereide opened fire upon. This was 
the French 40-gun frigate Astree, the captain of which, 
having learnt that a British squadron was cruising off the 
island, had put in there for shelter. 

On the 30th of April, still examining this part of the 
coast, Captain Willoughby observed a large merchant ship at 
the anchorage of Jacotel, lying within pistol-shot of two 
batteries commanding the entrance to the harbour. Captain 
Willoughby determined to attempt to cut this ship out, and 
with this object the boats, commanded by the captain in 
person, manned with fifty seamen and the same number of 
marines, quitted the ship at midnight. In the boats were 
Lieutenants John Burns, Thomas L. P. Laugharne, and 
Henry C. Deacon, and Lieutenants of marines Thomas S. 
Cox and Thomas H. W. Debrisay. The party was accom- 
panied by an excellent pilot, a black inhabitant of the 
island. Having with difficulty entered the intricate 
passage to the anchorage, and reached the only accessible 
landing-place (although even there the surf was half-filling 
the boats), the French national 4-gun schooner Estafette, 
lying at anchor close under the batteries, gave the alarm. 
Both batteries and two field-pieces immediately directed 
their fire towards the spot, and on landing, the party also 
became exposed to a smart fire of musketry. In ten 
minutes, however, from this time, the nearest battery, 
mounting two long 12-pounders, was carried by assault ; 
and, having spiked the guns, Captain Willoughby and his 
gallant followers pushed on for a guard-house in the rear, 
which was protected by two field-pieces, about seventy soldiers, 
and a large party of militia. This party, while the British 
were capturing and spiking the guns of" the battery, had 
attacked the men left in charge of the boats, and had driven 
them into the harbour, but now opened fire upon the main 
body. The signal was given for the seamen and marines to 
charge, and the enemy fled before them in all directions, 
leaving the field-pieces and then commanding officer, Lieu- 
tenant Rockman (who was in the act of spiking the field- 
pieces), to be taken possession of by the assailants. 



316 BOATS OF NEKEIDE AT JACOTEL. [1810. 

" Hitherto," says Captain Willoughby, in his official letter, 
'• twilight had concealed from view the force of the British, 
but full day now showed the Nereides small band of volun- 
teers to the enemy, whose strongest battery was still unsub- 
dued, and to gain which it was necessary to cross the river 
Le Galet." The pass was defended by the commandant of 
the Savannah district, with a strong body of militia and two 
long 12-pounders, withdrawn from the battery on the right. 
In consequence of heavy rains, the river had so much swollen, 
and the stream become so rapid, that the tallest of the party 
could scarcely wade across ; but this difficulty was surmounted 
by those who could swim, and the remainder were assisted 
across by their taller companions. The party, but with the 
loss of the greatest part of their ammunition, at length 
reached the opposite bank, and having landed, the gallant 
fellows giving three cheers, charged the enemy at the point 
of the bayonet, and the hill and the guns, as well as the bat- 
tery, with the colours, were quickly in their possession. The 
commandant, Colonel Colgard, remained a prisoner ; but the 
militiamen fled with astonishing speed. Captain Willoughby 
adds, in reference to this success, " Nor do I think an officer 
or man of the party except myself had an anxious thought 
for the result of this unequal affair." 

Having spiked the guns and a mortar, burnt and destroyed 
their carriages, as well as the works and magazine, and a 
quantity of naval and military stores, Captain Willoughby 
was upon the point of returning to his ship, when the party 
which had been driven from the first battery rallied, and, 
reinforced by a strong body of the militia and bourgeois in- 
habitants, made a vigorous show of resistance ; but Captain 
Willoughby having made a movement indicative of a design 
to cut off their retreat, the French militia, regulars and all, 
again fled, and the British repassed the Galet, and returned 
to their boats. After destroying the signal-station and a 
flagstaff one mile inshore, Captain Willoughby re-embarked, 
bringing away the French schooner (which the midshipman 
and party left in charge of the boats had boarded) and two 
field-pieces, with which he joined the Nereide in the offing. 
This gallant service was performed with the loss of one 
marine killed, and Lieutenant Deacon, four seamen, and two 
marines wounded; although the force to which they had 



1810.] ACCIDENT TO CAPTAIN WILLOUGHBY. 317 

been opposed could not have been less than 600 troops. The 
ship in the harbour was an American, and although by right 
forfeited for having broken the blockade, was not molested. 

On the Nereide's joining the squadron off Port Louis, 
Captain Lambert sent in a flag of truce, when Colonel Col- 
gard, the commander of the Estafette, and other officers and 
men, made prisoners on the occasion, were exchanged for 
thirty-nine British. 1 

On the 1st of May, while the 38-gun frigate Spartan, 
Captain Jahleel Brenton, in company with the Success, was 
cruising off the island of Ischia, the French 40-gun frigate 
Ceres, 28-gun ship Fama, 8-gun brig Sparviere, and cutter 
Achille, were discovered and chased close into the Mole of 
Naples. Captain Brenton, feeling satisfied that the French 
commodore would not again put to sea while there were two 
frigates before Naples, despatched Captain Ayscough, in the 
Success, to cruise off Capri, after which the Spartan stood in 
towards Naples. Prince Murat had, however, previously 
determined that an attack should be made upon the two 
British frigates, on their reappearing off the port ; and had 
ordered 400 Swiss troops to embark on board the frigate and 
corvette, and appointed seven large gun-boats to accompany 
the scpiadron. 

On the 3rd, at 5h. a.m., as the Spartan was standing in for 
Naples, on the starboard tack, with a light air from south- 
east, and about midway between Cape Misano and the island 
of Capri, the French squadron was discovered right ahead, 
distant six miles, and standing off shore on the larboard tack. 

1 On the 15th of June, while the Boadicea and Nereide were watering 
on Isle Platte, a serious accident happened to Captain Willoughby, who, 
while in the act of exercising a party at small-arms, was dreadfully 
wounded by the bm\sting of his musket. The explosion inflicted a dan- 
gerous, and what was at first thought to be a mortal wound. His lower 
jaw on the right side was badly fractured, and his neek so lacerated that 
the windpipe was laid bare. For three weeks the captain was unable to 
speak ; but by the skilful exertions of Mr. George Peter Martyn, the 
surgeon, aided by a good habit of body, after some time, the wound 
healed, but not until a painful exfoliation of the jaw-bone had taken 
place. This gallant officer, when a lieutenant of the Eoyal George, was> 
seriously injured on the isle of Prota, at the Dardanelles, where he re- 
ceived two pistol or musket balls, one of which entered his left jaw, while 
another, passing up his left nostril, lodged in some part of his head, from 
whence it was never extracted. 



318 SPARTAN WITH CERES AND CONSORTS. [1810- 

The enemy's force consisted of the 18-pounder frigate Ceres, 
mounting forty-two guns, with a crew of 350 men ; Fama, 
twenty-eight guns, 8 and 12-pounders, and 200 men; 
brig Sparviere, eight guns and ninety-eight men ; cutter 
Achille, ten guns and eighty men ; and seven gun-boats, each 
mounting one long 18-pounder, with crews averaging forty- 
men ; making, with the 400 Swiss troops, a total of about 
1,400 men and ninety-five guns, to which the Spartan could 
only oppose the forty-six guns of her class, and 258 men and 
boys. At 7h. the Ceres hauled up, as if desirous to cross the 
bows of the British frigate ; but the Spartan, by hauling close 
to the wind and making sail, frustrated this design. The 
French commodore then continued to stand on with the 
wind abeam, and the Spartan, hauling up her courses, edged 
away towards the enemy. At 8h. (the wind light, and the 
ships going about three miles an hour), having arrived within 
pistol-shot of the larboard bow of the Spartan, the Ceres 
opened a fire from her larboard guns, which was not returned 
until the Spartan was directly abreast her enemy, when a 
trebly-shotted broadside was poured in. Passing on, the 
British frigate engaged the Fama and Sparviere in succession, 
but the cutter and gun-boats had tacked to the eastward. 
This is shown in the annexed diagram. 



*7. 

rf on Bts. 



\ 




dp- ■-■■ ez7>- 



1810.] SPARTAN WITH CERES AND CONSORTS. 319 

As the Spartan hove in stays, she fired her larboard broad- 
side at the gun- boats, and, as she came round, opened her 
starboard broadside on the Sparviere and ships ahead of her. 
The Ceres, instead of supporting the gun-boats, wore round 
and stood inshore towards the batteries of Baia, followed by 
the Fama and brig, and the Spartan bore up after them ; but 
a few minutes before 9h. the breeze died away, leaving the 
British frigate with her head exposed to the starboard broad- 
side of the Ceres, the corvette and brig on her larboard bow, 
and the cutter and gun-boats sweeping up astern. A heavy 
cross fire was then opened upon the Spartan, and shortly 
afterwards Captain Brenton, while standing on the capstan, 
received a most severe wound from a grape-shot, which em- 
bedded itself in his hip, notwithstanding which he jumped from 
the capstan-head on which he was standing. Being carried 
below, the command of the Spartan devolved upon Lieutenant 
George Wickens Willes. After a while a light breeze en- 
abled the Spartan to bring her broadside to bear on the star- 
board quarter of the Ceres and bow of the Fama, the brig 
and gun-boats being nearly astern. From the disabled state 
of the Spartan's sails, however, the Ceres and Fama could not 
be prevented from getting within reach of the batteries of 
Baia, when the Spartan wore round with her head off shore, 
raking the frigate and Fama in the meanwhile with her star- 
board guns, by which the fore-topmast of the latter was shot 
away. Closing with the Sparviere, the Spartan, at 10h., 
compelled her to surrender, with the loss of niaiii-topmast. 
At about the same time the gun-boats came down and took 
the Fama in tow. 

The Spartan, having an officer and eighteen men absent in 
a prize, commenced the action with only 258 men and boys, 
of which one master's mate (William Bobson), six seamen, 
and three marines were killed, and Captain Brenton (se- 
verely), Lieutenant Willes, fifteen seamen, and five marines 
wounded. The ship was much cut up in spars, sails, and 
rigging. The French acknowledged to a loss (exclusive of 
the Sparviere's) of thirty killed and ninety wounded ; among 
the former was the second captain of the Ceres. The cap- 
tured brig was supposed to have had eleven men killed. 

Captain Brenton mentioned Lieutenant Willes in the 
highest terms, and also Lieutenants William A. Baumo-ardt 



320 BOATS OF ARMIDE AXD MONKEY, ETC. [1810. 

and Henry Browne. To the master, Henry G. Slenner, 
Lieutenants of marines Charles Fegan and Christopher Fot- 
trell, and the purser, James Dunn (who took charge of a 
division of guns), he expressed his great obligations ; and also 
to Captain George Hoste, of the engineers, a passenger on 
board the frigate, who attended to the quarter-deck guns. 
Taking her prize in tow, the Spartan, after repairing her 
principal damages, stood across the Bay of Naples, within three 
or four miles from the mole, to the indescribable mortification 
and chagrin of Prince Murat, king of Naples. The gallantry 
and skill of Captain Brenton deserve the warmest commen- 
dation. That he should single-handed have sought a force 
so much superior — that he should have engaged and beaten 
them in the sight of their own harbour, and during weather 
particularly favourable to the co-operation of gun-vessels 
(whose destructive powers have been on many occasions 
shown), and that he should have crowned his triumph by 
capturing one of their number, is indeed astonishing ; but it 
is only another proof of how much well-disciplined men, led 
on by a talented and courageous commander, can effect ; and 
which, to the undisciplined and ignorant, would be considered, 
as indeed it would be, matter of impossibility. The Patriotic 
Fund presented Captain Brenton with an elegant sword, 
value 100 guineas ; and the naval medal has recently been 
awarded to the surviving participators. 

On the 3rd of May, the 38-gun frigate Armide, Captain 
Lucius Hardyman, in company with the 18-gun brig Cad- 
mus, Commander Thomas Fife, and gun-brigs Monkey and 
Daring, Lieutenants Thomas Fitzgerald and George Hayes, 
anchored in the Pertius Breton, off the harbour of Fosse de 
l'Oye, in the Isle of Rhe, in which several sail of merchant 
vessels were lying. About lOh. p.m. eight boats, under the 
orders of Lieutenant Samuel Roberts, repaired alongside the 
Monkey, and about midnight proceeded towards the harbour. 
In consequence of the boats grounding on a shoal at the 
entrance, the alarm was given, and a fire immediately opened 
from both sides of the shore, and of musketry from the ves- 
sels. The boats then dashed on, and seventeen vessels were 
taken possession of; but it was found impracticable to bring 
■them out, and at daylight they returned to their ships. 



1810.] BOAT ATTACK AT GKAO. 321 

Lieutenant P. S. Townley, a gallant and very promising 
officer, and two seamen, were killed, and three men wounded. 

On the 12th of May, the 18-pounder 36-gun frigate 
Tribune, Caj^tain George Reynolds, cruising off the Naze of 
Norway, was attacked by four Danish brigs, mounting from 
eighteen to twenty guns each, and by several gun-boats. At 
4h. p.m. the Tribune, distant from the flotilla about half a 
mile, discharged her broadside, and a smart engagement took 
place, which lasted until 6h. 45m., when the brig bearing 
the commodore's broad pendant being very much shattered 
in her hull, ceased firing, and made all sail for the port of 
Mandal, followed by her consorts. The Tribune suffered 
rather severely from the fire of her numerous and powerful 
foes ; and, besides being much disabled, had four seamen, 
four marines, and one boy killed, and fifteen seamen and 
marines wounded. 

On the 29th of June, the boats of the Amphion and Cer- 
berus, in which were Lieutenants William Slaughter, Donat 
H. O'Brien, and James Dickinson ; Lieutenants of marines 
Thomas Moore and Jeremiah Brattle ; Midshipmen Charles 
H. Ross, Joseph Gape, Thomas E. Hoste, Charles Bruce, and 
Cornwallis Pasley, John Miller, George Farrender, Joseph 
Stoney, George Fowler, William Sherwood, Charley Mackey, 
and Lewis Rollier, landed near the town of Grao, in the 
Gulf of Tiieste. They were attacked on landing by a body 
of French troops, of whom a serjeant and thirty-eight pri- 
vates were made prisoners. The party then entered the har- 
bour, and took possession of twenty-five vessels. An officer 
of French infantry and twenty-two men were here attacked 
and made prisoners by a division of seamen and marines, 
under Lieutenants Slaughter, Moore, and James Mears 
(which latter had just landed from the Active frigate). Five 
vessels, after great exertions, were brought off, and eleven 
burnt. The loss in this gallant affair amounted to four 
marines killed, and Lieutenant Brattle, three seamen, and 
four marines wounded. The French had ten killed and eight 
wounded. Lieutenant Slaughter was promoted on the 21st 
of November following. This is naval medal boat action. 

On the 3rd of July, the three outward-bound East-India 
Company's ships Ceylon, Windham, and Astell, Captains 

VOL. II. y 



322 CAPTURE OF BOURBON. [1810. 

Henry Meriton, John Stewart, and Robert Hay, having on 
board 250 troops, when near the island of Mayotta, were 
attacked, and, after a very gallant defence, the two first cap- 
tured, by the French 40-gun frigates Bellone and Minerve, 
and 18-gun corvette Victor. The Windham had six men 
killed and eighteen wounded, and nine of her guns disabled ; 
the Ceylon, six killed and twenty-one wounded ; and the 
Astell, which escaped, eight killed and thirty-seven wounded. 
The French loss amounted to twenty-two killed and thirty- 
eight wounded. The French squadron and prizes arrived off 
Grand Port, Isle of France, on the 20th of August. 

In the month of May, the 38-gun frigate Boadicea, Cap- 
tain Josias Rowley, arrived off the Isle of France, together 
with the 36-gun frigate Sirius, Captain Samuel Pym. The 
British squadron then cruising off Port Louis, besides the 
two ships just named, were the 36-gun frigates Iphigenia, 
Magicienne, and Nereide, Captains Henry Lambert, Lucius 
Curtis, Nesbit J. Willoughby (acting), and 18-gun sloop 
Otter, Commander James Tomkinson. Commodore Rowley, 
in conjunction with Lieutenant-Colonel Keating having 
determined on making a descent upon the Isle of Bourbon, 
embarked from Rodriguez (where a temporary barrack had 
been erected for them) 3,650 European and native troops, 
with which the squadron arrived on the 7th of July. Under 
the able superintendence of Lieutenant John Wyatt Wat- 
ling, of the Sirius, a division of the troops landed without 
loss or injury, at Grande-Chaloupe ; but Captain Willoughby 
(who, although with the dressing still upon his wounds, per- 
sisted in exposing himself to the night air), in effecting a 
landing on the opposite side of the island, where it was more 
difficult, had the schooner Estafette knocked to pieces, and 
two seamen and two soldiers drowned. Owing to the bad- 
ness of the weather, some little delay occurred in landing the 
remainder of the troops ; but that done, the island capitu- 
lated on the 8th of July. The naval loss attending this con- 
quest was two seamen drowned, and one wounded ; which, 
with the loss sustained by the troops, made a total of twenty- 
two killed and drowned, and seventy-nine Avounded. 

During the operations on shore, Captain Pym was di- 
rected to take possession of the shipping in St. Paul's Bay, 
and observing a brig preparing to get underway. Lieu- 



1810.] CAPTURE OF BANDA-NEIRA. 323 

tenant George It. Norman was despatched in the Sinus's 
barge, at llh. p.m. on the 9th, to cut her off. Finding on 
arriving in the bay, that the brig had sailed some hours 
previously, Lieutenant Norman pursued, and, after a hard pull 
of twelve hours, overtook and captured her. Three of his 
boat's crew were wounded. The prize proved to be the 
Edward privateer brig of 245 tons, pierced for sixteen, but 
having only four 12-pounders mounted, and a crew of thirty 
men. After the surrender of Bourbon, the Sirius returned 
to the Isle of France, where Lieutenant Norman, with two 
boats under his orders, succeeded in destroying a large three- 
masted schooner hauled up on the shore, although opposed 
by about 300 regulars and militia, and two field-pieces. 

A squadron, consisting of the frigates Caroline and Pie- 
montaise, Captains Christopher Cole and Charles Foote, and 
18-gun brig Barracouta, Commander Richard Kenah (acting), 
accompanied by the transport brig Mandarin, Lieutenant 
Archibald Buchanan, was despatched by Vice-Admiral Drury, 
with 100 soldiers of the Madras European regiment, and 
provisions and stores, to be landed at Amboyna. This 
squadron sailed on the 10th of May from Madras. Captain 
Cole, previously to quitting, had obtained the commander-in- 
chief's permission to attack the enemy's settlements in his 
route to Amboyna ; but the permission was qualified with a 
friendly caution not to attempt too much, and the great 
strength of the island of Banda was specially pointed out, 
The squadron arrived at Pulo-Penang on the 30th of May, 
and having obtained some imperfect information relative to 
the force and description of Banda-Neira, the Dutch seat of 
government, and being supplied with twenty artillerymen, 
and as many scaling-ladders, Captain Cole determined to 
enter the Java Sea, and make an attack upon that settle- 
ment, notwithstanding the south-east monsoon had set in. 

Anxious to gain the place of his intended operations 
before it was possible for the neighbouring Islands to throw 
additional strength into the garrison (which was then known 
to consist of upwards of 700 regular troops), Captain Cole 
determined on taking the squadron through the dangerous 
passage between Borneo and Malwalli. The passage was 
full of coral reefs, but by keeping a good look-out, the ships 
avoided them all. 

y2 



324 CAPTURE OF BANDA NEIRA. [1810. 

On the 8th of July, in the morning, the squadron 
made the Banda Islands, and having by dark arrived 
close in with Neira (or Banda-Neira), two shots were 
fired at the ships, thereby furnishing proof that the British 
visit was not wholly unexpected. Under these circum- 
stances, Captain Cole, aware of the inutility of an attempt to 
reduce an island of such great strength, decided, as the only 
probable course for success, to effect a landing with the boats 
the same night. To this he was the farther induced by a 
sudden change of the weather from calm to tempestuous, 
which favoured his design for a surprise. At Uh. p.m., the 
ships having dropped within two cables' lengths of the shore, 
the boats, commanded by Captain Cole in person — containing 
390 men, officers included — quitted the Caroline, and pulled 
in the direction of the east point of Great Banda or Lantor. 
The stormy state of the weather and extreme darkness of 
the night unavoidably led to the separation of the boats, 
and by 3h. a.m. of the 9th, Captains Cole and Kenah in their 
gigs, were the only boats at the appointed rendezvous. 
Having after some delay effected a junction with a portion 
of the boats, Captain Cole, desirous to land before daylight 
should reveal his intentions and force to the enemy, and 
receiving the strongest assurances of support from the men 
then with him, gave directions for the party to advance. 

Banda-Neira is about two miles in length, and about half 
a mile in breadth. It was protected by ten sea-batteries, 
and two powerful castles, named Belgica and Nassau, which 
commanded one another, as well as all the sea-batteries. 
Castle Belgica mounted fifty-two pieces of heavy ordnance, 
and was deemed by the Dutch to be impregnable. In the 
whole, 138 guns were mounted on the island. 

Captain Cole's force consisted of 1-10 seamen and marines, 
and about forty soldiers, and the officers were the following : 
Commander Kenah, Lieutenants Thomas Carew, Samuel 
Allen, George Pratt, Robert Walker, and Edmund Lyons, 
of the navy ; and Captain G. L. Nixon, Lieutenants Charles 
W. Yates, Philip Brown, William J. Decker, and Ensign 
Charles Allen, of the Madras regiment. Veiled by a black 
cloud accompanied by wind and rain, the boats had reached 
within 100 yards of the shore, when they grounded on a 
coral reef immediately under one of the sea-batteries, 



1810.] STORMING OF FORT BELGICA. 325 

mounting ten long 18-pounders ] but the violence of the 
squall was such, that the boats were unobserved. The sea- 
men, leaping overboard, succeeded after a time in launching 
the boat over the reef, and a few minutes afterwards reached 
a small sandy cove, bordered with jungle. Having formed 
on the shore, Captain Kenah and Lieutenant Carew, at the 
head of a party of pikemen, advanced to attack the battery 
in the rear, and so promptly did they perform this service, 
that a sentinel was killed by a pike, and sixty officers and 
men made prisoners, without firing a shot, although the men 
were stationed with lighted matches at their guns. Captain 
Cole then determined to make an attack upon Castle Belgica, 
and recalling Captain Kenah, who was advancing upon the 
next sea -battery, and leaving a guard at the captured 
battery, they pushed forward on this desperate enterprise. 
Guided by one of the natives, the British proceeded through 
a naiTow winding path, and although the bugle was now 
sounding to alarm the garrison, yet, favoured by the storm 
raging overhead, reached within 100 yards of the citadel 
before they were discovered. An ineffectual fire of musketry 
was immediately opened ; but rushing up the steep on which 
the castle was situated, and by the aid of their scaling-ladders, 
the assailants were quickly in possession of the lower works. 
The ladders were then hauled up, and placed against the 
inner wall, but were found too short ; and the besieged, 
inspired with courage at this circumstance, discharged three 
guns, and fired several volleys of musketry. Just at this 
moment, however, the gate was oj:>ened by the Dutch guard 
to admit the colonel commandant and three other officers, 
residing outside the castle ; and the British, making a rush 
at it, succeeded in effecting an entrance. The commandant 
(Colonel Daring) and ten soldiers of the garrison fell before 
the besiegers, and the British colours were displayed upon 
the flag-staff of Fort Belgica. A part of the garrison 
escaped over the walls, and the remainder, amounting to 
four officers and forty artillerymen, surrendered themselves 
prisoners. 

Daylight had now fully broken, but no reinforcement 
appeared, the ships having been buffeted about by the vari- 
able and boisterous winds, by which they were prevented 
from co-operating with the shore party ; but having dis- 



326 CAPTURE OF BANDA NEIRA. [1810. 

covered the small union jack on Fort Belgica, the Caroline 
and consorts stood in, and at a little before 8h. am. anchored 
off the town. Previously to this, however, Captain Cole had 
sent out a flag of truce, threatening to open fire upon the 
town and Fort Nassau, unless all hostility instantly ceased, 
when the Dutch flag, which had been hoisted, was hauled 
down, and in the course of the day, his terms being fully 
complied with, 1,500 regulars and militia laid down their 
arms on the glacis of Fort Nassau. The boats which had 
separated from Captain Cole, after enduring great hardships, 
got alongside the Mandarin. 

For the important conquest he had achieved, and that 
without losing a man, Captain Cole received the thanks of 
the Admiralty, commander-in-chief, and governor-general 
of India ; but probably the letters addressed to him by the 
partners in his triumph, Captains Foote and Kenah, pre- 
senting a silver cup ; from the lieutenants and other officers, 
accompanying a sword of 100 guineas' value ; a third from 
the officers of the Company's troops engaged, with a sword 
of the same value ; and a fourth (subsequently received) 
from the crew of the Caroline, with a similar mark of their 
admiration, l had much greater charms for the brave captain, 
whose kindness had equally gained their affection. The 
wealth found at Banda was immense. The capture of 
Bancla-lSTeira entitles the surviving participators to the naval 
medal. 

After appointing Captain Foote governor of the island, 
with a sufficient garrison, the squadron proceeded to Am- 
boyna. 

On the 9th of July, three boats belonging to the Alceste, sent 
away by Captain Murray Maxwell in charge of Henry Bell, 

1 This being a very curious and original document, we present our 
readers with a verb, et lit. copy, taken from Marshall's Naval Biography j 
and it must be remembered that this was not presented until Captain 
Cole had ceased to command the Caroline. 

"We, the crew of H.M.S. Caroline, wishes to give you our most 
gracious thanks for the care and favour you have shown to this ship's 
company, by making you a present of a sword amounting to 100 guineas, 
for your noble and brave conduct, when you led us to the storm of 
Banda, and likewise the zealous bravery in landing our troops at Batavia, 
and by excepting of this present, you will gratify the wishes of your most 
obedient ship's company, 

"The Carolines." 



1810.] ANECDOTES OF HEROISM. 327 

master of the ship, having under him Midshipmen James 

Addie and M'Quean, and which made a gallant attack 

upon an enemy's convoy, protected by a large armed xebeck, 
having driven five of the merchant vessels on shore, and 
made pmes of three, it was found necessary to take the 
xebeck also, in order to enable them to bring off the prizes. 
Leaving, therefore, Mr. M'Quean to cover the captured ves- 
sels, Mr. Bell, with the barge and yawl, proceeded on this 
enterprise ; and after again taking possession of one of the 
prizes which the xebeck had recaptured, laid the latter 
alongside. A determined hand-to-hand conflict ensued, and 
out of the twenty-two brave fellows who boarded, sixteen 
were either killed or wounded. The remnant, however, did 
not quit the xebeck until she was aground on the rocks 
under the batteries of Alassio. " It will give you some 
idea," wrote Captain Maxwell, " of the metal these lads are 
made of, when I inform you that Mr. Bell, their leader, 
though severely wounded by a grape-shot in the breast while 
advancing to the attack, concealed his hurt, lest a knowledge 
of it might dishearten the men ; and that Mr. Addie, his 
gallant young associate, though he had his left arm shattered 
to pieces in the act of boarding, kept his wound a secret and 
went on. John Giles, likewise, a seaman, being mortally 
wounded, begged that he might be allowed to have the last 
shot, and as there could be no doubt about the aim when 
the boat's carronade was touching the enemy's side, the 
match was put into his hand. He fired the gun, gave a faint 
huzza, and instantly expired." The frigate afterwards stood 
in, and anchoring within musket-shot of the shore, canno- 
naded the stranded shipping, and the enemy's intrenchments. 
The total casualties in the day's service were heavy, being, 
exclusive of that in the boats, Lieutenant of marines Richard 
Hawkey, brother of the gallant oflicer killed in the Impla- 
cable's boats in the Baltic (severely), and two men wounded. 
On the 22nd of July, the boats of the^ frigates Belvidera 
and Nemesis, Captains Richard Byron and William Ferris, 
were despatched for the purpose of attacking four Danish 
gun-vessels, lying at anchor near Studtland, on the coast of 
Norway, and which on the previous night had fired upon the 
Belvidera's boats, when the master, James M'Pherson, was 
sounding the bay. The Belvidera's boats were in charge of 



328 BOATS OF THAMES, ETC. AT AMANTHEA. [1810. 

Lieutenants Samuel Nisbett and William H. Bruce, and 
Lieutenant of marines James Campbell ; and those of the 
Nemesis were commanded by Lieutenants Thomas Hodgskins 
and Marmaduke Smith. The Danes opened a heavy fire 
upon the boats in their advance, to which the boats made 
a good return from their carronades ; and after a short 
contest, two gun- vessels, each mounting two long 24- 
pounders and six 6-pounder howitzers, with crews of forty- 
five men, were taken possession of. The third gun-boat 
escaped into a narrow creek. This service was attended with 
no loss on the part of the captors ; but the Danes had four 
men killed. 

On the 2oth of July, the boats of the 32 -gun frigate 
Thames, Captain the Honourable George G. Waldegrave, 
and 18- gun brigs Pilot and Weasel, Commanders J. Toup 
Nicolas and Henry Prescott, under command of the latter 
officer, assisted by Lieutenant Edward Collier, first of the 
Thames, attacked an enemy's convoy, consisting of thirty- 
two transports, from Naples, laden with stores and provisions 
for Murat's army at Scylla, and protected by seven gun- 
boats, each mounting one long 18-pounder, and four armed 
scampavias. The transports having run upon the beach of 
Amanthea, where tney were flanked by two batteries and 
defended by the armed vessels, were, after a sharp struggle, 
in which the boats were covered by the fire of the brigs, 
captured, with no greater loss to the British than one man 
killed and six wounded. The whole were either burnt or 
brought off. Commander Prescott and Lieutenant Collier, 
for their gallantry on this occasion, were promoted. This 
is a naval medal action. 

On the 31st of July, at daybreak, the 18-gun brig Procris, 
Commander Robert Maunsell, being off the mouth of the 
Indramayo river, Java, came in sight of six gun-boats with 
a convoy of proas. The Procris stood after the enemy until 
prevented by the shoal water from getting nearer ; when 
Commander Maunsell proceeded to attack them in the boats 
of his brig, accompanied by two flat boats, each containing 
twenty soldiers of the 14th and 29 th regiments. Com- 
mander Maunsell was accompanied by Lieutenant George 
Majoribanks, and Lieutenants H. J. Heyland, of the 14th, 
and Oliver Brush, of the 89th regiments ; also George Cunning- 



1810.] CAPTURE OF ISLE DE LA PASSE. 329* 

ham, William Eandall, and Charles Davies, masters' mutts. 
On Hearing the gun-boats, a heavy tire was opened on the 
boats, but five out of the six were gallantly boarded and 
carried, and the other blown up. The vessels each mounted 
two brass guns — 32-pounder carronades forward, and long 
eighteens aft ; and had crews of sixty men. The wounded 
in the British boats were — one man dangerously, two 
severely, and eight, including Mr. Eandall, slightly. Com- 
mander Maunsell honourably mentioned the officers present 
with him on the occasion. 

The Iphigenia, Nereide, and gun-brig Staunch, having 
joined Captain Pym, in the Sirius, off the Isle of France^ 
after the success in reducing the Isle of Bourbon, it was 
decided upon to attack Isle de la Passe, a small island lying 
at the entrance of Bourbon harbour (or Port South-east) on 
the east side of the Isle of France, and sheltered on the 
north-east by Point du Diable. On the 10th of August, 
having left Captain Lambert in the Iphigenia, off Port 
Louis, the Sirius, Nereide, and Staunch, with the Iphigenia's 
launch and cutter, and a party of men, under Lieutenant 
Henry D. Chads, arrived off Grand Port. On the same 
evening the boats of the frigates, including those of the 
Iphigenia, containing about 400 men, under the command of 
Captain Willoughby, proceeded to the attack of the Isle de 
la Passe ; but the weather being too boisterous, the boats 
returned to their ships, which, in order to deceive the enemy, 
put to sea, and rejoined Captain Lambert on the other side 
of the island. 

The Sirius again arrived off the island on the 13th of 
August; and Captain Pym, apprehensive that the enemy 
might gain intelligence of his designs, did not wait the 
Neruide's arrival, but, at Sh. p.m., despatched five boats, 
including two from the Iphigenia, containing together 
seventy-one ofiicers and men, commanded by Lieutenant 
George E. Norman, assisted by Lieutenants Henry D. Chads 
and John W. Watling, and Lieutenants of marines James 
Cottell and William Bate. The batteries on Isle de la 
Passe, the circumference of which is about two miles only, 
were all erected in commanding situations with high breast- 
works, and mounted nineteen heavy pieces of ordnance, 
including three 13-inch mortars and two howitzers. The 



330 DEATH OF LIEUTENANT NORMAN. [1810. 

principal landing-place is on the inner or north-west side, 
which was defended by a strong chevaux-de-frise and two 
howitzers. The garrison consisted of two officers and eighty 
soldiers. Before reaching the scene of warfare, however, 
Lieutenant Chads separated from the Sirius's boats, and 
made for another part of the island, where he landed without 
opposition. Just as the Sirius's party got abreast the outer 
battery, the moon, which had been shining brightly, was 
obscured, and the boats were enabled to reach the third bat- 
tery unperceived, when the enemy opened fire upon them, 
which killed and wounded several men. Having reached the 
landing-place, Norman and Watling attempted to scale the 
works,°but were beaten back ; and at the same time Norman 
was shot through the heart. Lieutenant Watling, however, 
made another "attempt, and gained possession of the fort 
after a desperate struggle. After overpowering the enemy, 
he was joined by Lieut. Chads, who, being the senior officer, 
assumed command of the whole. The only loss sustained was 
by the party under Lieutenant Watling, winch amounted 
to five killed and twelve wounded. The French com- 
mandant having omitted to destroy the signals, they fell 
into the hands of the British. 

On the 14th, in the morning, the Nereide and Staunch 
joined company; and, on the 15th, Captain Pym committed 
Isle de la Passe to the charge of Captain Willoughby. 1 

The position of Isle de la Passe, in reference to its con- 
tinuity to the mainland, was not lost upon Captain Wil- 
loughby, who availed himself of every opportunity of harass- 
in o- the enemy by frequent incursions. On the 17th of 
Wust at the head of a party of 170 officers and men, he 
attacked the fort on Point du Diable, which he stormed and 
carried without sustaining any loss ; and after spiking the 
^ms and destroying the carriages and magazine, the party 
moved on along the coast to the town of Grand Port, On 
the 18th, Captain Willoughby destroyed the signal-house at 
Grande Pviviere, and on the 19th and 20th again landed 
with his party ; but while at a great distance from the ship, 
at lOh A.M., five large sail were observed standing down, under 
easy sail, for the Isle de la Passe Channel to Grand Port. 

1 The chagrin of this gallant officer was extreme at firfding the exploit 
which he had set his heart upon achieving already accomplished. 



1810.] ENEMY DECOYED INTO GRAND PORT. 331 

Leaving the remainder of the boats to follow, Captain 
Willoughby departed in his gig, and after a row of five miles, 
reached the Nereide at noon. Having, as before mentioned, 
obtained possession of the French signal-book, Captain Wil- 
loughby, anxious to entice the ships into Grand Port, hoisted 
French colours. He then made the French signal, " the 
enemy is cruising off the Coin de Mire." The French 
frigates replied by making the private signal, which was 
answered from the island. Upon which they made their 
numbers, as the Bellone and Minerve frigates, Yictor sloop, 
and two prizes ; which latter were the Windham and Cey- 
lon, captured on the 4th of July. At lh. 30m. p.m., the 
Victor leading, arrived within pistol-shot of the Nereide, 
when the latter, substituting British for the French ensign, 
opened fire with such effect, that the corvette hailed to say 
she had struck, and anchored on the Nereide's starboard 
quarter. Lieutenant John Burns was sent to take posses- 
sion j but in the meanwhile the Minerve, followed by the 
Ceylon, entered the channel, and, after exchanging broad- 
sides with the Nereide, Captain Bouvet ordered Captain 
Morice, of the Yictor, to rehoist the colours, and follow the 
Minerve, which was accordingly done, and the Victor was 
quickly under sail, in the wake of the Ceylon, steering for 
Grand Port. At about 2h. 40m., the Bellone, exchanging 
a few shot with the battery, steered towards the Nereide, as 
if with the intention of attacking her ; but, after firing a 
broadside, entered the harbour with her consorts. The 
boats which Captain Willoughby had left behind him almost 
miraculously escaped capture, and arrived alongside the 
Nereide in safety. 

Early on the morning of the 21st of August, the Wind- 
ham, which, having separated from the above squadron, had 
steered for the Riviere Noire, was seen from the Sirius, 
while cruising off Port Louis. Lieutenant Watling, unaware 
in the twilight of the real force of the enemy, proceeded 
to board her with the gig and jolly-boat, the latter, with 
a crew of four men, in charge of John Andrews, midship- 
man ; but, owing to some strange oversight, no arms were 
in either boat. Daylight discovered to the boarding party 
a ship of 800 tons, apparently armed with thirty guns, very 
near the French batteries, and distant three miles from the 



332 CAPTAIN PYM AT GRAND PORT. [1810. 

Sirius. Undaunted by these discouragements, Lieutenant 
Watling and the midshipman boarded at the head of their 
men, who, armed with the boats' stretchers only, fought their 
way up the side, and gained possession of the deck. Thus 
was the "Windham, mounting twenty-six guns, commanded 
by a lieutenant de vaisseau, and manned with thirty French 
sailors, captured by eleven unarmed British seamen, within 
shot of the French batteries. As the ]atter very soon 
opened on the Windham, Lieutenant Watling, with his 
little band, was in a critical situation ; but, after sustaining 
their fire for about twenty minutes, by which one French- 
man and three lascars were wounded, the well-won prize was 
brought off. 

Hitherto success had followed success ; but the tide of 
fortune seemed now to have reached its height. Captain 
Willoughby, in the Nereide, at Isle de la Passe, being left in 
a very critical situation, environed with enemies sufficient to 
have annihilated his small force, had a vigorous attempt 
been made, despatched Lieutenant Deacon, in the launch, 
with a note to Captain Pym, who was cruising on the other 
side of the island, stating the arrival of the French ships at 
Grand Port (or Bourbon Harbour), and offering to lead in 
and attack them at their anchorage with one frigate besides 
the Nereidc. Lieutenant Deacon arrived on board the 
Sirius on the 21st, and on the 22nd of August the latter 
made her appearance off Grand Port, and exchanged num- 
bers with the Nereide, still at anchor, and maintaining her 
station under the little island. The Nereide immediately 
hoisted the signals : " Ready for action ;" " Enemy of infe- 
rior force." 

Captain Pym, having decided on making the attack, 
hoisted the signal for the Nereide's master. Mr. Robert 
Lesby accordingly repaired on board, but the black pilot, 
who was the only person acquainted with the channel 
beyond the Isle de la Passe, remained on board the Nereide. 
The Sirius then made sail and bore up with the south-east 
trade-wind for the passage ; and at 2h. 40m. p.m., agreeably 
to a signal to that effect from the Sirius, the Nereide got 
underweigh, and, with her staysails only, followed the Sirius. 
At 4h. the Sirius grounded on the point of a shoal on the 
left-hand side of the channel, and, having much way on her 



1810.] BRITISH SHIPS AGROUND. 333 

at the time, was forced a considerable distance on the bank. 
The Nereide immediately anchored close to her, and, after 
much hard labour, the Sirius was hove off. Nothing more, 
however, could be effected that night. 

On the 23rd, the Iphigenia and Magicienne, Captains 
Henry Lambert and Lucius Curtis, joined company, and the 
four frigates, led by the Nereide, at 4h. 40m. p.m., again 
stood down channel towards Grand Port. The following 
was the order of attack arranged : the Nereide to anchor 
between the Victor (the rearmost ship of the enemy) and 
Bellone ; the Sirius abreast the Bellone ; the Magicienne 
between the Ceylon and Minerve ; and the Iphigenia on the 
broadside of the latter. The Nereide, with only her staysails, 
jibs, and driver set, cleared the winding passage, and stood 
along the edge of the reef which skirts the anchorage, 
directly for her allotted station. The Sirius also weighed; 
but keeping, on this occasion, too much to starboard, touched 
the ground just as the shot of the enemy were beginning to 
reach her, and, having great way on, notwithstanding her 
anchor was let go, ran over the edge of one shoal, and 
remained stationary on a coral rock. The Magicienne and 
Iphigenia successively cleared the channel ; but the former, 
having no pilot, grounded on a bank, when about 400 yards 
from her station, in such a position that only three of her 
foremost guns would bear on the enemy. The Iphigenia, 
taking warning by the Magicienne's mishap, dropped her 
stream anchor, and brought up by the stern in six fathoms ; 
then, letting go a bower anchor under foot, her starboard 
broadside was brought to bear upon the Minerve. 

The Nereide in the meanwhile had begun the action with 
the enemy's rear, and was about to anchor in her appointed 
berth, when Captain Willoughby, observing the accident to 
the Sirius, nobly pushed on and took the station, which was 
to have been occupied by that ship, abreast^ of the Bellone, 
from which she was at no greater distance than 200 yards. 
At oh. 15m. a most severe cannonading commenced between 
the 12-pounder and 18-pounder opponents ; but, to add to 
the great disadvantage of the Nereide, the Victor also 
brought her guns to bear on the British ship. 

The battle now raged with great fury, and at 6h. 15m. 
the Ceylon hauled down her colours; but before a boat 



334 CARNAGE ON BOARD THE NEREIDE. [1810. 

could get alongside to take possession, the ship cut her 
cables and made sail for the shore. But in endeavouring to 
effect this, the Ceylon got foul of the Bellone, and that ship 
also cut her cables and ran aground. At about the same time 
the Minerve, having had her cables cut by shot, made sail in 
the direction of the Bellone, and grounded close to her. The 
Bellone, however, took the ground in such a position that her 
broadside was still presented to the Nereide, upon which ship 
she continued a severe fire. At 7h., the latter's spring having 
been cut by a shot, she swung with her head in shore, and 
became exposed to a severe raking fire, but after a time again 
brought her starboard broadside to bear on the enemy. 

In the early part of the action Captain Willoughby was 
severely wounded on the left cheek by a splinter, which tore 
his eye completely out of the socket. The first lieutenant 
was mortally wounded, the second dangerously, one marine 
officer, two officers of foot, and one of artillery, and the 
greater part of the crew and soldiers either killed or disabled. 
Most of the quarter-deck and many of the main-deck guns 
were dismounted ; and the hull of the ship, in the most 
shattered condition, was striking the ground abaft at every 
heave of the swell. The ship being in this state, and five 
hours having elapsed since the commencement of the action 
without any boat or assistance arriving from any ship of the 
squadron, Captain Willoughby gave orders for the firing to 
cease, and for the small remains of his crew to shelter them- 
selves below from the enemy's fire, which was still kept up 
with vigour. He then sent acting Lieutenant "William 
Weiss to the Sirius, to acquaint Captain Pym with the 
situation of the ship, suggesting at the same time the possi- 
bility of towing the Nereide out of reach of the enemy with 
the boats, or of removing the crew and setting her on fire, 
and by so doing cause great injury, if not destruction, to the 
enemy's ships on shore in a cluster. 

In reply to this message, Captain Pym sent a boat along- 
side the Nereide, requesting Captain Willoughby to abandon 
the ship, and repair on board the Sirius ; but the gallant 
captain, willing to share with his remaining officers and 
crew their danger or imprisonment, sent back word that the 
Nereide had surrendered. Shortly afterwards a boat came 
alongside from the shore to know for what reason the 



1510.] KILLED AND WOUNDED. 335 

Nereide had ceased firing, and was answered that the ship 
had struck ; but the boat, being in a sinking state from 
shot-holes, unable to reach the shore with this answer, 
returned to the Nereide. The Bellone continued her fire, 
and at a little past midnight the Nereide's mainmast fell ; 
but it was not until lh. 50m. a.m. that the fire of the 
French frigate ceased. The Magicienne and Iphigenia, after 
silencing the battery, also ceased firing. 

At daylight on the 24th, the Bellone reopened fire upon 
the Nereide, and although French colours were displayed in 
the fore-rigging in token of surrender, the firing was con- 
tinued. This attack upon a defenceless ship was then 
attributed to the circumstance of a small union-jack, which 
was still flying at the mizen topgallant masthead ; and as 
the rigging was all cut, and the halyards by which it had been 
hoisted shot away, nothing remained but to cut away the 
mast, which was accordingly done, and the firing ceased. 
It was stated in Captain Pyni's official letter, that every 
person on board the Nereide was either killed or wounded ; 
but this proved to be incorrect. The real loss, however, was 
severe enough. Out of 281 officers and men, which were 
on board the Nereide at the commencement of this san- 
guinary battle, she had Lieutenant John Burns, Lieutenants 
Morlett (of the 33 rd) and Aldwinkle (of the Madras 
artillery), one midshipman (George Timmins), and eighty- 
eight seamen, marines, and soldiers killed ; and Captain 
Willoughby, Lieutenant Henry C. Deacon, the master, 
Robert Lesby, Lieutenants Thomas S. Cox (marines) and 
Needhall (of the 69th), Boatswain John Strong, Midshipman 
Samuel Costerton, and 130 seamen, marines, and soldiers 
wounded. Total : killed and wounded, 230 ; leaving just 
fifty-one as the number escaped. This heavy loss is attri- 
buted in some measure to the ship's having been lined with 
fir, which caused an immense number of, splinters. The 
Iphigenia, out of 255 men and boys, had five seamen killed ; 
her first lieutenant (Bobert Tom Blackler) and twelve sea- 
men and marines wounded. The Magicienne, eight men 
killed and twenty wounded ; and the Sirius no loss what- 
ever. On board the French ships the loss amounted to 
thirty-seven officers and men killed, and 112 wounded. 
The Magicienne being found immovable, and having much 



33 SURRENDER OF THE BRITISH FORCE. [1810. 

water in her hold, was set on fire, and blew up with her 
colours flying at llh. p.m. on the 24th. 

The Iphigenia was warped out and anchored near the 
Shins without recommencing hostilities. After every effort 
had been used to get the Sirius afloat without avail, a 
quantity of her stores was removed to the Iphigenia, with 
her crew and that of the Magicienne, and she was set on fire, 
and at llh. a.m. on the 25th blew up. After great exertion, 
the Iphigenia was warped out of the channel and anchored 
■off the Isle de la Passe, at 8h. 30m. p.m. on the 26th. 

On the 27th all the ships in Grand Port were observed to 
be afloat, and three frigates were discovered in the offing, 
upon which the Iphigenia cleared for action ; and having 
sent to the island all except about 400 or 500 men, made 
preparations to receive the enemy. The French squadron 
consisted of the frigates Venus, Astree, and Manche, and 
Entreprenante brig, under Commodore Hammelin, which had 
sailed from Port Louis at midnight on the 21st, to relieve 
the squadron in Grand Port, but had been thwarted by foul 
winds. At lh. p.m. the French squadron hove to off the 
island, and Commodore Hammelin summoned Captain Lam- 
bert to surrender at discretion. This was refused ; but 
Captain Lambert offered to surrender the island provided 
the Iphigenia were allowed to retire to a British port with 
the officers and men ; but these terms were refused, and on 
the 28th a proposal from General Decaen, to send the British 
to the Cape of Good Hope, was agreed to, and the British 
colours were hauled down. 

Captains Pym. Lambert, and Curtis, being removed with 
their officers and men to Port Louis, were treated infamously, 
and plundered of almost everything they possessed. On the 
capture of the Isle of France in the succeeding December, 
the four captains and their surviving officers and men were 
tried by a court-martial on board the Illustrious, at Port 
Louis, for the loss of their respective ships, and most honour- 
ably acquitted ; the court further stating it as their opinion, 
that " the Nereide was carried into battle in a most judicious, 
officer-like, and gallant manner ; expressing at the same 
time its " high admiration of the noble conduct of the cap- 
tain, officers, and ship's company, during the whole of their 
unequal contest. 5 ' 



1810.] BOATS OF DREADNOUGHT OFF USHANT. 337 

On the 29th of August, being off the island of Alderney, 
the hired armed cutter Queen Charlotte, mounting eight 
4-pounders, with a crew of twenty-seven men, Joseph 
Thomas, master, fought a very gallant action with a large 
French 16-gun cutter, having on board a crew of 120 men. 
The action lasted from 3h. 30m. to 5h. p.m., when the French 
cutter hauled off to the north-east, leaving the Queen Char- 
lotte in a disabled state, with her boatswain killed and four- 
teen wounded. The opponent of the Queen Charlotte was 
the Swan, formerly a British revenue cruiser, and had been 
lengthened, so that she then measured 200 tons. The Queen 
Charlotte was a vessel of seventy-nine tons only, and her 
gallant and successful resistance of so formidable an enemy 
was highly praiseworthy. Among the badly wounded was 
P. A. Mulgrave, a passenger, who, although painfully hurt, 
refused to quit the deck, but continued to render all the 
service in Ins power, by supplying those near him with 
ammunition. 

On the 8th of September, the 98-gun ship Dreadnought, 
Captain Valentine Collard, bearing the flag of Bear- Admiral 
Sotheby, while cruising off the coast of France, observed a 
.ship anchored in a small creek on the west side of Ushant. 
At daybreak on the morning of the 9 th, seven boats were 
despatched under Lieutenant Thomas Pettman. On approach- 
ing, they were received by a heavy fire of musketry from a 
number of troops concealed among the rocks, and from two 
field-pieces on the beach ; but, dashing on, they boarded and 
gained possession of the ship. About 600 soldiers, assembled 
on a precipice over the vessel, kept up a destructive fire upon 
the British, by which a loss was sustained of Master's mate 
Henry B. Middleton, William Robinson, midshipman, two 
seamen, and two marines killed ; and Lieutenants Henry 
Elton and Stewart Blackler, George Burt and Henry Dennis, 
midshipmen, eighteen seamen, and nine marines wounded ; 
and five seamen and one marine missing. Total : six killed, 
thirty-one wounded, and six missing or made prisoners. Two 
of the boats drifted on shore, and were taken possession of 
by the enemy. 

On the 5th of September, in the morning, as the 38-gun 
frigate Surveillante, Captain George Ralph Collier, and gun- 
brig Constant, Lieutenant John Stokes, were off" the Mor- 

VOL. II. z 



338 BOATS OF SURVEILLANCE, ETC. [1810. 

bihan, a French convoy was observed escaping from that 
river, and making off to the southward. The British ships 
lost no time in pursuing, and a part of the convoy re-entered 
the river. One brig, however, anchored for protection close 
under the rocks, and between the batteries of St. Guildas 
and St. Jaques. Captain Collier then despatched the boats 
in command of Lieutenant the Honourable James Arbuthnot, 
assisted by Master's mate John Illingworth, and Midshipmen 
John Kingdom, Digby Marsh, Edwin F. Stanhope, William 
Crowder, John Watt, and Herbert Ashton, to attempt the 
destruction of the brig. In addition to the guns of the 
batteries, the boats had to contend against a body of troops 
stationed in the caverns near the brig, and also field-pieces ; 
but, undeterred by this formidable opposition, the vessel was 
boarded, her cables and hawsers cut, and brought out without 
any loss on the part of her captors. Captain Collier, in his 
official letter, made very handsome allusion to the important 
service rendered by the Constant, Lieutenant Stokes, who 
with great skill navigated his brig between the rocks, and 
by her well-directed fire upon the enemy, doubtless saved the 
frigate's boats from severe loss. 

On the following night Captain Collier sent away two 
boats, in command of Mr. Illingworth, assisted by Midship- 
men John Kiugdom and Hector Rose, to destroy a watch- 
tower and 1-gun battery lately erected at the mouth of the 
river Crache. The service was performed with great gal- 
lantry, in broad daylight ; for, having first decoyed the 
guard from the batteiy, the British attacked and drove them 
from the beach, spiked the gun (a long 2 4 -pounder), and 
levelled the whole building with the ground. Mr. Illingworth 
was very deservedly promoted on the 1st of August, 1811. 

On the 10th of September the 18-pounder 38-gun frigate 
Africaine, Captain Robert Corbet, arrived at Bourbon, and 
joined Commodore Rowley's squadron. On the 11th she 
chased a French schooner off the Isle Ronde, Isle of France, 
which she drove on shore in a small creek. Two boats from 
the frigate, commanded by Lieutenant George Forder and 
Jenkin Jones, master's mate, were sent in, and boarded the 
schooner ; but she was so effectually defended by a body of 
soldiers on each bank of the narrow creek, that the British 
were compelled to abandon her, with the loss of two men 



1810.] AFEICAINE WITH FRENCH FRIGATES. 339 

killed, and Lieutenant of marines James Jackson (2), Hemy 
Sewell, midshipman, and fourteen men wounded. 

On the morning of the 1 2th, the Africaine having returned 
to Bourbon to land her wounded, two frigates and a brig 
were observed to windward, which were the French 
18-pounder 38-gun frigates Iphigenie (late Iphigenia) and 
Astree, and Entreprenante brig, standing in towards St. Denis, 
as if disposed to offer battle. Commodore "Rowley, in the 
Boadicea, accompanied by the 18-gun sloop Otter, Commander 
James Tomkinson, and gun-brig Staunch, Lieutenant Ben- 
jamin Street, weighed from St. Paul's Bay and proceeded in 
chase of the French frigates, and shortly afterwards the 
Boadicea made her number to the Africaine. The enemy's 
frigates at this time bore from the latter north, distant about 
eight miles. The Africaine then made sail on a wind in 
chase of the French ships, and at 6h. 20m. p.m. lost sight of 
the Boadicea, as did the latter of the Otter and Staunch. 
At 7h. 30m. the Africaine had arrived within about two 
miles of the weather quarter of the French frigates, and her 
superiority of sailing was such as to enable her to keej:> way 
with them under topsails and foresail. As it grew dark, the 
Africaine threw up rockets to indicate her position to the 
Boadicea. 

At lh. 50m. a.m. on the 13th, in the midst of a heavy 
squall, the French frigates bore up, followed by the Africaine ; 
and at 2h. 10m., the enemy having again hauled to the wind, 
the Africaine found herself within musket-shot on the 
weather and starboard quarter of the Astree. The Boadicea 
was now about five miles distant on the lee quarter of the 
Africaine. Captain Corbet, anxious to prevent the enemy 
from entering I*ort Louis, from winch they were not far 
distant, determined to commence the imequal contest ; and 
at 2h. 20m. a double-shotted broadside was fired into the 
Astree. This the French frigate immediately returned ; and 
at the second broadside Captain Corbet was mortally wounded, 
a shot striking off his right foot above the ancle, and a splin- 
ter causing a compound fracture of the thigh. The command 
then devolved upon Lieutenant Joseph Crew Tullidge, who 
received Captain Corbet's injunction, as he was being carried 
below, to bring the enemy to close action. At 2h. 30m. the 
Astree, having her jib-boom shot away, and the clue of her 

z2 



340 CAPTURE OF THE AFRICAINE. [1810. 

fore-topsail cut, filled and ranged ahead ; and the Iphigenie 
then bore up, and took a station on the lee quarter of her 
consort. The breeze having freshened, the Africaine boldly 
ran between the two .ships to windward of the Iphigenie, 
and opened fire upon this fresh opponent, from her larboard 
guns, having at the same time the Astree on her weather 
bow. At 3h. 30m. the Africaine had her jib-boom and fore- 
topmast shot away, and shortly afterwards her mizen-top- 
mast. Lieutenant Tullidge, although severely wounded in 
four places, refused to quit the deck ; the next officer in 
seniority, Lieutenant Forder, had been shot through the 
breast with a musket-ball and carried below ; and at 4h. the 
master had his head taken off by a round shot. At 4h. 
45m. a.m., at which time her three lower masts were in a 
tottering state, her hull dreadfully shattered, and the decks 
covered with killed and wounded, the Africaine ceased firing. 
Being in this disabled state, and finding at daylight that the 
Boadicea was still more than four miles to leeward, the 
Africaine at about 5h. hauled down her colours ; but the 
enemy continued to fire on the surrendered ship for some 
minutes, and Captain Elliott, and several men, were killed in 
consequence. 

In this tremendous conflict, the Africaine, out of 295 men 
and boys, including a lieutenant and twenty-five soldiers of 
the 8Gth regiment, had her master, Samuel Parker, Captain 
Elliott, of the army, twenty- eight seamen, fourteen marines, 
and five soldiers killed ; and Captain Corbet (mortally), Lieu- 
tenants Tullidge and George Forder, Lieutenants James 
Jackson (marines) and Home (85th regiment), John Theed 
and Jenkin Jones, masters' mates, Charles Mercier and 
Robert Leech, midshipmen, seventy-six seamen, twelve 
marines, and seventeen soldiers, wounded. Total : forty- 
nine killed, and 114 wounded. The acknowledged loss of 
the French frigates was ten killed and twenty-five wounded; 
but this is supposed to be much less than that really sus- 
tained. The Africaine being totally dismasted, was taken 
possession of by the French ; but recaptured on the afternoon 
of the same day by the Boadicea and consorts. Lieutenant 
Tullidge was tried by court-martial for surrendering the shij3, 
and with the surviving officers most honourably acquitted, 
and complimented upon the gallant conduct evinced upon 



1810.] CEYLON AND VENUS. 341 

this occasion. It is gratifying to know that Lieutenant 
Tullidge received the just reward of his bravery by promotion 
to the rank of commander on the 1st August, 1811. 

The Boadicea, accompanied by the Africaine, Otter, and 
Staunch, anchored in St. Paul's Bay on the 15th. 

On the 17th of September, the 18-pounder 32-gun frigate 
Ceylon (of 670 tons, built for an East-Indiaman), Captain 
Charles Gordon, arrived off Port Louis from Madras, in ex- 
pectation of falling in with the Boadicea ; but, after recon- 
noitring the port, made sail for Bourbon. At lh. 15m. p.m. 
Commodore Hammelin, in the 18-pounder 40-gun frigate 
Venus, accompanied by the lC-gun corvette Victor, weighed 
in pursuit of the Ceylon, and at 2h. p.m. were descried from 
the Ceylon in chase of her. The British frigate continued 
steering west by south, hoping to reach Bourbon, where Cap- 
tain Gordon doubted not he should find the Boadicea. The 
Venus, however, overtook the Ceylon at lh. 15m. a.m. on the 
18th, and commenced the action. A running fight was 
maintained with much spirit, until 4h. 30m., by which time 
the Victor had also arrived up, and commenced taking part 
in the action. Having lost fore and main-topmasts and gaff, 
and being otherwise much disabled, the Ceylon then hauled 
down her colours. The loss on board the Ceylon, out of a 
crew of 295 men and boys, amounted to six seamen and four 
soldiers of the 69th killed ; and Captain Gordon (severely), 
William Oliver, master, Captain Boss, of the 69th, Boatswain 
Andrew Graham, seventeen seamen, one marine, and nine 
soldiers wounded. Total : ten killed and thirty-one wounded. 
The mizenmast, and fore and main-topmasts of the Venus 
were shot away, but her loss is not stated. 

At 7h. 30m. a.m. of the same day, Commodore R-owley, 
with the Boadicea, Otter, and Staunch, discovered the two 
French ships and their prize abreast of St. Denis ; and having 
received fifty volunteers from the Africaine, weighed and 
made sail in chase. At 8h. a.m. the Victor took the Ceylon 
in tow ; but at 3h. 30m. p.m., finding the British gain rapidly 
in the pursuit, the Victor removed her men from the prize, 
and hauled up to join the Venus. The latter then stood 
towards the Boadicea, and the corvette made sail towards the 
Isle of Prance. At 4h. 40m. p.m. the Boadicea ran the 
Venus alongside, and after ten minutes' engagement, in which 



342 BOATS OF CALEDONIA, ETC. IN BASQUE ROADS. [1810- 

the British frigate had two men wounded, and the "Venus 
nine killed and fifteen wounded, the latter hauled down her 
colours. The Boadicea taking the Yenus in tow, and the 
Otter the Ceylon, returned to the Isle of Bourbon. Captain 
Gordon subsequently resumed the command of the Ceylon, 
and being tried by court-martial for her loss, was most 
honourably acquitted. The Venus, a fine ship of 1,100 tons, 
was taken into the British service, and, to perpetuate the 
name of Captain "VVilloughby's gallantly-defended ship, was 
called the Nereide. The recapture of the Ceylon, and cap- 
ture of the Yenus, entitles those serving in the Boadicea, 
Otter, and Staunch, to the naval medal. 

On the night of the 27th of September, the boats of the 
120-gun ship Caledonia, Captain Sir Harry Neale ; 74-gun 
slnp Yaliant, Captain Robert D. Oliver ; and 38-gun frigate 
Armide, Captain Bichard D. Dunn, at anchor in Basque 
Roads, were sent away under the orders of Lieutenant 
Arthur P. Hamilton, of the Caledonia, to destroy three brigs 
lying under the protection of a battery at Pointe clu Che. 
A division of 130 marines, under Captains Thomas Sherman 
and Archibald McLachlan, Lieutenants John Coulter, John 
Couche, and Robert Little, the latter of the marine artillery, 
were ordered to effect a landing, and attack the battery, and 
a large body of troops assembled for the protection of the 
vessels. At 5h. 30m. a.m. the marines were landed, the 
battery carried, and the guns spiked. The troops were 
routed at the point of the bayonet by Captain Sherman and 
the marines, and two of the brigs captured, and the third 
destroyed by the seamen. The marines re-embarked without 
losing a man ; but one private was wounded, and Lieutenant 
Little, in attempting to cut down the sentinel at the entrance 
of the battery, received the contents of his musket in his 
right hand, which rendered amputation necessary. Those 
present in the above action are entitled to the naval medal. 

On the night of the 28th of September, Commander Robert 
Hall, of the 14-gun brig Rambler, lying in Gibraltar Bay, 
having been detached with some gun-boats in quest of 
enemy's privateers, after a pull of twenty hours, landed with 
thirty officers and men, near the entrance of the river Bar- 
bate, Tarifa. After traversing the sand-hills, to get at a 
large French privateer, protected by two G-pounders and 



1810.] BRISEIS AND SANS SOUCI. 343 

thirty dragoons, in addition to her own crew, Captain Hall 
and his party commenced the attack, and after some sharp 
firing the enemy retreated, with the loss of five dragoons and 
two seamen killed. . The privateer was brought out. 

On the 14th of October, the 10-gun brig Briseis, acting 
Commander George Bentham, cruising in the North Sea, 
chased the French 14-gun schooner privateer Sans Souci. 
After a run of eight and an action of one hour's duration, 
the privateer surrendered, having had eight men killed and 
nineteen wounded. The Briseis had one master's mate, 
Alexander Gunn, James Davidson, captain's clerk, and two 
seamen killed, and eleven men wounded. Commander Ben- 
tham was confirmed in his rank for this action ; and the 
naval medal is granted to the participators in the victory. 

On the 25th of October, the 10-gun brig Calliope, Com- 
mander John McKerlie, captured, in the North Sea, the 
Countesse d'Hambourg, French schooner privateer of four- 
teen guns and fifty-one men, after a chase of two hours and 
a smart running action. The schooner's mainmast was shot 
away, and she was otherwise much shattered ; her loss is not 
mentioned, but the Calliope had three men wounded. 

On the 27th of October, when about twenty leagues south- 
west of Scilly, the 16-gun brig Orestes, Commander John R. 
Lapenotiere, captured the French brig privateer Loup-Garou, 
of sixteen guns and 100 men, after an hour's running action, 
in which the privateer had four men wounded. 

On the 4th of November, while the 18-gun corvette 
Blossom, Commander William Stewart, was cruising off Cape 
Sicie, she chased a xebeck, and it falling calm, two boats were 
despatched in pursuit, in which were Lieutenant Samuel 
Davies, Richard Hambly, master's mate, and John Marshall, 
midshipman. About 7h. a.m. the privateer, which was the 
Caesar, of four guns and fifty-nine men, opened a fire upon 
the boats, killing Lieutenant Davis and $hree seamen, and 
wounding Mr. Hambly and four men. With the twenty-six 
men left, Mr. Marshall continued the pursuit, and gallantly 
boarded and carried the privateer, with the addition of five 
men wounded. The enemy had four men killed and nine 
wounded. Mr. Hambly was promoted on the 19th of 
January following. This is a naval medal boat action. 

On the 8th of November, the boats of the 32-gun frigate 



344 PHIPPS AND BARBIER DE SEVILLE. [1810'. 

Quebec, Captain Sibthorpe J. Hawtayne, commanded by- 
Lieutenant Stephen Popham, assisted by Lieutenant Richard 
A. Yates, and John McDonald, master's mate, attacked and 
captured the French schooner privateer Jeune-Louise, of four- 
teen guns and thirty-five men, at anchor within the Vlie- 
stroom, in the Texel. The boats, previously to effecting this, 
unfortunately grounded on the sand, within pistol-shot of the 
schooner ; and in that situation received some broadsides 
and musketry. The French captain, Galien Lafont, fell in 
personal conflict with Lieutenant Yates. The British loss 
amounted to two men (one killed and one drowned), and one 
wounded. Besides the officers above named, there were pre- 
sent in the boats, Gilbert Duncan, captain's clerk, and Charles 
Ward, volunteer, first class. 

On the 15th of November, at llh. 40m. p.m., the 14-gun 
schooner Phipps, Commander Christopher Bell, chased a lug- 
ger privateer into Calais ; and early on the morning of the 
16th, the Phipps fell in with, and commenced a running 
action with another lugger, which she chased so close to the 
shore, that at 5h. 30m. a.m.. in order to prevent her running 
on the rocks, the Phipps ran her on board. Pouring in her 
broadside, Lieutenant Robert Tryon, with Patrick Wright, 
master's mate, and Peter Geddes, boatswain, at the head of 
a party of seamen, boarded, and in a few minutes carried the 
lugger, which proved to be the Barbier-de-Seville, mounting 
sixteen guns, with a crew of sixty men. Lieutenant Tryon 
was mortally wounded, and one seaman was killed. The 
privateer had six killed and eleven wounded, and was so 
much shattered, that she sank soon after her capture, carry- 
ing with her one of the crew of the Phipps. 

On the 3rd of December, the Isle of France capitulated to 
a squadron under the command of Vice-Admiral Bertie, 
whose nag was flying on board the Africaine, consisting of 
the following : — 

Guns. Ships. 

74 Illustrious . . Captain William Broughton 

( Cornwallis . . ,, James Caulfield 

j Africaine . . ,, Chas. Gordon (act.) 

., . j Boadicea .... ,, Josias Bowley 

iNisua „ Philip Beaver 

Clorinde .... „ Thomas Briggs 

Menelaus . . „ Peter Parker 



Frigates - 



1810.] CAPTURE OF THE ISLE OF FRANCE. 345 

Ships. 
' Xt'reide .... Captain Robt. Henderson (act.) 
Phoebe .... ,, James Hillyar 

Doris „ Wm, Jones Lye 

Cornelia .... ,, Henry F. Edgell 
Psyche .... ,, John Edgecumbe 

, Ceylon .... ,, James Tomkinson (act.) 

Sloops, &c. — Hesper, Commander Wm. Paterson ; Eclipse, Commander 
Henry Lynne (act.) ; Hecate, Commander Geo. Rennie (act.) ; Actseon, 
Commander Viscount Neville ; Staunch, Lieut. Benjamin Street ; 
Emma, 1 Lieut. Hector Craig. 

Also a fleet of transports containing 10,000 troops, under 
Major-General Abercromby. This capture was effected after 
some severe skirmishing, and was attended with the loss on 
the part of the British of twenty-eight killed, ninety-four 
wounded, and forty-five missing. The French regulars 
amounted to 1,300, and the militia to 10,000 men ; the island 
was defended by 209 cannon. In Port Louis were found the 
40-gun frigates Bellone, Minerve, Manche, Astree, Nereide, 
and Iphigenie, corvette Victor, and brig Entreprenante ; also 
the Charlton, Ceylon, and United Kingdom, late English 
Indiamen, and twenty-four French merchant ships. The 
Bellone under the name of Junon, the Astree under that of 
Pomone, and the Iphigenie under her English name, were 
added to the British navy ; but the Nereide was found in so 
bad a state that she was sold to be broken up. 

On the 10th of December, in the evening, the 10-gun brig 
Bosario, Commander Booty Harvey, cruising off Dungeness, 
fell in with two French lugger privateers. The Bosario 
immediately ran one alongside, which was boarded and taken 
possession of by Lieutenant Thomas Daws, at the head of a 
party of men. The prize was the Mamelouck, of sixteen 
guns and forty-five men, seven of whom were wounded. The 
Bosario had two men severely, and three slightly wounded. 

On the 12th of December, the 4-pounder 8-gun cutter 
Entreprenante, the crew of which consisted, of thirty-three 
men and boys, Lieutenant Peter Williams, while lying be- 
calmed, near Malaga, was attacked by four large French 
privateers — one of six guns and seventy-five men ; a second 
of five guns and forty-five men ; and the others of two heavy 
guns and twenty-five men each. At llh. a.m. the firing 

1 Supposed to have foundered off Madagascar in 1811. 



346 RINALDO AND FRENCH PRIVATEERS. [1810. 

commenced on both sides, and was continued until 2k. 45m. 
p.m., during which time three ineffectual attempts were made 
to board the cutter ; but being repulsed with the utmost 
gallantly, the privateers took to their oars, and swept away, 
fired at by the cutter as long as her shot would reach. The 
Entreprenante had one man killed and ten wounded ; several 
of her guns were dismounted, and her spars and rigging very 
much cut. Notwithstanding his extremely good and gallant 
conduct, which preserved the cutter from capture, Lieutenant 
Williams, though of ten years' standing, had to wait four 
years longer for his promotion. 

On the 7th of December, in the evening, the 10-gun brig 
Rinaldo, Commander James Anderson, while cruising off 
Dover, observed two large luggers standing towards the 
English coast. On seeing the Rinaldo, they endeavoured to 
cross the brig, and regain their own shores ; but perceiving 
the design, the Einaldo, after a smart action, ran the nearest 
one on board, her jib-boom passing under the lugger's jib- 
stay. The French crew, which in number greatly exceeded 
the EAnaldo's, then attempted to board ; but being repulsed 
with loss, the lugger was boarded and captured by Lieutenant 
Edward G. Palmer, who was severely wounded in the con- 
test. The prize was the Maraudeur, of fourteen guns and 
eighty-five men. The other vessel escaped into Calais. 

On the 17th of December, at 3h. 30m. p.m., while stand- 
ing out from St. Helen's, on her way to Dover, the Einaldo 
discovered four luggers in the offing, with their sails lowered ; 
and in order to decoy them after him, Captain Anderson 
stood in shore, and trimmed sails so as to permit them to 
approach after dark. At 5h. p.m., the Ower's light bearing 
west-north-west, distant half a mile, the two largest luggers 
ranged up under the Rinaldo's stern, and firing their broad- 
sides, hailed, and in a very abusive manner ordered her to 
surrender. The Einaldo being fully prepared for the salute, 
tacked and poured a broadside into each of them : she then 
wore round, and, when within pistol-shot of the largest, fired 
a second broadside. The effect of this was to bring down the 
lugger's masts and sails, and to make the crew call for 
quarter, who hailed that the vessel was sinking, and desired 
that boats might be sent to their assistance. The second 
lugger now bore up, apparently intending to board the 



1810.] BOATS OF KENT, ETC. AT PALAMOS. 347 

Rinaldo, but she was soon compelled to haul off; and 
having lowered her sails, the crew hailed to say that they 
had struck. While wearing round and manning her boats 
to send to the sinking prize, the Rinaldo was carried by the 
current foul of the Ower's light vessel, and the second lug- 
ger, which had surrendered, taking advantage of this acci- 
dent, rehoisted her sails and escaped. The largest lugger 
went down, and out of a crew of seventy men, only the 
captain and two were saved. The vessel's name was Vieille 
Josephine, and mounted sixteen guns. 

On the 13th of December, a party, consisting of 3-50 
seamen and 250 marines, from the 74-gun ships Kent, 
Captain Thomas Rogers ; Ajax, Captain Robert W. Otway ; 
frigate Cambrian, Captain Francis W. Fane ; and corvettes 
Sparrowhawk and Minstrel, Commanders James Pringle and 
Colin Campbell, the whole under the command of Captain 
Fane, landed near the Mole of Palamos, on the south coast 
of Spain, for the purpose of destroying an armed ketch, 
some xebecks and merchant vessels, lying under the protection 
of two batteries. The batteries and magazines were de- 
stroyed, and the vessels brought off with a trifling loss ; 
but, unfortunately, in returning to the ships, the men, in- 
stead of retiring along the beach, where they would have 
been covered by the lire of the corvettes, took their road 
through the town. Id consequence of this inconsiderate 
step, they became exposed to a murderous fire from the 
French troops, who had posted themselves in the houses, 
by which two officers, nineteen seamen, and twelve marines 
were killed ; and fifteen officers, forty-two seamen, and 
thirty-two marines wounded. ; and two officers, forty-one 
seamen, and forty-three marines made prisoners. Total : 
thirty-three killed, eighty-nine wounded, and eighty-seven 
prisoners. Captain Fane, who remained on the mole-head 
to the last in the performance of his duty, was among the 
latter. 



348 BOATS OF CERBERUS AND ACTIVE. [1811. 



1811. 

On the 4th of February, the boats of the frigates Cerbe- 
rus and Active, Captains Henry Whitby and James A. 
Gordon, were despatched, under the command of Lieutenant 
George Haye, of the latter ship, to board four vessels, lying 
in the port of Pestichi, on the coast of Italy. Three of the 
vessels were brought out, and the fourth burnt, with no loss 
to the British. 

On the 12th, the boats of the same frigates were sent 
away, under the orders of Lieutenant James Dickenson, of 
the Cerberus, assisted by Lieutenants George Haye and George 
C. Urmston, and Master's mates James Gibson and Samuel 
Hennie, together with a party of marines, under Lieutenant 
John Meares, to bring out some vessels at anchor in the 
harbour of Ortona. At lOh. A.M., the boats having ap- 
proached the mole, a fire of great guns and musketry was 
opened from a trabacculo, mounting six guns, and from sol- 
diers posted on the beach and hills. The British responded 
to this salute by three cheers, and, dashing on, boarded and 
carried the trabacculo in a few minutes. The party then 
landed, and having driven the enemy before them, ten- 
vessels, laden with wheat, oil, &c, were captured, and the 
magazines containing stores destroyed. This service was 
attended with no severer casualty than four men wounded. 

On the evening of the 4th of March, Commodore Du- 
bourdieu, who in the month of October last entered the 
harbour of Ancona, sailed from that port with a squadron of 
six large frigates, one 16-gun brig, a 10-gun schooner, G-gun 
xebeck, and two gun-boats, having on board about 500 troops, 
intended to garrison Lissa (a small island on the coast of 
Dalmatia) as soon as they should have gained possession of 
it. Early on the morning of the 13th, Commodore Dubour- 
dieu came in sight of the British squadron, at this time 
about a mile from the entrance of Port St. George. At 



3 811.] ACTION OFF LISSA. 349 

4h. a.m. the extremes of the island of Lissa bore from the 
Amphion east by south and south by west, and at Gh. the 
Franco- Venetian squadron bore down to the attack, in two 
divisions, in the following order : — 



STARBOARD, OR WEATHER DIVISION. 
Guns. Ships. 
. A \ Favorite (commodore) 
40 j Flore 

32 Bellona (Venetian) 
1 6 M ercure 



LARBOARD, OR LEE DIVISION. 
Guns. Ships. 
4 ~ j Danae 

( Corona (Venetian) 
32 Carolina (Venetian) 
A schooner, xebeck, and gun-boats 



The British ships, under top-gallant sails and jib, each, 
with a red ensign at the peak, and decorated with the union 
jack and an ensign at the foremast head and on the different 
stays, were quickly formed in line ahead in the following 
order : — 

Guns. Ships. 

32 Amphion Captain William Hoste 

3S Active „ James A. Gordon 

28 Volage ,, Phipps Hornby 

32 Cerberus „ Henry Whitby 

The enemy's squadron was composed of four large 
18-pounder 40-gun 1,100 ton frigates, and Wo 12-pounder 
32-gun frigates of 700 tons. The 40-gun frigates mounted 
from forty-eight to fifty guns each, and the 32-gun frigates 
thirty-six guns, including twenty-four long 12-pounders on 
the main deck ; besides which, the small vessels mounted 
together thirty-six guns. At the lowest estimate, this 
squadron had on board 2,500 men. The British squadron 
consisted of three 18-pounder frigates : the Active, of 1,058 
tons, mounting forty-four guns; Amphion, of 914 tons, 
mounting forty-two guns; and Cerberus, of 816 tons and 
thirty-eight guns; and the Volage, of 529 tons, rated as a 
22-gun ship, and armed with twenty-two 32-pounder car- 
ronades on the main deck, and four 18-pounder carronades 
and two long 6-pounders on the quarter-deck and forecastle. 
The crews of the above ships did not exceed 880 in all. The 
actual force of the contending parties may therefore be 
thus stated : British, 152 guns, 880 men : Franco- Venetians, 
300 guns, and 2,500 men : showing a superiority in favour 
of the enemy of 146 guns and 1,620 men ; or, taking into 
consideration the overwhelming number of men, of more 
than half. 



350 ACTION OFF LISSA. [1811. 

Notwithstanding this disparity, which was well known to 
Captain Hoste, he made no effort to decline the combat ; 
but ; on the contrary, with his gallant companions, exulted in 
the prospect of a meeting for which they had for many 
months eagerly longed. With his ships formed in line on 
the starboard tack, in the order already stated, so compact 
that the flying jib-boom of the one was only a few feet from 
the spanker of the other, Captain Hoste gallantly offered 
battle to the enemy. Emulating the immortal Nelson, under 
whom he had first learned to meet a foe, Captain Hoste 
determined to try the effect of a signal, which, while it on 
his part served to show a grateful remembrance of his 
former commander and patron, might also knit by still 
stronger bonds the captains, officers, and seamen under his 
command. He therefore telegraphed " Remember Nelson." 
The meaning of the flags was no sooner known than it was 
received with hearty and enthusiastic cheers. 

At 9h. the Amphion and Active opened fire upon the 
Favorite. The relative positions of the two squadrons at 
this period we endeavour to illustrate by a diagram. 



\ 



MER 



car: pC 



fc* 0. 



favor: T^yC 

r 



9hI0m.A,V. 



-^ ^§?-*§H$& 



At 9h. 10m., the Favorite beinj* close on the weathei 



1811.] ACTION OFF LISSA. 351 

beam of the Amphion, evinced an intention to lay her on 
board ; but the vigorous fire opened upon her by that 
frigate, and in particular the discharge of about 750 nmsket- 
balls from a 5^-inch howitzer on the quarter-deck, which 
caused great havoc among the French crew assembled on the 
Favorite's forecastle, induced the commodore to forego it, and 
to haul to the wind in a parallel course with the British. 
The rate of sailing of the British frigates was about three 
miles an hour, and as they continued to stand close-hauled, 
all the enemy's ships being unable to cut their compact line, 
were obliged also to haul up. This enabled the Danae, and 
subsequently the Corona and Carolina, to open their broad- 
sides on the Yolage and Cerberus, which ships returned 
their fire with great spirit. 

At 9h. 40m. the Amphion, being within half a cable's 
length of the north-west shore of Lissa, made the signal 
for the squadron to wear together. The Favorite being on 
the weather bow of the Amphion, in endeavouring to wear 
and get to leeward of the British line, struck on the rocks 
and bilged. The Cerberus having had her rudder-head choked 
by a shot, was some time in coming round, in consequence of 
which the Volage was under the necessity of passing under 
her stern, and thus became the leading ship on the larboard 
tack. The Flore having sustained very slight damage to. her 
sails, wore round under the stern of the Amphion, and hauled 
up on her lee quarter, and at about the same time the Bel- 
lone took a station on the Amphion's weather quarter, and 
both opened a heavy fire. The Danae now wore, and was 
followed by the Corona and Carolina, the Danae taking her 
station abeam of the Yolage, and her followers on the bow 
and quarter of the Cerberus. 

Thus all except the Active became closely engaged. The 
Yolage nobly maintained her station, and the character of a 
frigate which she was thus called upon to support, and with 
her 32-pounder carronades dealt such destruction on the 
decks of her antagonist, that the Danae kept a close luff to 
seek a greater range, by which her long guns would retain 
their advantage. The Cerberus was ninety men short of 
complement, and suffered very severely in her unequal contest 
with her two antagonists ; but the Active, having made sail, 
was at length enabled to get up to the assistance of her 



352 ACTION OFF LISSA. [1811. 

friends in the van, and as she approached, the Danae, Corona, 
and Carolina bore up to the eastward and made sail. 

The Amphion in the meanwhile had suffered much from 
the fire of her two opponents ; and, in order to lessen his 
disadvantages, Captain Hoste gradually edged off the wind 
to close the Flore. Crossing her bows within half pistol- 
shot, the Amphion again hauled up on the larboard tack, 
and brought her broadside to bear on the Flore's starboard 
bow. This was about llh. 10m., and after continuing the 
fire for about ten minutes, the Flore struck her colours. The 
Bellona, when the Amphion bore up, followed her example, 
and taking a station across the Amphion's stern, maintained 
a destructive fire. Unable to take possession of the Flore, 
in consequence of the damage done to her running rigging, 
which prevented her from hoisting out a boat, and her stern 
and quarter boats being knocked to pieces, the Amphion 
turned her attention to the Bellona, and having with diffi- 
culty wore round on the starboard tack, took up a position 
on the weather bow of that ship, which, at a few minutes 
before noon, was also compelled to haul down her colours. 
Lieutenant Donat H. O'Brien, in a small punt, then pro- 
ceeded to take possession of the prize. Captain Hoste per- 
ceiving the enemy flying in all directions, made the signal for 
a general chase, which, however, could only apply to the 
Active, as no other ship was in a condition to chase. The 
Amphion then came to the wind on the larboard tack, to 
leeward of the Cerberus and Yolage. 

The Flore, after the Amphion and other ships ceased to 
fire at her, had by degrees been making sail, and was now 
out of gun-shot to windward, when, taking advantage of her 
situation, and of the disabled state of her captor, she crowded 
all sail, and effected an escape into Lessina. The Active was 
in a situation to have sunk the Flore ; but, perceiving that 
she had surrendered, Captain Gordon made sail in chase of 
the Corona. After receiving a galling fire as she approached, 
the Active at lh. 4om. p.m. succeeded in setting alongside 

o o c 

the Corona to leeward, when an action commenced, which 
was maintained with great spirit until 2h. 30m., when the 
Corona surrendered. The Carolina and Danae had by this 
time got under the protection of the batteries of Lessina, and 
the small vessels had also effected their escape. 



1811.] KILLED AND WOUNDED. 353 

In such an action, the loss and damages of the different 
ships, as may be supposed, were severe. The Amphion's 
lower masts were all three badly wounded, her larboard main 
yard-arm and niizen-topmast were shot away, and her sails 
and rigging much cut. Out of a crew of 251 men and boys, 
her loss amounted to her boatswain, Richard Unthank, 
Midshipmen John R. Spearman and Charles Hayes, seven 
seamen, and five marines killed ; and Captain Hoste (in his 
right arm, and some severe contusions), Lieutenant David 
Dunn, severely, Captain of marines Thomas Moore, Midship- 
men Francis G. Farewell and Thomas Edward Hoste, Cap- 
tain's clerk Frederick Lewis, first class volunteers Honour- 
able W. Waldegrave and Charles Buthane, thirty-four sea- 
men, and four marines wounded. Total : fifteen killed, forty- 
seven wounded. The Active's damages were comparatively 
slight ; and out of her complement of 300 men and boys, 
four seamen were killed, and Second Lieutenant of marines 
John Mears, eighteen seamen, and five marines wounded. 
Total : four killed and twenty-four wounded. The Cerberus 
had only lost her mizen-topsail-yard ; but her hull was much 
shattered ; and out of a crew of 160 men and boys, her pur- 
ser, Samuel Jeffery, Midshipman Francis S. Davey, eight 
seamen, and three marines were killed ; and Lieutenant 
George C. Urmston, thirty-three seamen, and seven marines 
wounded. Total : thirteen killed and forty-one wounded. 
The mainyard of the Volage was shot away in the slings, 
besides which she lost her fore-topgallant-mast, and was also 
damaged in her masts, sails, and rigging, and in hull con- 
siderably. Her loss, out of 175 men, amounted to Midship- 
man John George, ten seamen, and two marines killed ; First 
Lieutenant of marines William S. Knapman, twenty-seven 
seamen, and four marines wounded. Total : thirteen killed 
and thirty-three wounded. Grand total : forty-five killed 
and 145 wounded. 

Of the prizes, the Corona sustained a loss of upwards of 
200 in killed and wounded ; and the Bellona had seventy 
killed, and about the same number wounded, including her 
captain (Duodo) mortally. 

At 4h. p.m. the Favourite, having been set on fire by her 
•crew, blew up with a great explosion. At 9h. p.m. the 
Corona, while in tow of the Active, caught fire on the main- 

VOL. II. 2 A 



354 DESTRUCTION OF THE AMAZONE. [1811. 

top, and in a short time the mainmast was in flames. The 
Active cut herself clear, and the Corona continued burning 
until llh. 30m. p.m., when, owing to the exertions of Lieu- 
tenants James Dickenson and George Haye, the flames were 
got under ; but not without the loss of the mast, and of four 
seamen and one marine of the Active, who were drowned ; 
and. Lieutenant Haye, and Midshipman Sephas Goode, and 
two seamen, who were severely burnt. 

The Corona, a very fine ship, was added to the British 
navy under the name of Daedalus, and the Bellona under 
that of Dover, but only to be employed as a troop-ship. 
Each of the captains present at the action of Lissa (but not 
until after a lapse of some years) received a gold medal, and 
the first lieutenants of the ships — David Dunn, Amphion ; 
James Dickenson, Cerberus; Wilham Wilmot Henderson, 
Active ; and William Wolrige, Volage — were promoted to 
the rank of commander. The naval medal was awarded in 
1847 to the surviving participators. 

To offer a word in the shape of eulogy, in reference to this 
action, would, we feel, be superfluous ; the facts speak for 
themselves ; but it may be necessary to remark, that 
although there have been those disposed to think lightly of 
such enemies as Yenetians, yet it is clear that these ships 
were fought with the utmost skill, and defended to the last 
extremity ; indeed, had it not been for the accident to the 
Favourite, Captain Hoste might have dearly rued his temerity 
in meeting such enemies. A victory would doubtless have 
been achieved, but the sacrifice must have been great. Yet 
that accident was not the effect of simple chance, but of the 
skill of Captain Hoste, who foresaw it from the first, and by 
standing so long on the starboard tack, enticed the French 
commodore to the rocks on which his ship was wrecked. 
Captain Hoste made a formal demand for the surrender of 
the Flore, wkich ship had notoriously struck to the Amphion, 
but, in defiance of every honourable principle, his letters 
were disregarded. 

On the 24th of March, the French 40-gun frigate Ama- 
zon©, Captain Bousseau, was chased by the 74-gun ship 
Berwick, Captain James Macnaniara, while attempting a 
second time to get from Havre to Cherbourg, and obliged 
to anchor in a small rocky bay under shelter of a battery, 



1811.] DEFENCE OF ANHOLT. 355 

but where she struck, and lost her rudder. A small squad- 
ron soon assembled, comprising the 38-gun frigate Amelia, 
Captain the Honourable Frederick P. Irby, 16-gun brigs 
Goshawk and Hawk, Commanders James Lilburne and 
Hemy Bourchier, which at 8h. a.m. anchored about two 
miles to the northward, not being able to stem the tide. At 
noon the Niobe, Captain John W. Loring, joined, and at 
4h. p.m. the whole stood in among rocks and shoals, and 
cannonaded the frigate and batteries. On the following day 
the attack was about to be renewed, when the Amazone was 
set on fire by her crew and destroyed. The Berwick and 
Amelia had each one man killed, and the Amelia one 
wounded. 

The island of Anholt, captured in May, 1809, having been 
found useful as a depot for British merchandize, and as a re- 
sort for the Baltic cruisers, Captain James Wilkes Maurice, 
of Diamond Bock celebrity, was appointed governor, with a 
garrison of thirty-one marine artillery and 350 marines, 
under Major Robert Torrens. The Danes, however, deter- 
mined, if possible, to regain possession of the island, fitted 
out an expedition in the summer of 1810 ; but, deterred by 
the large naval force in the Baltic, delayed making the 
attempt until the winter. But so long as the sea remained 
open, the British cruisers remained ; and when at length 
driven away by the ice, the Danes were, from the same 
cause, prevented from carrying their design into effect. 
When milder weather set the vessels at liberty, troops to the 
number of 1,000 men, including 200 organized seamen, em- 
barked in twelve transports, protected by twelve gun-boats, 
having crews of sixty or seventy men, each mounting two 
heavy long guns, and four brass howitzers. On the 24th of 
March, Anholt was visited by a Danish officer, bearing a flag 
of truce, but who was in reality a spy ; and he having ascer- 
tained that the garrison did not exceed 400- men, that the 
lighthouse fort was the only battery of importance, and that 
one solitary armed schooner was the sole naval force, re- 
turned to Gerrild Bay, where the flotilla had assembled. On 
the 26th the flotilla got underway, and the same day the 
32-gun frigate Tartar, Captain Joseph Baker, and 16-gun 
sloop Sheldrake, Commander James P. Stewart, arrived at 
Anholt. 

2 a2 



356 DEFENCE OF ANHOLT. [1811. 

On the 27th, at 4h. a.m., the Danish 'troops, under cover 
of a thick fog, disembarked, unseen, about four miles to the 
westward of Fort Yorke. It had been intimated to Captain 
Maurice, in the month of February, that an attack was in- 
tended, and every precaution in his power had been taken 
for defence, and pickets stationed all round the island. Just 
before dawn, the out-pickets on the south side of the island 
made the preconcerted signal for the enemy's being in sight, 
when the brigade of four howitzers, covered by 200 rank-and- 
file, commanded by the governor in person, having with him 
Major Torrens, the commandant of the battalion, quitted the 
lines to oppose the landing ; but finding that the enemy had 
already disembarked, the marines were ordered to fall back 
upon the forts to avoid being outflanked. 

A division of 200 Danish seamen, under Lieutenant Hol- 
stein, had in the meanwhile gained the heights, and were 
advancing cheering, when a fire from Massarene Battery 
obliged them to retire with precipitation to the beach, and 
to abandon a small battery which they had taken, and which 
was quickly regained by the British, in good order and with- 
out loss. As the day opened, the Danish flotilla was ob- 
served to have taken a position within gun-shot of the works, 
upon which a signal was made to Captain Baker, in the Tar- 
tar, that the enemy had landed, and that the gun-boats had 
begun the cannonade. The Tartar and Sheldrake weighed 
from the north side of the island as soon as the firing was 
heard ; but Captain Maurice annulling the Sheldrake's sig- 
nal, the Tartar proceeded alone ; but having to stand off 
some distance to get round the shoals, it was a long time 
before she could be brought to act. 

The main body of the Danes had by this time crossed the 
island, and taken post on the northern side, under shelter of 
the sand-hills, and a detachment, consisting of 150 men, ad- 
vanced in a very gallant manner to the assault ; but the fire 
from Forts Yorke and Massarene kept them in check, and 
although repeatedly rallied, were at length driven back. 
Lieutenant Holstein's division on the south side having 
brought up a field-piece, which enfiladed Massarene Battery 
with some effect, Major Melstedt, the commander-in-chief, 
encouraged by the apparent success of this step, ordered the 
main body to advance, and a general assault to take place. 



1811.] DEFENCE OF ANHOLT. 357 

Major Melstedt was killed by a musket-ball while gallantly 
leading on bis men ; the next in command, Captain Reydez, 
had both his legs shot off, and the brave Holstein was killed 
shortly afterwards. The incessant fire from the batteries, 
and also from the Anholt schooner, Lieutenant Henry Lor- 
raine Baker, which had anchored close to the shore on the 
flank of the Danes, in a little time drove them from the shel- 
ter of the sand-hills, and finding it impossible to advance or 
retreat, they held out a flag of truce, and offered to surren- 
der upon certain terms. Captain Maurice, however, would 
hear of nothing short of an unconditional surrender, which, 
after some deliberation, the Danes acceded to. 

The Danish gun-boats observing the approach of the 
Tartar, immediately made off to the westward, and the 
troops on the south side having then no means of retreat, 
also laid down their arms. These, with the troops on the 
north, side, amounted to 520 men, exclusive of twenty-three 
wounded. The remaining half of the invaders fled towards 
the west end of the island, where they succeeded in regain- 
ing the gun-boats and transports. The Tartar and Shel- 
drake pursued the gun-boats, and the latter overtook and 
captured one boat, manned with sixty seamen, and mounting 
two long 24-pounders and four brass howitzers ; and another, 
mounting two 1 8-pounders and four howitzers, with a crew of 
sixty-four men. A third gun-boat was sunk by the brig's 
shot. The Tartar captured two boats, laden with stores and 
provisions. The Danish loss amounted in the whole to 
thirty-five killed and twenty-three wounded. The British, 
notwithstanding the severity of the service, had only two 
men killed, and Major Torrens and thirty men wounded. 
The naval medal has been limited to those borne on the 
books of Anholt Island. 

On the 30th of March, the 38-gun frigate Pomone, Captain 
Robert Barrie ; 36-gun frigate Unite, Captain Edward H. 
Chamberlayne ; and the 18-gun brig Scout, Commander 
Alexander R. Sharpe, arrived off the Bay of Sagone, Corsica, 
in which were lying the French 26-gun store-ships Giraffe 
and Nourrice, in company with a large merchant-ship, timber 
laden, bound to Toulon. Although the enemy's ships were 
protected by a 4-gun and mortar battery and a martello 
tower, and by some of the guns of the Giraffe, landed for the 



358 BELLE-POULE AND ALCESTE AT PARENZA. [1811. 

purpose, as well as by 200 troops assembled on the neigh- 
bouring heights, the British ships, towed by their boats, pro- 
ceeded to the attack. At 6h. p.m. the squadron opened their 
broadsides, and at 7h. 30m. p.m. the Giraffe, bearing a com- 
modore's pendant, and in a short time the Nourrice also, 
were observed to be on fire. The merchant-ship became 
involved in the same ruin, upon which the Pomone and con- 
sorts were towed out of reach of danger from the explosions. 
At Sh. oOni. the Giraffe, and shortly afterwards the Nourrice, 
blew up, and some of the burning timbers from the latter 
falling on the martello tower, entirely demolished it, and the 
sparks setting fire to the battery below, it was also de- 
stroyed. In performing this service, the Pomone had two 
men killed, and ten seamen, seven marines, and two boys 
wounded. On board the Unite, Midshipman Richard Good- 
ridge and two men were wounded ; and in the Scout, Lieu- 
tenant William Neame severely, her boatswain (James 
Stewart), and one seaman, slightly wounded ; making a total 
of two killed and twenty-five wounded. 

On the 4th of May, at lOh. a.m., the 38-gun frigates Belle- 
Poule and Alceste, Captains James Brisbane and Murray 
Maxwell, being off the coast of Istria, chased a French 
1 8-gun brig into the harbour of Parenza. Having received 
information that a vessel of the brig's description was ex- 
pected at Ragusa with supplies for the French frigates 
Danae and Flore, Captain Brisbane resolved to attempt her 
capture. Accordingly, the Belle-Poule, followed closely by 
the Alceste, stood within a cable's length of the rocks, at the 
entrance of the harbour, and opened fire upon the brig, and a 
battery under which she lay, and, after an hour's cannonade, 
compelled the brig to haul on shore, under the town, out of 
gun-shot. At the close of day the frigates anchored about 
five miles from the shore, and Captain Brisbane determined, 
as the easiest method of destroying the brig, to take posses* 
sion of the island at the mouth of the harbour. At lh. p.m., 
therefore, the boats of the two frigates, containing 200 sea- 
men and 100 marines, under the orders of Lieutenants John 
M'Curdy and Richard B. Board man, and Edmund A. 
Chartres and Arthur Morrison, of the marines, Midshipmen 
Hamilton Blair, Charles M. Chapman, Edward Finlay, 
Henry Maxwell, John Hall, and Arthur Grose, of the Belle- 



1811.] ACTION OFF MADAGASCAR. 359 

Poule ; and Lieutenants John Collman Hickman and 
Rickard Lloyd, Howard Moore, acting master, and Midship- 
men James Adair, Charles Croker, and Thomas Redding, of 
the Alceste, landed and took quiet possession of the island. 
By 5h. p.m. on the 5th, a battery of two howitzers and two 
9 -pounders was constructed on a commanding eminence, and 
a field-piece was also placed on the left to divide the atten- 
tion of the enemy. Soon after daylight the enemy opened a 
cross fire from four different positions, which was returned 
by the British with great vigour, during five hours. By this 
time, however, the brig was cut to pieces and sunk ; and 
this, their principal object, accomplished, the party re- 
embarked with their gims, but not without losing Richard 
Kelly, gunner of the Belle-Poule, and three men killed, and 
having four men wounded. The above is a naval medal 
boat action. 

On the 6th of May a French squadron arrived off Isle 
de la Passe, under Commodore Roquebert, consisting of the 
40-gun frigates Renommee, Clorinde, and Nereide, each 
having on board 200 soldiers, which had been despatched 
from Brest to the relief of the Isle of France, the news of 
the capture of that island not having reached France. On 
their arrival within five miles of the island, being suspicious 
of the event which had happened, a boat from each ship -was 
sent to reconnoitre. The Renommee's boat succeeded in 
gaining full information, but the other boats were detained. 
The frigates then made sail to the eastward, and in the 
course of the day were chased by the 18-pounder 3 6 -gun 
frigates Phcebe and Galatea, Captains James Hillyar and 
"Woodley Losack; and 18-gun brig Racehorse, Commander 
James De Rippe, part of a squadron detached from the Cape 
station to intercept them. Expecting to be joined by the 
38-gun frigate Astrea, Captain Charles M. Schomberg, 
nothing was done towards bringing the enemy to action. 

The crew of the Galatea, annoyed that more vigorous 
measures were not pursued (the enemy being at this time 
apparently within reach), went aft in a body and requested 
Captain Losack to bring the French frigates to action. This, 
though a highly irregular step, Captain Losack so far at- 
tended to, as to go on board the Phcebe to make known, 
their wishes to Captain Hillyar. On the 9th, the Astrea 



360 ACTION OFF MADAGASCAR. [1811. 

hove in sight to leeward, and the Phoebe and Galatea, in 
bearing up to join her, lost sight of the enemy. 

Commodore Roquebert, thus left to himself, resolved to 
attempt the surprise of some post on the Isle of Bourbon, 
and on the night of the 11th arrived off that island ; but the 
heavy surf breaking near the intended place of landing 
induced this plan to be given up. The French squadron 
then made sail for Madagascar, and on the 19th of May 
arrived off Tamatave, and the British garrison, consisting 
only of 100 men of the 22nd regiment, most of whom were 
sick, fell an easy prey to the squadron. Captain Schom- 
berg, judging this to be the direction taken by the enemy, 
shaped his course accordingly, and on the morning of the 
20th gained sight of the squadron. At noon the French 
ships formed in the following order on the larboard tack — 
Clorinde, Renommee, ISereide — and stood along the land to 
windward of the British, which, close-hauled on the star- 
board tack, were endeavouring to get up with them. At 
4h. p.m. the Astrea, the leading ship, being nearly a mile 
ahead of her consorts, and abreast of the Renommee, was 
fired at by that ship, and subsequently the Phoebe and 
Galatea were also engaged. The Astrea, after passing the 
Nereide, endeavoured to tack ; but the concussion of the 
firing having dispelled the light air of wind, the Astrea 
missed stays, and was unable, it appears, to wear. The 
French commodore finding one of the British ships thus in 
irons, took advantage of it, and bearing up with the Renom- 
mee and Clorinde, and taking stations on the stern and 
quarter of the Phoebe and Galatea, opened a very severe fire 
upon them ; the Nereide at the same time keeping up a 
distant cannonading with the Astrea. After a time, a slight 
revival of the breeze having wafted the Clorinde and Renom- 
mee down upon the Galatea, that ship had to bear the 
brunt of the action, and was severely handled. The Phoebe 
and Astrea meanwhile became engaged with the Nereide, 
but the Racehorse took little or no part in the action. 

The Galatea's two opponents — the Clorinde, under her 
stern, and the Renommee on her starboard quarter — keep- 
ing their broadsides to bear by the aid of the boats, rendered 
the situation of that frigate very critical ; but after having 
two boats sunk by shot, in endeavouring to get her broad- 



1811.] CAPTURE OF RENOMMEE AND NEREIDE. 361" 

side to bear upon her assailants, she at length, by getting 
sweeps out of the head, was enabled to open her broadside 
upon the Renonimee, and partially upon the Clorinde also. 
The situation of the Nereide, however, and a light breeze 
springing up, induced the Galatea's opponents to proceed to 
the assistance of their consort. This was at a little before 
8h. p.m., so that for three hours the Galatea had been ex- 
posed to the fire of two powerful enemies. So serious were 
the Galatea's damages, that, on being hailed by the Astrea, 
Captain Losack stated the ship to be in too disabled a state 
to chase the enemy, now making off to the northward. Her 
fore and mizen-topmasts were gone, foremast, mainyard, 
main-topmast, and bowsprit in a precarious state, scarcely a 
shroud, stay, or rope uncut, and near four feet water in her 
hold, with more than sixty of her crew killed and wounded. 

The Astrea, Phoebe, and Racehorse, however, had not 
received much damage, and were enabled to overtake and 
capture the Renommee at a little past lOh. p.m., and this 
ship was taken possession of by a boat from the Phoebe. 
The Astrea and Phoebe continued until 2h. a.m. on the 21st 
to follow the Clorinde, without avail ; but the Nereide, 
greatly shattered, reached Tamatave, where she was soon 
afterwards captured. 

The damages of the Astrea were immaterial, and her loss, 
out of a crew of 271 men and boys, amounted to two seamen 
killed, and the first lieutenant, John Baldwin, and fifteen 
wounded. The fore-topmast of the Phcebe fell just after 
discontinuing the chase of the Clorinde, besides which, her 
lower masts and bowsprit were badly wounded, and her sails 
and rigging much cut. Her loss amounted to seven seamen 
killed ; and John Wilkey, midshipman, and nine men 
severely, one mortally, and sixteen men slightly wounded. 
Total : seven killed ; one mortally, and twenty-three 
severely and slightly wounded. The state of the Galatea's 
spars and rigging has been already mentioned : in her 
hull were fifty-five shot-holes, and her stern was much 
damaged. Her loss was as follows : First Lieutenant of 
marines Hugh Peregrine, eight seamen, and five marines 
killed ; and two seamen mortally wounded, Captain Losack 
severely by a splinter, Second Lieutenant of marines Henry 
Lewis, and twelve seamen, and five marines severely, and 



362 SCYLLA AND CANONNIERE. [1811. 

her first lieutenant, Thomas Bevis, Henry Williams, and 
Alexander Henning, midshipmen, seventeen seamen, four 
marines, and three boys, slightly wounded. Total : fourteen 
killed ; two mortally, nineteen severely, and twenty-seven 
slightly wounded. The enemy's loss in killed and wounded 
in the Renommee and Nereide, according to the official 
letter of Captain Schomberg, amounted in the former to 145 
(including Commodore Itoquebert, killed), and in the latter 
to 130. The first lieutenants of the Astrea and Phoebe 
(John Baldwin and George Scott) were promoted ; but 
Lieutenant Thomas Bevis remained in the same rank until 
1829. This is a naval medal action. 

On the morning of the 8th of May, the 18-gun brig 
Scylla, Commander Arthur Atcheson, being off the Isle of 
Bas, brought to action the French 10-gun brig Canonniere, 
having a convoy of five vessels under her protection. At 
llh. 30m. the action commenced, and at llh. 45m., being 
close to the Portgalo Rocks, off Morlaix, and finding it to be 
the intention to run the Canonniere on shore, Captain Atche- 
son (although the Scylla was going at the time eight knots) 
laid her alongside, and in about three minutes compelled the 
crew to surrender. Two men of the Scylla were killed, and 
Midshipman Thomas Liven and one man wounded. The 
Canonniere had her commander (Enseigne de vaisseau Schilds) 
and five men killed, and eleven wounded. One vessel of the 
convoy was captured, but the other four escaped by running 
on shore. 

A new enemy was now about to contest the dominion of 
the seas with England. The navy of the United States, 
though insignificant taken as a whole, was composed of large 
and heavy frigates. In the year 1794 the American govern- 
ment gave orders for building two 74-gun ships, of 1,620 
tons American measurement (equivalent to 1,750 tons 
English) ; and also for one 4 4 -gun frigate. The timbers were 
prepared and set up, but a more amicable footing having 
been established in reference to England, they remained on 
the stocks unproceeded with. Subsequently, it was deter- 
mined to finish the two former as frigates; and this was 
effected by contracting them a little in the beam, which 
reduced their tonnage to about 1,530 tons English measure- 
ment. The first was launched in 1798, and named the 



1811.] AMERICAN FORTY-FOUR-GUN FRIGATES. 363 

United States, and the second in the same year, and named 
the Constitution. They were described as 44-gim frigates, 
and for many years their real force remained a mystery. 
The ship intended for a 44-gun frigate, although built 
exactly upon the original plan, was then nominally reduced 
to a 36-gun frigate. In 1798, two more 44-gun frigates 
were built, and named the President and Philadelphia, but 
the latter was destroyed by fire. " If we consider," says 
James, " that it is only to add about four feet to the extreme 
breadth of the President to make her a larger ship than the 
generality of British seventy-fours, and that her yards are as 
square, and her masts as stout as theirs, some idea may be 
formed of the size and formidable appearance of the Ameri- 
can 44-gun frigate. Having had ocular proof of the manner 
in which the President was fitted, we shall take her for our 
guide. This beautiful ship had fifteen ports and a bridle of a 
side on the main deck, eight of a side on the quarter-deck, 
and four of a side on the forecastle, without reckoning the 
chase-ports on the forecastle. This gave the ship fifty-four 
ports for broadside guns ; but she had the means of mount- 
ing sixty-two broadside guns. For instance, instead of her 
gangway being of the usual width of four or five feet, it was 
ten feet. This deviation from the common plan was to 
allow room for the carriage and slide of a 42-pounder- car- 
ronade ; and a novel and ingenious method was adopted to 
obviate the necessity of uniting the quarter-deck and fore- 
castle bulwarks, and consequently of destroying that single- 
decked appearance which, for the purpose of deception, it 
was necessary to maintain. Between the quarter-deck and 
forecastle bulwarks, was the same open or untimbered space 
(known as the waist-hammock netting) as in any other 
frigate, but the stanchions for supporting the hammock- 
cloths were of extraordinary stoutness, and so arranged 
along the gangway as to form ports for four guns, which 
could be as effectively mounted as any in the ship." 1 

It does not, however, appear that gangway-guns were 
mounted, but two other carronades were placed in the enter- 
ing port on the quarter-deck, and thus the American 44-gun 
frigate actually mounted fifty-six guns. On the main deck 

1 Naval History of Great Britain, vol. vi. p. 6. 



364 LITTLE BELT AXD PRESIDENT. [1811. 

thirty long 24-pounders (varying as follows : President, 
eight feet and a half in length, and weighing 48 J cwt. ; 
in the United States, nine feet and a half, and in weight 
50 cwt. ; and Constitution, ten feet, and weighing 54 cwt.), 
and on the quarter-deck and forecastle 24-carronades, 
42-poimders, and two long 18-pounders. Total : fifty-six 
guns. The crew embarked numbered 475, of which the fol- 
lowing is the analysis : " Officers and petty officers, eighty ; 
able seamen, 180 ; ordinary, 145 ; marines, sixty-five ; boys, 
five." The distinction between the ordinary and able sea- 
man was merely nominal, and all were men carefully se- 
lected. In fact, the American 44-gun frigates were " line-of- 
battle ships in disguise." 

On the 16th of May, while the 20-gun corvette Little 
Belt, Commander Arthur B. Bingham, was off Sandy Hook, 
steering to the southward, she was discovered by the United 
States 44-gun frigate President, Captain Charles Ludlow, 
bearing the broad pendant of Commodore John Rogers. At 
lh. 30m. p.m., the two ships being ten miles distant from 
each other, the President showed her colours, and the Little 
Belt, having done the same, supposing the stranger to be 
British, made her number and demanded the stranger's ; buf; 
as this could not be complied with, Captain Bingham, con- 
jecturing the nation of the frigate, resumed his course round 
Cape Hatteras, followed by the American. At 6h. 30m. p.m., 
Captain Bingham wishing before dark to remove all doubts 
that the stranger was a friend, hove to with guns double- 
shotted, and hoisted British colours. To prevent the Presi- 
dent from taking a raking position, which her course seemed 
to indicate an intention of doing, the Little Belt wore three 
times, and at 8h. p.m. was on the starboard tack, and about 
90 yards from the President. Captain Bingham then hailed 
the stranger, but received no answer ; and as the President 
was still advancing, the Little Belt wore a fourth time, and 
came to on the larboard tack. 

The President then shortened sail and hove to on the 
same tack, about eighty yards on the weather-beam of the 
corvette, and Captain Bingham again hailed, and asked, 
"What ship is that?" The hail was repeated, or rather 
re-echoed from the American frigate, as was also the ques- 



1811.] LITTLE BELT AN T D PRESIDENT. 365 

tion, " What ship is that ?" At this instant a gun was fired 
from each ship, but whether by accident or design, or from 
which ship first, remains, and will probably continue to be 
involved in doubt. Without further parley a cannonading 
then took place, which lasted about half an hour, when the 
Little Belt, from the loss of after-sail, fell off so that none of 
her guns would bear, and ceased firing. The President also 
ceased firing, when Commodore Rogers again hailed the 
British vessel, and was told, what he already was perfectly 
aware of, that her opponent was a British ship : but in reply 
to the question, "Have you struck?" Captain Bingham 
answered in the negative. 

The Little Belt had all her masts badly wounded, and her 
rigging and sails cut to pieces. Out of a crew of 121 men 
and boys, Samuel Woodward, midshipman, and ten men were 
killed ; and acting Master James MacQueen and ten men 
severely, and her boatswain, James Franklin, and W. B. 
Hutchings, midshipman, and eight men and boys slightly 
wounded. Total : eleven killed and twenty-one wounded. 
The President, whose thick sides must have been impervious 
to the Little Belt's shot, had only one boy wounded. 

At daylight the next morning, the President bore up to 
.speak the Little Belt, and at 8h. a.m. Commodore Rogers 
sent a boat alongside with a lieutenant to express his regret 
at " the unfortunate affair," as it was designated, and offered 
any assistance in his power, which was of course declined. 
The President then made sail to the westward, and the 
Little Belt proceeded to Halifax, which she reached on the 
28th. Having fully described the force of the President, it 
remains only to state that the Little Belt's armament con- 
sisted of only eighteen carronades, 32-pounders, and two long 
9-pounders. 

On the 23rd of May, the 32-gun frigate Sir Francis 
Drake, Captain George Harris, when lying, about 13 miles 
to the north-east of Rembang, island of Java, discovered a 
flotilla of fourteen Dutch gun-vessels, which were so closely 
pursued, that at 7h. a.m. five were compelled to anchor 
under the guns of the frigate. The others furled sails, and 
pulled to windward to gain the shore, but were pursued by 
the ship's boats under the orders of Lieutenant James 



366 ALACRITY AND ABEILLE. [1811. 

Bradley ; and although the boarders were exposed to the fire 
of grape from several pieces of ordnance, the remaining nine 
vessels were captured without the loss of a man. 

On the 26th of May, the boats of the 16-gun brig Sabine, 
Commander George Price, were detached under the orders 
of Lieutenant William Usherwood, to attempt the capture 
of five French privateers at anchor under the Fort of Sabiona, 
near Cadiz. Lieutenant Usherwood was assisted by Lieu- 
tenant Patrick Finucane, and the master, Thomas Settle ; 
together with some midshipmen not named. The privateers 
were small fast-sailing vessels, each mounting two 4-pounders, 
and having a crew of twenty-five men. Although the pri- 
vateers were moored under a battery, the attack was so ably 
planned, and gallantly executed, that each boat captured one 
of the number without loss. Two of the vessels, however, 
were secured by a hawser fast to the lower gudgeon on the 
stern-post, by which they were hauled on shore, and one 
marine was wounded in repelling an attack of the French 
soldiers. The other three privateers were brought off. 

On the 26th of May, at daylight, the 18-gun brig 
Alacrity, Commander Nisbet Palmer, cruising off Cape St. 
Andrea, in the island of Elba, with the wind moderate from 
the eastward, observed, about six miles to the westward, the 
French 20-gun brig Abeille, acting Lieutenant De Makau, 
of which she proceeded in chase. The Abeille immediately 
hove to, hoisted her colours, and fired a gun in token of 
defiance, and, as the Alacrity approached her, fired two 
raking broadsides. The French brig then filled and tacked, 
and, having gained the weather-gage, fired a broadside at 
her opponent as she passed on the opposite tack; then 
bearing up, she ran under the stern of the Alacrity, raked 
her, and hauled up on the same tack (the larboard) as the 
Alacrity, and engaged her to leeward. The Abeille being 
exceedingly well handled, managed to keep rather on the 
quarter of the Alacrity, by which means the latter made a 
very poor return to the smart and vigorous firing of her 
enemy. The damaged state of the Alacrity's sails having 
caused her to drop astern, the Abeille took a position on her 
starboard bow. The Alacrity then endeavoured to pass 
under the stern of the French brig, but this the latter 
avoided by bearing up. The two brigs being then before 



1811.] BOATS OF PILOT AT STRONGOLI. 367 

the wind, continued engaging until the Alacrity, being 
nearly defenceless, and all her officers, except the boatswain^ 
either killed, wounded, or driven from the deck, hauled 
down her colours. This was about three-quarters of an hour 
from the commencement of the action. The second lieu- 
tenant of the Alacrity and thirteen seamen being absent in 
a prize, her crew consisted of not more than 100 men and 
boys, of whom the first lieutenant, Thomas G. Rees, and 
four seamen were killed ; and her captain (slightly), David 

Laing, master's mate, Warren, midshipman (mortally), 

William Turner, surgeon, James Flaxman, boatswain (se- 
verely), and eight men wounded. The Abeille, out of a crew 
of 130 men and boys, had seven men killed and twelve 
wounded. Captain Palmer, although slightly wounded only 
between the thumb and forefinger, died about a month after- 
wards of lock-jaw. A court-martial sat on board the Gla- 
diator, at Portsmouth, on the 30th of May, 1814, for the 
trial of the surviving officers and crew, when the court 
acquitted them of all blame, and attributed the brig's capture 
to the early loss of the officers, and to the captain's not 
returning to the deck after his wound was dressed by the 
surgeon. The court eulogized the conduct of James Flax- 
man, the boatswain, which indeed formed a noble contrast to 
the dastardly behaviour of more than one of the Alacrity's 
officers. 

On the 26th of May, in the morning, Commander John 
Toup Nicolas, in the 18-gun brig Pilot, observing four 
settees on the beach almost immediately under the town of 
Strongoli, near the entrance of the Gulf of Taranto, despatched 
her boats under the orders of Lieutenants Alexander Camp- 
bell and Francis C. Annesley, the master, Roger Langland, 
Master's Mate Heniy P. Simpson, Midshipman John Barnes, 

md Scotten, the carpenter, to endeavour to bring 

them off. The Pilot at the same time anchored as near to 
the shore as the shoal water would permit. In spite of the 
opposition offered by a large body of mounted gendarmes, 
foot soldiers, and militia, the party effected a landing, and, 
ifter dislodging the enemy from an advantageous position, 
shree of the vessels were brought off, and the fourth de- 
stroyed. This service was performed without the loss of a 
nan, and with only one wounded. 



368 GUADALOUPE WITH TACTIQUE AND GUEPE. [1811. 

On the 27th of June, while the lG-gun brig Guadaloupe, 
Commander Joseph S. Tetley, was cruising off Cape Creus, 
on the north coast of Spain, two strange sail were observed 
to leeward, which proved to be the French 18-gun brig 
Tactique and 8-gun xebeck Guepe. Captain Tetley, 
determined on engaging, continued to bear down on the- 
enemy, which, under French colours, awaited the Guada- 
loupe's approach. At a little before lh. p.m., the starboard 
broadside of the Tactique was fired at the Guadaloupe, but 
the latter continuing to stand on, passed under the stern of 
the French brig, and raked her with considerable effect, after 
which she stationed herself on the Tactique's lee-beam, and 
a smart action ensued, in which the xebeck joined. At 
lh. 30m. the crew of the Tactique attempted to board, but 
they were repulsed with great slaughter. The action con- 
tinued until 2h. 15m., when the Tactique bore up for the 
batteries of St. Andre, whither the Guepe had preceded her. 
The Guadaloupe, in her gallant encounter, suffered much in 
sails and rigging ; but had only one man killed, and the first 
lieutenant and nine men severely, and several slightly 
wounded. It was subsequently ascertained that the loss of 
the Tactique amounted to eleven killed, and sixteen mor- 
tally, and thirty-two dangerously and slightly wounded. 

On the 4th of July, at daylight, the boats of the Unite, 
Captain Edwin H. Chamberlayne, cruising on the Italian 
coast, were sent away to cut out an armed brig at anchor off 
Port Hercule. The officers employed on this service were, 
Lieutenant Joseph W. Crabb, Lieutenant of marines George 
Victor, and Michael Dwyer, Henry Collins, and Duncan 
Hutchinson, master's mates. On the approach of the boats, 
the brig, which was the St. Francois-de-Paule, mounting 
eight guns, and protected by a battery of two 8-pounders 
on the beach, opened fire on the boats. The light winds 
preventing the ship from approaching to co-operate, Lieute- 
nant John M'Dougal was sent with the launch to support 
the other boats ; but before his arrival, the brig was cap- 
tured, and out of range of the fire from the battery. 

At 9h. a.m. the 18-gun brig Cephalus, Commander Augustus 
W. J. Clifford, having joined company, both stood along the 
coast in search of an enemy. At oh. p.m. several vessels ^yere 
seen near Civita Vecchia, upon which Commander Clifford, 



1811.] BOAT ACTIONS IN THE ADRIATIC. 369 

whose acquaintance with the coast was good, offered to lead 
into the anchorage, and take charge of the boats, should 
Captain Chamberlayne require their services. The Cephalus 
accordingly stood in, and anchored under a battery of four 
8-pounders, where she was soon joined by the Unite. The 
French were driven from their guns by the united fire of the 
British ships, after which the boats brought away three mer- 
chant vessels, in the face of a smart fire of musketry from 
the shore. The master of the Cephalus, Isaac Simon, was 
the only person wounded. 

On the 21st of July, the 32-gun frigate Thames, Captain 
Charles Napier, joined the Cephalus off Porto del Infreschi, 
into which the latter had on the day previously driven a 
French convoy of twenty-six sail. Followed by the Thames, 
the Cephalus entered the harbour, and both ships opened fire 
on eleven French gun-boats and a felucca, mounting between 
them six long 1 8-pounders, two carronades, and three brass 
and two iron 6-pounders, and manned with 280 men. The 
enemy's fire was soon silenced, and while the boats under 
Commander Clifford took possession of the vessels, the ma- 
rines, commanded by Lieutenant David M'Adam, landed, 
and stormed a martello-tower, making an officer and eighty 
men prisoners. This service occupied in its execution about 
two hours, and was attended with no other casualty than 
Hood Douglas, boatswain, and three men of the Cephalus, 
wounded. The Thames and Cephalus, with all the prizes 
in company, and thirty large spars intended for the ships of 
war building at Naples, then got underway, and proceeded 
to sea. 

On the 27th of July, the boats of the Active, Captain 
James A. Gordon, at anchor off the town of Ragosniza, in 
the Adriatic, were despatched, under Lieutenants William 
Wilmot Henderson, George Haye, and Robert Gibson, Lieu- 
tenant of marines John Mears, and Master's mates and Mid- 
shipmen Charles Friend, Henry Law, Redmond Moriarty, 
Norwich Duff, William Simpkins, Joseph Cammilleri, Na- 
thaniel Barwell, Charles Bentham, George Moore, William 
Woods, and William T. Robinson, to attack a convoy of , 
twenty-eight vessels, laden with grain for the garrison of 
Ragusa. The entrance to the creek in which the vessels had 
taken shelter being very narrow, and commanded by three 

VOL. II. 2 B 



370 STORMING FORT MARRACK. [1811. 

gun-boats, Lieutenants Henderson, Haye, and Mears, and 
Mr. Friend, with, the small-arm men and marines, landed on 
the right bank, to take possession of a hill, leaving Lieute- 
nant Gibson to attack the gun-boats, as soon as the precon- 
certed signal announced that the shore party had reached 
the desired point. Lieutenant Henderson and his party 
gained the hill, and after making the signal, repaired to ren- 
der assistance, if necessary, to Lieutenant Gibson ; but the 
attack of that officer on the gun-boats had been so vigorous, 
that their crews jumped overboard, and escaped to the shore. 
The guns of these vessels were then turned upon the enemy, 
and the whole convoy was captured without the loss of a 
man to the British, and with only four wounded in the boats. 
Ten of the vessels were set on fire, and the remainder, with 
the gun-boats, brought off. 

On the 25th of July, Lieutenant Edmund Lyons, in com- 
mand of the launch and cutter of the 74-gun ship Minden, 
having been ordered to land some Dutch prisoners at Batavia, 
conceived the bold design of gaining possession of a strong 
fort at the north-east extremity of Java. An attack had been 
meditated with the boats of the squadron cruising off Batavia, 
which had been laid aside in consequence of the great strength 
of its garrison, but Lieutenant Lyons, with two boats and 
thirty-five officers and men, voluntarily undertook a service 
for which 450 men had been deemed insufficient. This offi- 
cer, however, was one of those who accompanied Captain Cole 
in his assault of Fort Belgica, 1 and it was not a trifle which 
would deter him from putting such a design in execution. 

On the 27th of July the prisoners were landed ; and on 
the 29th, Lieutenant Lyons, having reconnoitred the fort, 
took shelter under a point of land until night should conceal 
his advance. At a little past midnight, just as the moon was 
sinking below the horizon, the boats quitted their hiding- 
place and pulled for the battery, which mounted fifty-four 
pieces of heavy ordnance, and was garrisoned with 180 
soldiers. The hopes entertained of taking the enemy by 
surprise were quickly dissipated by the sentinels on the walls, 
who, perceiving the approach of the two boats, fired their 
muskets to alarm the garrison ; but undaunted by this, 

1 See page 325. 



■1811.] STORMING FORT MARRACK. 371 

Lieutenant Lyons ran the boats aground, notwithstanding 
the heavy surf, close under the embrasures of the lower tier 
of guns. In a few minutes the little band found themselves 
in possession of the lower battery, three of its defenders 
having been killed in the act of putting matches to their 
guns. Lieutenant Lyons then formed his men, and, leadino- 
them on, carried the upper battery ; but, on reaching the 
hill, found the Dutch troops drawn up to oppose them. The 
British sailors, after filing a volley, rushed on to the charge, 
Lieutenant Lyons calling out that he had 400 men, and 
would give no quarter ; upon which the Dutch fled, panic- 
stricken, through the postern gateway in the rear of the fort. 
At lh. a.m. a fire was opened on the fort, from a small bat- 
tery in the rear, and from two gun-boats, which was returned 
by a few men, while the others were employed in spiking 
and destroying the remaining guns. 

An attack was then made by a battalion of Dutch troops, 
which were permitted to approach unmolested until they had 
reached the gate of the fort, when two 24-pounders, loaded 
with grape and musket-balls, fired by Lieutenant Lyons and 
Mr. T. Langton, committed such havoc, that the enemy fled in 
great disorder. Taking advantage of this favourable moment, 
Lieutenant Lyons withdrew his party, carrying with liim the 
Dutch colours ; and as the barge was bilged, the whole em- 
barked in the cutter, and returned to their ship, without the 
loss of a man, and with only one midshipman, Thomas Lang- 
ton, and three seamen slightly wounded. Another midship- 
man, Charles H. Franks, then only fifteen years of age, dis- 
tinguished himself greatly on this occasion, and, in the face 
of a heavy fire, hoisted a British ensign on the flagstaff of 
Fort Marrack, which was left flying when the daring party 
left. Lieutenant Lyons, having undertaken this service 
wholly upon his own responsibility, lost for a time the 
reward of his temerity, but his gallantry was nevertheless 
properly appreciated on the arrival of Bear- Admiral the 
Hon. Bobert Stopford at Java. 1 

The island of Java and its dependencies capitulated on the 
ISth of September, after a series of gallant exploits and 

1 The naval medal has been awarded to Eear- Admiral Sir Edmund 
Lyons, Bart. G.C.B., who thus distinguished himself as a lieutenant, and 
to the survivors of his daring band. 

2 b2 



372 



CAPTURE OF JAVA. 



[1811. 



numerous skirmishes, in which the seamen and marines bore 
an ample share. The fleet employed under Rear-Admiral 
Stopford consisted of the following : — 



Guns. Ships, 
j Scipion 



7-1 



Illustrious 



I Minden 

64 Lion 

44 Akbar 

( Nisus -. 

Pre"sidente 

Hussar 

Phaeton 

Leda ... 

j Caroline . . 

Frigates -J Modeste 

Phoebe 

Bucephalus 

Doris 

Cornelia 

Psyche" 

^ Sir Francis Drake 
f Procris 

Barracouta 

Hesper 

Sloops ■{ Harpy ._ 

I Hecate 

I Dasher 

L Samarang 



\ Rear-Ad. Hon. Robert Stopford (red) 
( Captain James Johnson 
\ Commodore Wm. Robt. Broughton 
I Captain Robert W. G. Testing 
Edw. Wallis Hoare 

„ Henry Heathcote 

„ Henry Drury (act.) 

„ Philip Beaver 

,, Samuel Warren 

„ James C. Crawford 

„ Fleetwood B. R, Pellew 

„ George Sayer 

„ Christopher Cole 

„ Hon. George Elliot 

,, James Hillyar 

,, Charles Pelley 

„ Wm. Jones Lye 

„ Henry Folkes Edgell 

„ John Edgecumbe 

„ George Harris 

Commander Robt. Maunsell 

„ Wm. Fitzwilliam Owen 

„ Barrington Reynolds 

,, Henderson Bain 

,, Henry John Peachey 

„ Benedictus M. Kelly 

„ Joseph Drury 



together with eight cruisers of the Honourable East-India 
Company's service, and transports, in all nearly 100 sail. 
The troops were 8,000 strong, under the command of Major- 
General Wetheral and Colonel Robert E. Gillespie. The 
loss sustained by the navy was as follows : — eleven seamen 
and four marines killed, and Captain Edward Stopford (right 
arm shot on), Lieutenant Francis Noble, Lieutenants of 
marines Henry Elliot and John S. Haswell, John D. Worthy 
and Robert G. Dunlop, master's mates, twenty-nine seamen, 
and twenty marines wounded, and three seamen missing ; and 
the loss sustained by the army amounted to 141 killed, 733 
wounded, and thirteen missing ; making a total loss of 156 
killed, 788 wounded, and sixteen missing. The naval medal 
has been granted to all present during the operations. 



1811.] REDUCTION OF MADURA. 373 

The following gallant affair took place during the operations 
antecedent to the final subjugation of Java. The Sir Francis 
Drake, Captain George Harris, having been despatched with 
the Phaeton, Captain Pellew, and Dasher, Commander 
Kelly, to intercept two French frigates, known to be in the 
neighbourhood, were, on the 29th of August, lying at anchor 
off Madura, of which island Captain Hams determined to 
attempt the capture. Commander Kelly, in the Dasher, 
accordingly proceeded to seek an anchorage as near as 
possible to the town of Samanap, the capital of the island, 
accompanied by the boats of the Sir Francis Drake and 
Phaeton, under the command of the respective captains. On 
the 30th, at daylight, the expedition entered the channel 
between the east end of Madura and Pulo 'I Lanjong, and at a 
little past midnight landed unobserved, about three miles 
from the fort. At lh. 30m. a.m. on the 31st, the party, 
consisting of about 150 men, reached the fort before being 
perceived, of which, after a warm but ineffectual resistance, 
they became masters, although it was garrisoned with between 
300 and -400 Madura pikemen, and mounted sixteen guns. 
Daylight made visible French colours hoisted at the east end 
of the town, and also the natives assembling in great numbers ; 
upon which Captain Harris ordered Captain Pellew, with 
100 small-arm men and one brass field-piece, landed from the 
ship, to proceed with a flag of truce and a message to the 
governor, calling upon him to surrender the island, and pro- 
mising that private property should be respected. The 
message was conveyed to the governor by John William 
Oldmixon, midshipman, who received for answer, that unless 
the British evacuated the fort within ten minutes, and 
quitted the island, the whole should be put to the sword. 1 
This announcement proceeding from a person at the head of 
about 2,000 armed men, drawn up in an advantageous 
position, and protected by four field-pieces, was not to be 
disregarded; but it had not the desired effect. Captain 
Harris determined to make the attack, and having ordered 
Captain Pellew to advance, he, with seventy small- arm and 
twenty pike men, leaving a reserve of forty or fifty men in 
the fort, sailed out, and dashed on at the left wing of the 

1 A very animated account of the proceedings of this gallant party 
will be found in the United Service Journal for April, 1840. 



374 BOATS OF QUEBEC, ETC. IN THE JAHDE. [1811. 

enemy. The move was attended with complete success, for in 
a short time the Dutch governor (whose acknowledged force 
was 300 muskets, sixty artillerymen, and near 2,000 pike- 
men, each armed with a long pike, a pistol, and a creese) was 
observed to break his line, and draw off two field -pieces, in 
order to oppose the advance of Captain Harris's division. 
Both British columns at about the same time fired a volley, 
and for five minutes a sharp firing was kept up ; but as the 
British continued to advance undauntedly, the Dutch gave 
way, and an animated charge routed them, and left the 
British in possession of the colours and guns. The governor 
and several other Dutch inhabitants were also secured ; but 
Captain Harris accepted a flag of truce from the Rajah of 
Samanap, and gave up his prisoners, on the condition that- 
none of the people of the district should again take arms 
against the British. This success was followed by the 
subversion of French authority in Madura and the adjacent 
islands. 

The loss in effecting this service amounted to three men 
killed and twenty-eight wounded. Amongst the latter was 
Lieutenant of marines George Roach, who was twice speared 
while gallantly endeavouring to wrest the colours from a 
French officer. He further distinguished himself while 
Captain Harris was negotiating with the rajah, by destroying, 
at the head of the marines, a fort mounting twelve guns, 
situated at the mouth of the river leading, it was supposed, 
to the town of Samanap. The loss sustained by the enemy 
could not be correctly ascertained, but included the principal 
officer of the native troops and his two sons, a tolerable 
proof that the victory was not achieved over unresisting 
men. 

On the 1st of August, as a squadron, consisting of the 
32-gun frigate Quebec, Captain Charles Sibthorpe Hawtayne, 
16-gun brig Raven, Commander George G. Lennock, gun- 
brigs Exertion and Redbreast, Lieutenants James Murray 
ancl Sir George M. Keith, baronet, and hired armed cutters 
Alert and Princess Augusta, were cruising off Texel, infor- 
mation of some Danish gun-brigs was received, which 
induced Captain Hawtayne to despatch ten boats from the 
squadron, under the command of Lieutenant Samuel Blyth, 
containing 117 seamen and marines, to cut them out. In 



1811.] HAWK AND FRENCH CONVOY. 375 

the boats were the following officers : — Lieutenants Samuel 
Blyth, John O'Neale, Samuel Slout, Charles Wolrige, and 
Thomas Hare (sub-lieutenant) ; Master George Downey ; 
Lieutenant of marines Humphrey Moore ; Master's mates 
Robert Cook and John McDonald ; Richard Millet, midship- 
man, John Muggridge, pilot, and Stephen Pickett, carpenter. 
On the 2nd the boats entered the river Jahde, and the same 
afternoon came in sight of the gun-brigs, four in number, lying 
at anchor within the island of Nordeney, armed with one 
long 12, and two long 6 or 8-pounders each, and manned with 
a crew of twenty-five men. The boats were received with a 
severe fire of grape and canister ; but Lieutenant Blyth, in 
the Quebec's barge, pulling rapidly towards the first, was in 
a short time upon her deck, killing one man and wounding 
two others in the struggle. Mr. Muggridge, who was in the 
.same boat, was opposed by two soldiers, one of whom he shot 
dead, but the second wounded him in the throat with a 
bayonet, and his life was only preserved by his falling over- 
board. He was picked up by the next boat. Lieutenant 
Blyth having gained possession of the first gun-brig, and 
other boats arriving to his assistance, he turned her guns 
upon the three remaining vessels, which he was enabled to 
do with comparative impunity. Unfortunately, however, 
the ammunition, winch was on the deck, accidentally took fire, 
and killed or wounded nineteen persons, including Lieutenant 
Blyth, who was blown overboard. This officer had previously 
been wounded in the shoulder. The action, notwithstanding 
this accident, was proceeded with, and in ten minutes all 
three vessels were taken possession of, they having had two 
men killed and ten wounded. 

In addition to the loss by the explosion, the British had 
two men killed and nine wounded, including Lieutenants 
Blyth and Slout, and Muggridge and Millet. Lieutenant 
Slout died of his wounds a few days afterwards. Of those 
who suffered by the explosion, three died the next day, and 
several were very badly scorched, including Lieutenant 
Moore, of the marines. The prizes were all carried off, and 
Lieutenant Blyth received his dearly-bought promotion to a 
commander's rank on the 5th of September. This is a naval 
medal boat action. 

On the 19th of August, at 2h. p.m., the 16-gun brig Hawk, 



37 G DIANA AND SEMIRAMIS IN THE GIRONDE. [1811. 

Commander Henry Bourcliier, when about six leagues to the 
eastward of St. Marcouff, came in sight of a convoy steering 
for Barfleur. These vessels were protected by three gun- 
brigs and two large luggers, which vessels hauled out from 
the convoy to attack the Hawk. At 5h. 30m. p.m. the action 
commenced, within pistol-shot, between the Hawk and her 
five enemies, and was maintained with great spirit for some 
time ; but eventually two of the brigs, the two luggers, and 
fifteen sail of the convoy were driven on shore. Having pur- 
sued them closely, the Hawk, in the act of wearing, also 
took the ground ; but after an hour's exertion in lightening 
her, during which time her crew were exposed to a fire of 
artillery and musketry from the shore, she was got afloat, 
and anchored to repair her damages. Commander Bourcliier 
at night despatched the boats, commanded by Lieutenant 
David Price, assisted by the master, John Smith, and gunner, 
Thomas "Wheeler, to endeavour to bring out or destroy the 
vessels, which service was accomplished in a highly creditable 
manner. The brig Heron, pierced for sixteen guns, but 
mounting only ten, together with three large transports, 
laden with ship-timber, was brought out. The Hawk's loss 
amounted to one seaman killed and four wounded. Com- 
mander Bourcliier was promoted on the 22 nd, and the naval 
medal has been granted to the surviving participators. 

On the 24th of August, as the frigates Diana and Semira- 
mis, Captains William Ferris and Charles Richardson, were 
standing in towards the Cordouan light-house, five sail were 
descried at the mouth of the Gironde, which consisted of four 
merchant vessels under convoy of the (late British) gun-brig 
Teazer, Lieutenant J. A. Papineau. Captain Ferris, aware 
of the impracticability of an open attack, had recourse to 
stratagem, and accordingly stood in for the river under 
French colours (the Diana, with a commodore's pendant fly- 
ing), and made the signal for a pilot. The commander of the 
Teazer, deceived as to the character of the two ships, at 
4h. 30m. p.m. hoisted her colours and fired a gun to leeward, 
as a signal for a friend, which was promptly repeated by the 
frigates. The battery on Pointe cle la Coubre, at 6h. p.m., 
fired a few shot at the frigates, but Lieutenant Papineau, as 
the Teazer ran under the battery, hailed and told the com- 
mandant that the frigates were the Pallas and Elbe, from 



1811. J TEAZER AND CONVOY CAPTURED. 377 

Rochfort, when tlie battery ceased firing. At 6h. 30m. a 
pilot-boat came alongside the Diana, and the crew beino- 
handed up, the boat was veered astern as usual. At 7h. the 
frigates anchored off Pointe de Grave, between the Cordouan 
and Royan, under the batteries of which latter point and of 
Verdon lay the Teazer, in company with the lG-gun brig 
Pluvier, commanded by the captain at the port, M. A. 
Dubourg. 

As soon as the night closed in, Captain Ferris despatched 
the boats of the two frigates, commanded by Lieutenants 
Francis Sparrow (Diana) and Thomas Gardiner (Semiramis), 
having with them Lieutenant George B. Roper and William 
Holmes, master's mate, of the Diana, and Lieutenants Percy 
Grace and Robert Nicholson, and Timothy Renou, master's 
mate, of the Semiramis, to cut out the merchant vessels which 
had proceeded about four miles up the river. The tide, how- 
ever, delayed the execution of the service, and at daylight on 
the 25th the boats had not returned. Captain Ferris now 
determined to attack the two brigs, which remained below, 
with the frigates, and, accordingly, at Gh. a.m. both ships 
weighed and steered for Verdon Road. As a proof of the 
strength of the deception practised, Captain Dubourg went 
alongside the Diana in his boat, and did not discover his mis- 
take until having ascended to the quarter-deck. While the 
Semiramis stood towards the Pluvier, the Diana laid the 
Teazer on board, the frigate's lower yards carrying away the 
brig's topgallant-masts. Lieutenant Robert Parsons and 
Lieutenant of marines Lewis P. Madden, Mark P. Noble, 
boatswain, and about thirty seamen and marines, then 
jumped on board, and, without the loss or injury of a man 
on either side, gained entire possession of the brig. The 
Pluvier, observing the fate of the Teazer, cut her cables and 
made sail for the beach, where she grounded near to the bat- 
tery of Royan. The Semiramis, having approached as near 
as the tiepth of water would permit, anchored with a spring 
on her cable ; and the boats, having in the meanwhile re- 
turned from capturing the convoy, Lieutenant Gardiner 
boarded and carried the Pluvier, in doing which himself and 
two seamen were wounded. The prize being hard and fast 
aground, and the ebb-tide making, Captain Richardson took 
out the crew and set the brig on fire. The Semiramis then 



378 ACTIONS WITH BOULOGNE FLOTILLA. [1811. 

joined the Diana, and that ship as well as the Teazer and 
captured vessels were soon out of reach of the batteries. At 
lh. 30m. p.m. the Pluvier blew up, thereby putting the finish 
to a very gallant and well-executed service. 

On the 2nd of September, being off the coast of Norway, 
the 10-gun brig Chanticleer and gun-brig Manly, Comman- 
der Richard Spear and Lieutenant Richard W. Simmonds, 
were attacked, and the latter, after an obstinate defence, in 
which she had one man killed and three wounded, captured 
by the Danish 18-gun brigs Lolancl, Alsen, and Sampsoe. 
Lieutenant Simmonds, being subsequently tried for the loss 
of the brig, was honourably acquitted, and complimented by 
the president on his behaviour. 

On the 3rd of September a very creditable action was 
fought off Boulogne by the 10-gun brigs Rinaldo and Red- 
pole, Commanders James Anderson and Colin Macdonald, 
with four 12- gun prames, four gun-brigs, and seven lugger- 
rigged gun-boats. After engaging them for some time, the 
latter regained their anchorage in Boulogne Bay. 

On the 7th of September, the 28-gun frigate Barbadoes, 
Captain Edward Rushworth, and 16-gun brig Goshawk, 
Commander James Lilburn, fell in with seven French gun- 
brigs off the French coast, each mounting three long 
24-pounders and a mortar, and manned with seventy-five 
men. These were attacked by the British ships and chased 
into Calvados, and one of them driven on shore. On the 
8th the 36-gun frigate Hotspur, Captain the Honourable 
Josceline Percy, arrived off Calvados, and stood in to the 
attack of the brigs. At 6h. p.m., when within less than half 
gun-shot, the Hotspur grounded ; but by her fire sunk one 
gim-brig and drove two ashore. As the Hotspur, during 
this time, was exposed to a heavy fire from the vessels, a 
battery, and some field-pieces, she sustained considerable 
damage in her hull, masts, and rigging, and a loss of William 
Smith and Alexander Hay, midshipmen, two seamen, and 
one boy killed; and nineteen seamen and three marines 
wounded. 

On the 6th of September, early in the morning, the 18-gun 
brig Pilot, Commander John Toup Nicolas, observed a ketch 
secured to the walls of the fort of Castellan. The brig im- 
mediately stood in and anchored close to the town, and 



1811.] ACTIONS WITH BOULOGNE FLOTILLA. 379 

having by her fire driven away the troops collected on the 
beach, despatched the boats, under Lieutenant Alexander 
Campbell, to bring out the vessel. This officer gallantly 
landed under the castle walls, and, after some opposition, 
advanced to the town, and set the ketch on fire. The party 
returned on board laden with corn and flax, not having met 
with any loss. 

On the 20th of September, at noon, while the 38-gun 
frigate Naiad, Captain Philip Carteret, was lying at anchor 
in Boulogne Roads, Bonaparte was observed to embark in 
his barge, and proceed on board the centre prame of his in- 
vasion flotilla, and afterwards to visit other of the vessels on 
his return to the shore. At lh. p.m., the wind being from south- 
south-west, and a strong flood tide running, Rear- Admiral 
Baste, with seven prames, each mounting twelve guns, with 
a crew numbering 120 men each, got underweigh, and steered 
for the Naiad, then bearing from them nearly north. At 
lh. 40m. the leading prame exchanged broadsides with the 
frigate, which remained at anchor with springs on her cables ; 
after which they tacked and stood away, followed by the 
other prames. About 2h. ten brigs, each mounting four 
long 24-pounders, and a sloop, fitted as a bomb-vessel, joined 
the prames in cannonading the Naiad. At 3h. 30m., it 
being slack water, the Naiad weighed, and stood off on the 
larboard tack ; and at 4h. 15m. the flotilla ceased firing, 
and retired to the shelter of the batteries to the eastward of 
Boulogne. At 7h. 30m. the Naiad anchored in her former 
position, without having sustained any loss. 

On the 21st, at 7h. a.m., when the weather-tide made, the 
flotilla, together with some one-gun luggers, got underway 
and stood to the westward on the larboard tack, in two 
lines. The weathermost line consisted of three, and the lee 
line of four prames, the brigs and small craft taking stations 
as most convenient. The British squadron now consisted of 
the Naiad, 10-gun brigs Rinaldo and Redpole, 18-gun brig 
Castilian, Commander David Braimer, and 8-gun cutter 
Viper, Lieutenant Edward A. D'Arcey. The four last- 
named vessels at 7h. a.m. formed in line, and hove to with 
their colours hoisted, awaiting the approach of the enemy 
(the town of Boulogne bearing south-east by east, distant six 
miles), and at 8h. 30m. were joined by the Naiad. At 



3S0 BOATS OF IMPERIEUSE AT SALERNO. [18 LL 

91i. 30m. the leading prame, bearing the admiral's flag, 
tacked in shore and fired her broadside, when the British 
squadron, by signal from the Naiad, instantly bore up 
together in chase. At lOh. 20m., the Naiad, having got 
within pistol-shot of the enemy, oj^ened tire on both sides, 
while the Rinaldo and Redpole engaged the Ville-de-Lyon, 
the stemmost prame of the lee line. Finding it impossible, 
owing to the shoal water, to overtake the French admiral, 
the Naiad wore round and boarded and carried the Ville-de- 
Lyon, after a very gallant resistance, in which the French 
lost between thirty and forty in killed and wounded. While 
the Naiad stood off shore wnth her prize in tow, the Rinaldo, 
Redpole, and Castilian, drawing less water, continued to 
follow and engage the rear of the flotilla. The two first 
brigs got alongside the stemmost prame, which had been 
next to the Yille-de-Lyon, and obliged her to haul up for 
the weather line ; but being by tins time in three fathoms 
water, and within reach of the batteries, the British brigs 
ceased firing and rejoined the Naiad. The Naiad sustained 
but little damage aloft, but had two seamen killed, and 
Lieutenant of marines William Morgan, James Dover, mid- 
shipman, and twelve seamen wounded. The Castilian had 
her first lieutenant, Charles Cobb, killed, and one seaman 
severely wounded, and the Redpole her pilot wounded. 

On the 11th of October, in the morning, the 38-gun 
frigate Imperieuse, Captain the Honourable Henry Duncan, 
being off Possitano, in the Gulf of Salerno, discovered three 
gun-boats moored under a strong batteiy. At llh. A.M. 
the Imperieuse anchored within range of grape, and in a few 
minutes sank one of the boats, and silenced the fire of the 
fort : but the crews of the gun-boats having landed and 
taken shelter in the fort, Captain Duncan sent the boats, 
under the orders of Lieutenant Eaton Travers, with Lieu- 
tenant of marines Philip Pipon, to dislodge them. The 
boats were assailed by a heavy fire of musketiy from the 
battery ; but only thirty men with fifty stand of arms 
remained in the fort when they entered, the remainder 
having escaped. The guns were thrown over the cliff, the 
magazine destroyed, and the two gun-boats brought off. 
One marine was killed and two wounded. 

The Imperieuse (having been joined by the 32-gun frigate 



1811.] CAPTAIN NAPIER AT PALINURO. 381 

Thames, Captain Charles Napier), being at anchor, on the 
19th, off Palinuro, on the coast of Calabria, Captain Duncan 
•sent the boats under Lieutenant Travers, which attacked 
and brought off ten polacres, laden with oil, although the 
vessels were banked up with sand, and defended by a large 
body of Neapolitan troops. 

Captain Duncan having discovered ten large gun-boats 
in the harbour of Palinuro, together with a number of mer- 
chant vessels, and not considering his force sufficient to 
attack them, despatched the Thames to Sicily for a rein- 
forcement. On the 1st of November, in the evening, the 
Thames rejoined with 250 men of the G2nd regiment, under 
Major Darby, and this detachment, together with the 
marines of both frigates, under Lieutenant Pipon, and a 
party of seamen under Lieutenant Travers, the whole com- 
manded by Captain Napier, disembarked at the back of the 
harbour. The British then ascended the heights, which 
they carried in gallant style, under a heavy fire from the 
French, and who, in great force, in vain attempted, after 
dark, to recover their loss. On the 2nd, Captain Napier 
finding it to be impossible to dislodge the enemy from a 
strong tower which protected the gun-boats, was recalled, 
and returned on board, when both frigates ran close in shore, 
sank two gun-boats, and captured the others. The two 
ships afterwards anchored close to the fort, which was soon 
silenced, and the garrison compelled to surrender. Lieute- 
nant Travers then marched in and took possession of the 
fort, the guns of which were thrown into the sea, and the 
walls and ramparts blown up. Six gun-boats, twenty-two 
feluccas, laden with oil, &c, and twenty large spars, were 
brought off. This was effected on the 3rd, until which time 
the British kept possession of the heights. In performing 
this very dashing and important service, Lieutenant Kay, of 
the 62nd, and four men, were killed, and Lieutenant Pipon 
and ten men wounded. 

On the 10th of November, the lG-gun brig Skylark, 
Commander James Boxer, and 12-gun brig Locust, Lieu- 
tenant John Gedge, pursued twelve French gun-vessels, one 
of which was driven on shore near Calais, and a second, of 
four 24-pounders and sixty men, captured. The action took 
place under the enemy's batteries. The promotion of Lieu- 



382 PERLEN WITH TRIDENT, ETC. [1811. 

tenant Gedge, for the above action, entitled the survivors to 
the naval medal. 

. At daylight on the 22nd of November, as the 38-gun 
frigates Volontaire and Perlen, Captains the Honourable 
George G. Waldegrave and Joseph S. Tetley (acting), were 
lying to at the distance of two leagues from Cape Sicie, 
three French line-of-battle ships and two frigates made their 
appearance in the north-west. At 9h. a.m. the Perlen 
exchanged several shot with a French frigate on her lee 
quarter, arid, from her peculiar construction, being a Danish- 
built ship, was enabled to bring several guns to bear with 
such effect, that at lOh. the French frigate bore away out 
of gun-shot. The 74-gun ship Trident and Amelie frigate, 
which had meanwhile been engaged with the Volontaire, 
then stood for the Perlen, and at llh. a.m. opened fire 
upon her. At lh. p.m., finding the enemy to be overhauling 
the ship very fast, Captain Tetley ordered the anchors to be 
cut away ; but at 2h. p.m. the French ships still held their 
own. The Trident, however, at about tins time, having 
yawed to fire her broadside, lost ground, and shortly after- 
wards relinquished the pursuit. The Perlen had her sails 
and rigging much damaged, but fortunately suffered no loss. 

On the 27th of November, the 74-gun ship Eagle, Cap- 
tain Charles Powley, cruising in the Adriatic, chased the 
French 40-gun frigate Uranie, frigate Corceyere, armed en 
flute, and brig Scemplone, from Trieste, bound to Corfu. At 
7h. 30m. p.m., the Corceyere surrendered, having lost her 
fore-topmast by the fire of the British ship and by press of 
sail. The Uranie and brig escaped. 

On the 28th of November, while the 18-pounder 38-gun 
frigates Alceste and Active, and 32-gun frigate Unite, 
Captains Murray Maxwell, James A. Gordon, and Edwin 
H. Chamberlayne, were lying at Port St. George, in the 
island of Lissa, three suspicious sail were discovered to the 
southward. The three British frigates, at 7h. p.m., got 
underway, and stood out to sea, leaving for the protection oi 
the island of Lissa a portion of seamen, and nearly the 
whole of the marines belonging to the three ships, together 
with the 20-gun ship Acorn, Captain George Miller Bligh. 

On the 29th, at 9h. 20m. a.m., the island of Augusta im 
sight, and wind from south-south-west, the Active made! 
the signal for three strange sail, bearing east-north-east,; 



1811.] CAPTURE OF POMONE, ETC. 383 

which at lOh. were made out to be frigates, and at first 
supposed to be the fugitives from Captain Hoste at Lissa ; 
but proved to be the 40-gun frigates Pauline and Pomone, 
Commodore Monfort, ahie, and Captain Rosamel, and 
frigate-built 2G-gun store-ship Persanne, from Corfu, bound 
to Trieste, laden with iron and brass ordnance for the use 
of the French squadron and batteries. On perceiving the 
British frigates, the three French ships hauled to the wind 
on the larboard tack and stood towards them ; but dis- 
covering their true character, bore up north-west, and set 
studding-sails. At llh., the Persanne being unable to keep 
way with the Pomone and Pauline, bore up before the wind, 
and the Active was about to follow her, but was recalled by 
Captain Maxwell, and the Unite, as the dullest sailer, 
ordered to go in pursuit of that ship. The Adceste and 
Active then continued the pursuit of the Pauline and 
Pomone, and at llh. 50m. the British frigates were found 
to be gaining in the chase. Captain Maxwell about this 
time telegraphed to the Active, " Remember the battle of 
Lissa." At thirty minutes past twelve, just as the island of 
Pelagosa bore from the Alceste south-west, distant five 
leagues, the Persanne was observed to fire her stern chasers 
at the Unit§, and at lh. 20m. p.m. the Alceste, going at the 
rate of nine miles an hour, with the wind on the larboard 
quarter, fired a shot at the Pomone, which ship immediately 
hoisted her colours, and fired a shot in return, which 
splintered the Alceste's main-topgallant-mast. The Pau- 
line being a short distance ahead of her consort, also hoisted 
her colours and a broad pendant. At lh. 24m. the Alceste, 
still under a crowd of sail in order to overtake the French 
commodore, exchanged broadsides with the Pomone ; but 
unfortunately, at lh. 40m., her main-topmast was shot away, 
the wreck falling over the starboard side, and the Alceste 
consequently dropped astern. Cries of " Vive l'Empereur !" 
resounded from both the French ships at this mishap, but 
their exultations were not of any very long continuance. 

About 2h., the Active having gallantly shot ahead to 
occupy the place of the Alceste, opened fire upon the star- 
board quarter of the Pomone, and soon brought that ship 
to close action. About 2h. 20m. the Pauline hauled close 
to the wind on the larboard tack, and stood for the Alceste, 
and having taken a position on her weather beam, these 



384 CAPTAIN GORDON WOUNDED. [1811. 

ships at 2h. 30m. became closely engaged. At 3h. 5m. 
the French commodore, observing that the Pomone was 
osing ground with the Active, quitted the Alcert* and 
haulin- his wind on the starboard tack, crowded all sail 
and cot away. The 18-gun corvette Kingfisher, Commander 
EweB Tritton, just at this time hove in sight. The Active 
bavin- unavoidably shot ahead of the Pomone, a cessation ot 
the firing took place, and at 3h. 40m the Alceste ranged up 
on the Pomone's larboard beam, and opened her fire. Ine 
main and mizen masts of the French frigate soon afterwards 
fell and a union jack was then shown in token of surrender. 
The Alceste, whose crew amounted to no more than lJo 
men and boys, had Charles Nourse, midshipman, and six 
seamen killed, and Lieutenant Andrew Wilson and twelve 
men wounded. The Active's crew had also been reduced 
to about the same number, out of which George Osborne 
midshipman, five seamen, and two marines were lolled ; and 
Captain Gordon* (left leg amputated), Lieutenants \V illiam 
B Dashwood (arm amputated) and George Haye, twenty- 
one seamen, and three marines wounded. The Pomone was 
reduced by the Active s fire to a sinking state, and her loss 
out of 332 men and boys, amounted to fifty killed and 
wounded, including among the latter Captain Rosamel. 

About 4h. the Persanne received the Unites fire and 
having returned it, hauled down her colours The Lnite 
was much damaged in masts, sails, and rigging, but had only 
one man wounded. Lieutenants Dashwood and Haye of 
the Active, were promoted on the 19th of May ,1812 and 
Lieutenant Wilson, of the Alceste on the 1 7th of Sep- 
tember. The acting master of the Alceste Howard Moore 
who was spoken highly of in Captain Maxwells official 
letter, was subsequently promoted to the rank of lieutenant. 
The above is a naval medal action. 

i Captain Gordon received his wound during the heat of faction 
The shot which caused it came through a port-hole, grazed a carronade 
SmM off a seaman's leg before *^J*£fi?£S2. 
W it struck at the knee joint, and severed it as though done bj aUniie. 
If he wTsbetng carried Low, he calmly directed Lieutenant Dashwood 
to do hlTbest and -ave similar advice to Lieutenant Haye, on the man 

IX in ^eVrntof anything ^^T^t^tT^^^ 
shortlv afterwards Lieutenant Dashwood had his arm shot a%\ ay am 
SSSaSe succeeded to the command, and continued to fight the 
ship until the Pomone's surrender. 



1812.] SOUTHAMPTON AND AMETHYSTE. 



38o 



1812. 



On the 2nd of February a very severe action was fought 
by the 12-pounder 3 2 -gun frigate Southampton, Captain Sir 
James L. Yeo, and Amethyste, of forty-four guns, late a 
French frigate, but at this time in the service of the Hay- 
tian government. The Amethyste was commanded by M. 
Gaspard, a noted privateersman ; and as upon examination 
it was found that his only commission was one signed by 
" Borgellat, general-in-chief of the south of Hayti," Sir 
James Yeo considered himself under the necessity of de- 
manding that the frigate should accompany the Southampton 
to Port Royal, Jamaica, in order that the admiral should 
decide as to its legality. Compliance with his demand 
being positively refused, at 6h. 30m. a.m. the action com- 
menced, and before 7h. the main and mizen masts of the 
Amethyste fell, and her state was evidently one of despera- 
tion, but a feeble and irregular fire was still maintained. 
At 7h. 45m, desirous to put an end to the contest, the 
Southampton ceased firing, and Sir James Yeo hailed to 
know if the frigate, whose colours had been shot away, had 
surrendered, and was answered in the affirmative. The loss 
on board the Haytian frigate was very great. Her crew 
-consisted of 700 men, of almost every nation, of whom 105 
were killed and 120 wounded, including Gaspard. The 
Southampton's loss was one killed and ten wounded. The 
Amethyste, whose foremast and bowsprit were also o-one, 
was taken to Jamaica, and subsequently restored to Chris- 
tophe; but Sir James Yeo's proceedings Vere entirely 
approved of by his commander-in-chief. 

On the 13th of February, at daylight, the 38-gun frigate 
Apollo, Captain Bridges W. Taylor, chased off Cape Corse 
the French frigate-built 20-gun store-ship Merinos, in com- 
pany with a ship-corvette. The Apollo having closed with 
the Merinos, commenced a running fight, but the latter did 
not surrender until six of her men were killed and twenty 
VOL. ii. 2 c 



386 VICTORIOUS AND RIVOLI. [1812. 

wounded. The corvette effected her escape. In conse- 
quence of the calm which prevailed at the termination of 
the action, the Apollo was exposed for some hours to the 
fire of two batteries, but fortunately sustained no loss. 

On the 16th of February, the 74-gun ship Victorious, 
Captain John Talbot, accompanied by the 18-gun brig 
Weasel, Commander John W. Andrew, arrived off Venice to 
watch the motions of the French 74-gun ship Rivoli, Com- 
modore Barre, with which some brigs of war were lying at 
anchor in the port. On the 21st, Captain Talbot was 
enabled to reconnoitre the port, and at 2h. 30m. p.m. a 
brig was descried to the eastward, and at 3h. a large ship, 
with two more brigs and two settees, were also seen. The 
ship was the Kivoli, with the brigs Jena and Mercure, of six- 
teen guns, and the Mamelouck of eight guns, and the settees 
were & gun-boats; all about twelve hours' sail from Venice, 
bound to Pola, in Istria. The enemy's squadron was formed 
in line of battle, the gun-boats and one brig ahead, and the 
two other brigs astern of the Rivoli. All sail was instantly 
made in chase, and at 2h. 30m. p.m. on the 22nd, the Rivoli 
having shortened sail to allow one of the brigs to close, 
Captain Talbot directed the Weasel to bring the sternmost 
brig to action, and accordingly, at 4h. 15m., that brig 
opened fire upon the Mercure within pistol-shot. In a 
short time the Jena, taking a position on the Weasel's 
bow, also commenced firing at her, although distantly; 
but 'at about 5h. the Mercure suddenly blew up, and the 
Jena crowded sail to get away. The boats of the Weasel 
were immediately lowered in the hope of rescuing the 
unfortunate crew, but only succeeded in saving three men. 
At daylight the Weasel regained sight of the Jena and 
Manielouck, and made all sail in pursuit, using her sweeps 
occasionally. 

At 4h. 30m. A.M., just after the Weasel had begun to fire 
on the Mercure, in the manner already mentioned, the Vic- 
torious, having a light breeze on her larboard beam, arrived 
within 'half pistol-shot of the larboard beam of the Eivoli, 
and the two ships, with courses hauled up, but with royaU 
set and standing in towards the Gulf of Trieste, furiously 
engaged for three hours. In the early part of the action 
Captain Talbot was badly wounded, and nearly deprived ot 



1812.] CAPTURE OF THE RIVOLI. 



387 



his sight by a splinter, and obliged to quit the deck when 
the command devolved on Lieutenant Thomas Ladd Peake 
The Rivoli, at about 7h. 30m., being almost unmanageable and 
her guns nearly silenced, and the Victorious, after her three 
hours' action, also in a disabled state, the Weasel was re- 
called m order to render such assistance as might be required 
in the event of either ship taking the ground, they bein«- at 
that time in only seven fathoms water. At 8h 40m °the 
Weasel, standing across the bows of the Rivoli within musket 
shot, discharged her broadside, and wearing and tackina as 
necessary, repeated the manoeuvre twice, the Victorious in 
the mean time maintaining a steady lire, which at 8h 45m 
shot away her opponent's mizenmast. At 9h. the Rivoli 
fired a gun to leeward, and hailed to say that she had struck 
Port Legman then bore north-north-west, about seven iniles 
distant. 

The Victorious had her rigging cut to pieces, gaff and 
spanker boom shot away, topmasts and mainmast badly 
wounded, boats destroyed, and huU shattered ; and out of a 
S e¥ n l 5 f me ? and b ° JS > Lieut enant of marines Thomas 
11. Griffiths and twenty-five seamen were killed; Captain 
lalbot, Lieutenant of marines Robert S. Ashbridge (mortally), 
William H. Gibbons and George H. Ayton, master's mates 
and Henry Bolton and Joseph Ray, midshipmen, and ninety- 
three men wounded. Total : twenty-seven killed and ninety- 
nine wounded. The Weasel had not a man hurt The 
Rivoli, out of 810 men, had 400 killed and wounded, in- 
cluding her second captain and many officers. Her fore and 
mam masts were so much injured that they fell a few days 
atter the action. J 

The action is one which redounds much to the honour of 
both nations A gold medal was granted to Captain Talbot 
who was a so knighted, Lieutenant Peake made a com- 
mander, and Commander Andrew advanced" to post rank 
Ihe Rivoli was conducted in safety to Port St. George, Lissa 
and subsequently added to the British navy under the same 
name. Ihe above is a naval medal action 

On the 27th of March, the 10-gun brig Rosario (eight 
18-pounder carronades and two long sixes), Commander 
Booty Harvey, chased a division of the Boulogne flotilla con- 
sisting of twelve brigs and a lugger, standing along the 
2c2 



388 HOSARIO AND BOULOGNE FLOTILLA. [1812. 

"French coast near Dieppe. Each of the brigs mounted three 
long 24-pounders and an 8-inch howitzer, a«nd was manned 
with fifty men. As the Rosario stood on to cut off the 
leewardmost brig, the whole, by signal from the commodore, 
formed in line, and severally engaged the British brig as she 
passed on the opposite tack, and when the Rosario luffed up 
to cut off the stemmost brig, the remaining eleven bore down 
to support their consort. The Rosario, with the signal flying 
for an enemy, now bore up towards a brig observed in the 
offin»; but as soon as the stranger, which was the 16-gun 
briff 1 Griffon, Commander George B. Trollope, had answered 
the signal, the Rosario again hauled to the wind, and at forty 
minutes past noon recommenced an attack on the enemy's 
rear. 

At lh. 30m. p.m. the Rosario gallantly ran amongst the 
body of the flotilla, and having damaged the running rigging 
of two brigs, they fell foul of each other. After engaging 
them in this position until they got clear, she stood on for a 
third brig, which, losing her mainmast and fore-topmast, 
dropped her anchor. Passing this brig, the Rosario drove the 
next on shore. Two others were then to leeward, not three- 
quarters of a mile from the shore ; and bearing up for these, 
the Rosario ran the nearest on board and quickly carried her. 
As the Rosario hauled off with her prize, the Griffon arrived 
from the offing, and drove a brig on shore near St. Aubin, 
where she was protected from further molestation by heavy 
batteries. Commander Trollope then ran in shore of the 
nine brigs at anchor, and in the most gallant manner boarded 
and carried the centre one, and taking her in tow, stood out 
with his prize in the face of a heavy fire from the remaining 
eight brigs, as well as from the batteries. The Rosario, thus 
spiritedly supported, now ran alongside the brig she had dis- 
masted in the morning, which was found to have been 
abandoned by her crew ; and the two brigs made sail with 
their prizes, leaving the seven remaining French brigs to 
enter Dieppe. The only casualty on board the Rosario in 
this most dashing performance was one midshipman, Jonathan 
W. Dyer, and four men wounded. Commander Harvey was 
most deservedly rewarded by promotion, and Mr. Dyer was 
made a lieutenant. The naval medal is awarded to the 
Rosario and Griffon for the above gallant achievement. 



1812.] BOATS OF HYACINTH. ETC. AT MALAGA. 389 

On the 4th of April, the boats of the Maidstone frigate, 
Captain George Bnrdett, under the command of the first 
lieutenant, Arthur McMeekan, captured, off Cape de Gatt, 
the French privateer Martinet, of two guns and fifty-one 
men. Lieutenant McMeekan was promoted for this service ; 
and those engaged with him therefore became entitled to the 
naval medal. 

On the 29th of April, the boats of the 74-gun ship 
Leviathan, Captain Patrick Campbell, under the orders of 
Lieutenant Alexander Dobbs, boarded and carried a French 
privateer brig, of fourteen guns and eighty men, lying in the 
port of Agaye. The brig being aground, could not be got 
off, but the boats succeeded in capturing and bringing out 
four merchant vessels; in performing which service, two 
men were killed and four wounded by the fire from the 
shore. 

On the 29 th of April, the boats of a small squadron, under 
Captain Thomas Ussher, in the 20-gun ship Hyacinth (con- 
sisting of the 16-gun sloop Goshawk, Commander James 
Lilburne, gun-brig Resolute, and No. 16 gun-boat, Lieu- 
tenants John Keenan and Thomas Cull (6) ), employed on 
the coast of Malaga, performed a gallant service. Several 
swift row-boats, under a chief named Barbastro, had com- 
mitted great ravages upon the merchant shipping; and, 
unable to decoy them out, Captain Ussher determined to 
attack them in port. The expedition was commanded by 
Captain Ussher in person, assisted by Lieutenants Francis 
B. Spilsbury and Thomas Hastings, and John Elgar, purser 
(all of the Hyacinth) ; Commander Lilburne, and Lieutenants 
Cull, Keenan, Allan Otty, and Joseph Arnold. At 9h. p.m. 
the gun-boat and boats of the squadron started. The 
entrance to the harbour was defended by a battery on the 
mole-head, which battery Captain Ussher gallantly attacked 
and carried. The gun-boat (in which Commander Lilburne 
was embarked), and the other boats then pushed on, boarded 
and captured the row-boats. The success, however, was 
doomed to meet with a drawback. The castle overlooking 
the harbour opened a heavy fire on the boats, which a glimpse 
of moonshine made visible, and a French infantry regiment 
attacked the mole-head battery just as Captain Ussher had 
spiked the guns preparatory to its evacuation. A fire of 



390 RECAPTURE OF THE APELLES. [1812. 

musketry was also opened from the mole-wall, by which 
Commander Lilburne was killed, just as Captain XJssher had 
reassumed the command afloat. Thus assailed from all sides, 
the prizes, with the exception of Barbastro's vessel and the 
Napoleon, were abandoned. The latter were brought off. 
The loss amounted to fifteen, including Commander Lilburne, 
killed ; and fifty-three, including Lieutenants Spilsbury and 
Arnold, wounded. The naval medal is granted for the above 
action. 

On the 3rd of May, Commander Alexander Cunningham, 
in the 10-gun brig Bermuda, having been informed that the 
brigs Skylark and Apelles, Commanders James Boxer and 
Frederick Hoffman, were on shore near Boulogne, weighed 
from under Dungeness, in company with the Rinaldo, Com- 
mander Sir William G. Parker, and stood over for the French 
coast. On the 4th, at daybreak, the Apelles (which in the 
meanwhile had been captured by the French and got afloat) 
was seen running along the land, under jury-masts, and at 
9h. a.m. the British vessels drove her on shore under a 
battery ; but the falling tide obliged them to stand off again. 
At 2h. 30m. p.m. the 18-gun brig Castilian, and 14-gun 
schooner Phipps, Commanders David Brainier and Thomas 
Wells, having joined, the Bermuda, followed in the line of 
battle by the other vessels, stood in under the battery, and, 
in succession, fired their broadsides into the Apelles. The 
boats of the squadron, under the command of Lieutenant 
Thomas Saunders, of the Bermuda, then pushed for and 
boarded the Apelles ; and although exposed to a heavy fire 
of grape and musketry from the shore, the brig was got 
afloat and brought off. Notwithstanding the incessant fire 
kept up from the shore, no one on board the British vessels 
was hurt. The officers and crew of the Skylark, after 
destroying their vessel by fire, arrived in safety on board the 
squadron. Commander Cunningham was promoted on the 
12th of August following. 

On the 9th of May, the 74-gun ships Leviathan and 
America, Captains Josias Rowley and Patrick Campbell, and 
18-gun brig Eclair, Commander John Bellamy, fell in with 
a French convoy of eighteen sail, which took shelter under 
the town and batteries of Languelia. In order to get posses- 
sion of the batteries, the marines of both ships, 250 in 



1812.] BOATS OF LEVIATHAN, ETC. AT LANGUELIA. 391 

number, were landed, under the orders of Captains of 
marines Henry Bea (America) and John Owen (Leviathan), 
and Lieutenants John Neame, William B. Cock, Paul K. 
Carden, and John G. Hill. In endeavouring to effect a 
landing, the yawl of the America was sunk, and ten marines 
and one seaman drowned. The remainder having landed, a 
division under Captain Owen was ordered to advance upon a 
5-gun battery to the eastward, which he most judiciously and 
gallantly attacked and carried, the French officer in command 
falling in its defence. In the mean time the main body 
pushed forward and captured a battery adjoining the town 
of Languelia, which was protected by a body of infantry, 
posted in an adjoining wood and several contiguous 
buildings. 

The Eclair having swept in close to the beach, now 
opened her fire, and in a short time dislodged the enemy 
from the houses skirting the shore ; after which the boats of 
the squadron, in which were Lieutenants William Richard- 
son, Bouchier Molesworth, and Robert Moodie, of the 
America, and Alexander Dobbs and Richard Hambly, of the 
Leviathan, together with John Harvey, master's mate, and 
several midshipmen, not named in the despatch, then pro- 
ceeded to bring out the vessels. Not without great exertion, 
sixteen laden vessels were brought out, and two, being much 
damaged by shot, were destroyed. The marines re-embarked 
in perfect order, under cover of the Eclair's fire ; but, in 
performing this gallant service, one serjeant, and three 
privates, and one seaman were killed ; and eighteen marines 
and two seamen wounded. Total : killed and drowned, six- 
teen; wounded, twenty. 

Another convoy of eighteen vessels having assembled at 
Languelia and Alassio, the Leviathan, 38-gun frigate Impe- 
rieuse, Captain the Honourable Henry Duncan, and 36-gun 
frigate Curacoa, Captain John Tower, together with the brig 
Eclair, disembarked their marines, under Captain John 
Owen, between the two towns. The marines were scarcely 
formed on the beach when they were attacked by treble 
their number ; but nothing could withstand the bravery of 
the officers and men, who charged the enemy at the point of 
the bayonet, and ultimately drove them from the two 
batteries into the town, killing many and making fourteen 



392 DESTRUCTION OF FRENCH FRIGATES AND [1812 

prisoners. After spiking nine guns and a mortar, and 
destroying their carriages, the marines re-embarked ; but as 
the French troops could not be dislodged from the houses, it 
was judged imprudent to attempt to bring out the vessels, as 
it must have been attended with a heavy loss. One seaman 
and three marines were killed \ and Lieutenant William 
Walpole, one seaman, and nine marines wounded. 

On the 14th of May, the 32-gun frigate Thames, Captain 
Charles Napier, accompanied by the 18-gun brig Pilot, Com- 
mander John Toup Nicolas, attacked the port of Sapri, 
which was defended by a strong battery, and a tower mount- 
ing two 32-pounders, and garrisoned with an officer and 
thirty-eight men. After battering the fort for two hours, 
within pistol-shot, the garrison surrendered at discretion. 
Twenty-eight vessels, some a quarter of a mile from the 
shore, were launched, and the battery blown up before sunset. 
The master, Roger Landlands, on this as on many previous 
occasions, greatly distinguished himself ; and for his skill and 
gallantry was promoted to the rank of lieutenant a few 
months afterwards. 

On the 22nd of May, the 74-gun ship Northumberland, 
Captain the Honourable Henry Hotham, and gun-brig 
Growler, Lieutenant John Weeks, having been despatched 
by Rear-Admiral Sir Harry B. Neale, to cruise off L'Orient 
in search of the French 40-gun frigates Arienne and Andro- 
maque, and 16-gun brig Mamelouck, which had committed 
great depredations upon English merchant vessels, succeeded 
in gaining sight of them off the Isle of Groix. After a long 
and most gallantly-conducted chase and running fight, the 
French ships (in a great measure by the skilful pilotage of 
the Northumberland's master, Hugh Stewart) were driven on 
shore upon a ridge of rocks inside the Graul, and although 
protected by the guns of a powerful battery, they were 
destroyed by the fire of the Northumberland and Growler. 
The loss on board the British seventy-four, occasioned in part 
by the fire of the batteries along the coast, during this chase, 
amounted to five men killed, and Lieutenant William 
Fletcher, twenty-two seamen, and five marines wounded, 
four of them dangerously, and ten severely. The Growler, 
though very gallantly engaged, sustained no loss. The com- 
mander of the Growler, and Lieutenant John Banks, of the 



1812.] CUTTING OUT THE DORADE. 39o 

Northumberland, were very deservedly promoted. « The naval 
medal is awarded for this action. 

On the 28th of May, at 7h. 30m. a.m., the 38-gun frigate 
Menelaus, Captain Sir Peter Parker, Bart., being off Cape 
Sicie, got sight of a frigate and brig in Hieres Bay, endea- 
vouring, with the wind at east-south-east, to enter Toulon 
by the Petite Passe. All sail was instantly made upon the 
Menelaus to cut them off, when the enemy's ships, which 
were the 40-gun frigate Pauline and 16-gun brig Ecuriel, 
shortened sail to topsails, and hauled upon a wind to seek the 
protection of the French fleet, of eleven sail of the line and 
six frigates, which had just weighed from the road. As 
soon as these were sufficiently advanced, the frigate and brig- 
bore up for Toulon. The Menelaus, although the British 
squadron under Pear- Admiral Hallowell was hull down to 
leeward, continued the chase, and at 9h. 30m., when close 
under Pointe Ecampebarion, opened fire within musket-shot 
on the frigate and brig. At lOh. a shot from a battery cut 
the fore-topmast of the Menelaus almost in two, and obliged 
her to wear and stand out to sea. 

On the 4th of June, the boats of the 32-gun frigate 
Medusa, Captain the Honourable Duncan P. Bouverie, under 
the orders of Lieutenant Josiah Thompson, were sent to cut 
out the French store-ship Dorade, of fourteen guns and 
eighty-six men, lying in the harbour of Arcasson. Although 
the French were fully prepared, the ship was boarded and 
carried after a desperate resistance, in which twenty-three of 
her crew were either killed or wounded. In endeavouring 
to bring out the prize, she grounded on a sand-bank, and it 
being found necessary to destroy her, she was set on fire and 
shortly afterwards blew up. Five men of the boarding party 
were wounded. 

On the 16th of June, a small squadron, including the 
18-gun brig Swallow, was off the island of St. Marguerite, 
watching a French convoy, which had sailed from Toulon on 
the 11th under the protection of the 16-gun brig Renard, 
and 14-gun schooner Goeland, and some gun-boats. At 
daybreak on the 16th, the Swallow, Commander Edward P. 
Sibly, being close in shore and nearly becalmed, the French 
brig and schooner stood off with a light air of wind, for the 
purpose of attacking her ; but at 6h. a.m., the Swallow 



394: SWALLOW WITH RENARD AND GOELAND. [1812.. 

having got • a breeze, was hauling towards thern to hasten on 
the action, when the Renard and Goeland endeavoured to 
s^ain the anchorage in Frejus Bay. At a little past noon on 
the same day, the French vessels having received on board a 
number of volunteers, and also a detachment of soldiers, 
again stood out with the intention of attacking the Swallow ; 
and at lh. p.m. the Swallow, on the larboard tack, was 
enabled to pass the Renard on the starboard tack, and at 
thirty yards' distance gave her a broadside ; then veering 
round under the stern brought her to action to leeward. 
The schooner was able to take up an effective position and 
called the Swallow much. After several ineffectual attempts 
by the French to board, and the action having lasted forty 
minutes, the brig and schooner crowded all sail and took 
shelter under the heavy batteries which lined the shore. The 
Swallow, in her gallant encounter, out of 109 men had six 
killed and seventeen wounded, including among the latter 
the purser, Eugene Ryan, who had gallantly volunteered his 
services on deck. The loss of the Renard, out of 180, 
including volunteers and troops, amounted to fourteen killed, 
and twenty-eight, including Lieutenant Baudin, wounded. 
The loss on board the Goeland is not stated. In his official 
letter, Captain Sibly mentioned in high terms of approbation 
his first lieutenant, Daniel O'Shea, acting Lieutenant John 
Theed, the master, James Crocker, and Master's mate 
Thomas Cole. 

On the 19th of June, Commander John Ross, in the 
10-gun brig Briseis, having been despatched to communicate 
with the merchant ship Urania, lying in Pillau Roads, 
finding her in possession of a party of French troops, des- 
patched the pinnace, under Lieutenant Thomas Jones (2), 
with William Palmer, midshipman, and eighteen men, to 
bring her out. In the face of a smart fire from great guns 
and musketry, the Urania was gallantly boarded and car- 
ried ; but in the execution of tins service the British had 
one seaman killed, and Mr. Palmer and one seaman slightly 
wounded. 

On the 18th of June the American Congress formally de- 
clared war against England ; and on the 21st Commodore 
Rogers, then at New York with the President and United 
States (the latter commanded by Commodore Stephen Decatur \ 



1812.] BELVIDERA AND AMERICAN SQUADRON. 395 

18-pounder 36-gun frigate Congress, 18-gun corvette Hornet, 
and 16-gun brig Argus, Captains John Smith, James Law- 
rence, and Arthur Sinclair, received orders to sail. The first 
object of the American commodore was to obtain possession 
of the homeward-bound West-India fleet, which had sailed 
under convoy of the 36-gun frigate Thalia, Captain James G. 
Vashon,and 18-gun brig Reindeer, Commander Wm. Manners. 
Having heard at 3h. a.m. of the 23rd, that this fleet had been 
seen steering to the eastward, the commodore directed his 
course accordingly, and would in all probability have suc- 
ceeded in effecting his design, had he not at 6h. a.m. gained 
sight, when about thirty-five miles south-west of Nantucket 
Shoal, of the 18-pounder 36-gun frigate Belvidera, Captain 
Richard Byron, at this time standing towards the American 
squadron. At 6h. 30m., within six miles of the squadron, 
Commodore Rogers dissipated any doubt which might have 
existed in Captain Byron's mind as to his intention, by haul- 
ing up on the starboard tack in chase. The wind was 
moderate from west-north-west, and the President, the lead- 
ing ship of the squadron, bore from the Belvidera about 
south-west by west, when the latter set her larboard stud- 
ding-sails, and bore up north-east by east. At llh. the wind 
fell lighter, and drew more from the westward, and. at 
llh. 30m. the Belvidera hoisted her colours, as did also the 
Americans, and the two commodores their broad pendants. 
Captain Byron now made every preparation for action. Two 
of the main- deck guns were got aft to the stern ports formed 
by cutting down the cabin windows, and two carronades 
on the quarter-deck were pointed through the chase-ports 
abaft. The Americans, but particularly the President, con- 
tinued to gain in the chase, and the wind having drawn 
more from the southward, the ships were all nearly before it 
steering north-east. 

At 4h. 20m. p.m. the President, being on the larboard 
quarter of the Belvidera, distant about 600 yards, com- 
menced firing her bow guns, the first three shot taking 
effect in the Belvidera's rudder-coat and counter. The 
fourth shot struck the muzzle of the larboard chase-gun on. 
the main deck, and, breaking into several pieces, killed one 
man, mortally wounded another, severely wounded two, and 
slightly wounded Lieutenant William Henry Bruce, and two 



396 BELVIDERA AND AMERICAN SQUADRON. [1812. 

men standing beside him in the act of pointing the gun. At 
4h. 25m. the Belvidera opened fire upon the President, and 
shortly afterwards one of the President's 24-pounders burst, 
killing and wounding sixteen persons, including Commodore 
Rogers, and the main and forecastle decks were so much 
injured by the explosion, that it was found, according to 
their own accounts, impossible to use them again. For ten 
minutes the firing of the President was suspended ; but 
instead of continuing under all sail steering a steady course, 
which in less than half an hour must have brought her 
alongside the Belvidera, the President's helm was star- 
boarded, and rounding to, she fired a broadside, and 
consequently lost nearly half a mile in the chase. The 
broadside did considerable injury to the sails and rigging of 
the Belvidera, but scarcely touched her hull. The most 
serious difficulty the Belvidera now experienced was the 
breaking of the breeching-bolts, and hooks of her chase- 
guns, by a blow from one of which Captain Byron received 
a severe contusion on the leg. The alacrity of the British 
crew, however, remedied these disasters as fast as they 
occurred, and the firing was continued with great spirit and 
accurate aim, Captain Byron and his first lieutenant, John 
Sykes, directing the quarter-deck carronades, and Lieutenants 
Bruce and George Price Campbell the main-deck guns. At 
5h. the President was again advancing steadily, and with the 
same prospect of getting alongside ; but apparently not over 
anxious for such a consummation, a second time rounded 
to, and fired another broadside. The damages sustained were 
speedily repaired by the seamen under the orders of the 
master, James Kerr, and the chase was continued as before. 
At 6h. 20m., the President's superior sailing had a third 
time brought her under the stern of the Belvidera, when she 
again yawed, and discharged two broadsides ; after receiving 
which, the Belvidera also put her helm down, but without 
beins able to fire her broadside with effect. It beintj evident 
that the President was able to run alongside the Belvidera 
at pleasure, Captain Byron determined to try to improve the 
sailing of his ship by cutting away all her anchors except her 
best bower ; but it is doubtful if this would have succeeded, 
had not the President, with a shyness which must have been 
painfully evident to all her consorts, waived her advantages, 



1812.] DESTRUCTION OF A DANISH SQUADRON. 397 

by yawing about instead of keeping a steady course. At 
Gh. 30m. the Congress, being abreast of the President, com- 
menced firing ; but her shot falling short, she very soon dis- 
continued it. To get rid of this second adversary, the Bel- 
videra's yawl, barge, gig, and jolly-boat were thrown over- 
board or cut away, and fourteen tons of water started. The 
effect of this was evident, and at 8h. p.m. the pursuing fri- 
gates had dropped two miles, and at llh. 25m. the Presi- 
dent, then three miles astern of her chase, hove to and 
rejoined her consorts. 1 

The grand aim of Commodore Rogers was destroyed by 
tins his unfortunate chase. His cruise was almost barren, 
and the West-India convoy reached England six days after 
the American squadron returned to New York. In addition 
to the loss already mentioned, the Belvidera, out of a crew of 
230 men, had seventeen slightly wounded, making her total 
loss two killed and twenty-two wounded. The American 
official account makes the President's loss amount to two 
midshipmen and one marine killed ; the commodore, one 
lieutenant, one lieutenant of marines, three midshipmen, and 
twelve seamen wounded. The President's damages were so 
extensive, that it took a day to repair them. The Belvidera 
reached HaHfax on the 27th of July, carrying news equi- 
valent to a formal declaration of war. 

On the 6th of July, in the evening, as the 64-gun ship 
Dictator, Captain James Pattison Stewart, 18-gun brig 
Calypso, and 14-gun brig Podargus, Commanders Henry 
Weir and William Robilliard, together with the gun-brig 
Plamer, Lieutenant Thomas England, were off Mardoe on 
the coast of Norway, the mastheads of a Danish squadron, 
consisting of the 24-pounder 40-gun frigate Nayaden, and 
1 8-gun brigs Laaland, Samsoe, and Kiel, and a large number 
of gun-boats, were discovered over the rocks. Commander 
Robilliard volunteered to lead the British^ ships to the 
attack ; but the Podargus took the ground on entering the 
passage. Leaving the Flamer to assist the Podargus, Cap- 
tain Stewart proceeded with the Dictator and Calypso, and 
at 7h. 30m. p.m. arrived within a mile of the Danes, and 

1 A very clever picture, representing the Belvidera and the American 
squadron, painted by Huggins, is, we believe, in possession of Messieurs 
Stilwell, navy agents. 



398 DESTRUCTION OF A DANISH SQUADRON. [1812. 

shortly afterwards commenced the engagement. The Calypso 
having touched the ground, was now astern of the Dictator ; 
but the two ships, at 9h. 30m., after having sailed twelve 
miles through a passage in some places scarcely wide enough 
to allow room for the Dictator's studding-sail booms, Captain 
Stewart ran his ship aground within hail, but with her 
broadside bearing upon the four ships of the enemy, which 
had anchored close together in the small creek of Lyngoe. 
The Calypso closely followed the Dictator, and both opened 
such a well-directed fire, that the frigate (described as having 
been "battered to atoms") and brigs surrendered, but the 
gun-boats escaped. Meanwhile the Podargus and Flamer 
were engaged with the batteries and a division of Danish 
gun-boats ; but at length, after very great exertions, they 
were got afloat, though much cut up. 

At 3h. a.m. on the 7th, the Dictator, Calypso, and the two 
prize brigs, in charge of Lieutenants James Wilkie and 
Benjamin Hooper, in attempting to get through the passage, 
were attacked by gun-boats stationed behind the rocks in 
such a manner that not a gun could be brought to bear on 
them. Both brigs grounded, and were abandoned. 

The Dictator had five men killed ; John S. Hooper, mid- 
shipman, Thomas Farmer, clerk, and twenty-two men 
wounded : Podargus, George Garratt, purser, Thomas Robil- 
liard, midshipman, and seven men wounded : Calypso, three 
men killed, one wounded, and two missing : Flamer, one 
killed, and James Powell, midshipman, wounded : making a 
total of nine killed and thirty- five wounded. The loss of the 
Danes is stated to have been 300 killed and wounded. 
Commanders Weir and Bobilliard, and Lieutenant William 
Buchanan, first of the Dictator, were promoted. The naval 
medal has been awarded for this action. 

On the 16th of July, three boats of the 18-gun corvette 
Osprey, and 10-gun brigs Britomart and Leveret, Com- 
manders Timothy Clinch, William B. Hunt, and George W. 
Willes, under the orders of Lieutenants William H. Dixon, 
William Malone (2), and Francis D. Romney, were despatched 
in chase of a privateer lugger off Heligoland, which they 
succeeded in capturing, after a very determined resistance. 
The prize was the Eole, of Dunkerque, pierced for fourteen 



1812.] SEALARK AND VILLE DE CAEN. 399 

guns, but having only six mounted. The British had two sea- 
men killed, and Lieutenant Dixon and eleven men wounded. 

On the 21st of July, the 10-gun schooner Sealark, Lieu- 
tenant Thomas Warrand, chased, off the Start Point, the 
Ville de Caen French lugger privateer, of St. Malo, of six- 
teen long 6-pounders and seventy-five men. The Sealark ran 
the lugger on board between her fore and main masts, and a 
furious engagement commenced, which continued one hour 
and a half. The privateer having been set on fire by some 
grenades unskilfully thrown by some of her crew, James 
Beaver, acting master of the Sealark, at the head of a few 
men, boarded and carried her without further opposition. 
The Sealark, in her severe action, out of a crew of sixty men 
and boys, had her captain's clerk, John Purnel, five seamen, 
and one marine killed ; and her commander, Alexander 
Gunn, midshipman, seventeen seamen, and three marines 
wounded. The Ville de Caen lost her captain and fourteen 
men, and had sixteen men wounded. Lieutenant Warrand 
was most deservedly promoted to the rank of commander. 
The above is a naval medal action. 

On the 1st of August, the 38-gun frigate Horatio, Captain 
Lord George Stewart, being off the coast of Norway, de- 
tached four boats, containing about eighty men, under the 
orders of Lieutenants Abraham M. Hawkins, Thomas J. P. 
Masters, Lieutenant of marines George Syder, and James 
Christy, master's mate, to attack an armed cutter anchored 
among the rocks, but which subsequently had entered a 
creek, and was at the distance of more than thirty miles 
from the sea. On the 2nd, at 8h. a.m., the vessel, which 
mounted four long 6-pounders, and had on board a crew of 
twenty-two men, was observed in company with a Danish 
schooner of six 6-pounders and thirty men, together with an 
American ship of 400 tons, their prize. These three vessels 
were moored with springs on their cables, and as the boats 
advanced, opened a very galling fire ; notwithstanding which, 
liowever, they were boarded and carried after an obstinate 
and sanguinary resistance. The British loss amounted to 
Lieutenant Syder, seven seamen, and one marine killed ; and 
Lieutenants Hawkins and Masters, James Larans, assistant 
surgeon (mortally), the boatswain, William Hughes, Thomas 



400 MR. DWYER AT BIENDOM. [1812. 

Fowler, midshipman (severely), nine seamen, and two marines 
wounded. Total : nine killed and sixteen wounded. The 
Danes had ten killed and thirteen wounded. Lieutenant 
Hawkins, for his conduct on this occasion, was made a com- 
mander in the ensuing December. 

On the 10th of August, the 20-gun ship Minstrel, Captain 
John S. Peyton, and 18-gun brig Philomel, Commander 
Charles Shaw, being off the island of Alicant, three small 
French privateers were observed in the port of Biendom, 
under the protection of a castle, on which were mounted 
twenty-four heavy guns. As a further security, two of the 
vessels were hauled on shore, and six of their guns landed 
to form a battery, which was manned by their crews, con- 
sisting of eighty men, chiefly Genoese. The position of the 
privateers was so strong, that an attack was deemed unad- 
visable ; but to prevent their escape, a boat was sent at 
night from one or other of the ships to row guard. On the 
12th, the Minstrel's boat, containing seven men, in com- 
mand of Master's mate Michael Dwyer, was sent away on 
this service ; and this young officer, having previously been 
informed by some Spaniards that the French troops had 
quitted the town, and that only thirty men were in the 
battery and twenty in the castle, determined to make an 
attempt upon the battery with his boat's crew. 

At 9h. 30m. p.m., Mr. Dwyer, at the head of Iris daring 
band, landed about three miles to the westward of the town, 
but was almost immediately afterwards challenged by a 
French sentinel, to whom he replied, in Spanish, that they 
were peasants, and they were suffered to proceed undis- 
turbed. These eight men advanced upon the battery, which 
they attacked without hesitation ; and, after a smart 
struggle, the garrison, consisting of eighty instead of twenty 
C4enoese, abandoned the place. Mr. Dwyer had not been 
long in possession of this post, however, before it was sur- 
rounded by 200 French soldiers, and that which he had so 
nobly gained he as desperately disputed. It was not until 
one of his men was killed, himself shot through the shoulder, 
a seaman wounded in the eye, 1 and all their ammunition 

1 This gallant fellow (whose name we regret being unable to record), 
as soon as the stupefaction caused by the wound had in a measure sub- 
sided, deliberately took his handkerchief from his neck, and, binding it 



1812.] ALERT AND ESSEX. 401 

was expended, that his opposition ceased ; upon which the 
soldiers rushed upon their enemies with their bayonets. 
Mr. Dwyer, weak from loss of blood, was unable to offer any 
effectual resistance, and in a short time fell, after receiving 
seventeen bayonet-wounds. Every man of his party, with 
the exception of one, was severely wounded, and the French 
gained possession of the battery. The admiration of Cap- 
tain Foubert and his troops at the invincible courage dis- 
played by Mr. Dwyer and his boat's crew was unbounded ; 
and when the prisoners, in their wounded state, were con- 
veyed to head-quarters, General Goudin participated strongly 
in Captain Foubert's feeling. Captain Peyton was invited 
on shore to dinner, and after receiving the congratulations 
of the French upon the bravery of the young officer lately 
under his command, Mr. Dwyer was released with his fol- 
lowers. For his gallantry on a previous occasion, Mr. Dwyer 
was at this period a lieutenant, which rank we are sorry to 
perceive he still holds. 1 

On the 13th of August, the 16-gun ship-sloop Alert, 
Commander Thomas L. P. Laugharne, while off the coast of 
North America, fell in with the United States 32-gun frigate 
Essex, Captain David Porter, and, probably mistaking the 
frigate's character, bore down, and opened her puny fire. 
This the Essex returned, and in a quarter of an hour the 
Alert, having seven feet water in her hold, and three of her 
men wounded, hauled down her colours. The master, 
Johanson Clering, and purser, William Haggerty, were the 
only officers who stood by their captain ; the remainder and 
the crew were either dismissed the service or severely repri- 
manded by the court-martial subsequently held at Halifax 
upon Captain Laugharne and his officers ; but those above 
named received, on the other hand, the marked approbation 
of the court. The Alert had formerly been the Oxford, 
a collier, but had been converted into an armed vessel, 
and designated a sloop of war. Her armament consisted 
of 18-pounder carronades. The Essex was armed with 

-round his head, said, " Though I have lost one eye, I have one left, and 
I will fight till I lose that too." 

1 A few months after the publication of the first edition of this work, 
Lieutenant Dwyer was made commander, a promotion which had been 
long his due. 

VOL. II. 2 D 



402 



GUERRIERE AND CONSTITUTION. [1812. 



32-pounder carronades on the main deck, and m the whole 
forty-six guns. The capture of the Alert, therefore needs 
no further comment ; and it is only to be regretted that her 
commander had not had a more efficient man-of-war under 
liim, in which case his gallantry would doubtless have pro- 
duced very different results. 

On the 19th of August, at 2h. a.m., the 18-pounder 38-gun 
frigate Guerriere, Captain James Richard Dacres, bemg in 
latitude 40° 20' north, longitude 55° west, standing on a 
wind on the starboard tack, under easy sail, with a fresh 
breeze from north-west, on her way to Halifax to reht, 
observed a large ship on her weather beam. This was the 
United States 44-gun frigate Constitution, Captam Isaac 
Hull, which a few days before had escaped from a British 
squadron after a long chase. 

In addition to a picked crew, composed m great part ol 
British seamen, 1 the American ships were provided with a 
party of marines, or rather of skilful riflemem The only 
departure from the original armament of the Constitution, 
already described, 2 was that of her having exchanged the 
42-pounder carronades for 32-pounders. The main deck ol 
this ship was upwards of eight feet in height, which allowed 
plenty of space for working her large and heavy 24-pounders, 
although they were mounted upon lofty and rather cumber- 
some carriages. The lower sills of her ports were ten feet 
from the water's edge. It would be ridiculous to mstitute 
a comparison between such a ship, manned with 4 i 6 picked 
seamen, and excellent rifle marksmen for marines, and a 
contracted French frigate like the Guerriere, mounting only 

* For many years previously to the war, the Americans had held out 
the most flattering prospects to British seamen to induce them to enter 
tbdr'rvice. In this they had but too well ""^i -""* 
once entrapped them, escape was almost impracticable. It must be 
Dome in mind that most, if not all, of these deluded men, who af to- 
wards fought against their countrymen and former shipmates, were 
enticed from their country's service before the war commenced ; and it 
2 also be mentioned, that when the war really did commence he 
offers of reward to those who continued to serve, and cruelties practised 
on those honourable enough to despise them, had full weight m deter- 
ring many from quitting, or endeavouring to quit, an employment so 



traitorous. 

2 See page 364, ante. 



.1812. 



GUERRIERE AND CONSTITUTION. 403 



the usual armament of her class, and whose crew had dwindled 
down to 250 men and nineteen boys. 

At 3h. 30m. p.m., each ship having discovered the time 
character of the other, cleared for action, and at 4h. 30m. the 
Guerriere backed her main-topsail to expedite the meeting. 
At 4h. 50m., the Guerriere, having hoisted an English ensign 
at the peak, another at the mrzen-topgallant masthead, and 
a union-jack at the fore, opened her starboard broadside 
upon the Constitution ; then filling and wearing round, she 
fired her larboard broadside ; but the shot are described by 
Captain Hull as having fallen short. This would say very 
little in favour of the skill of the British crew, were it not 
known that the powder was of very inferior quality. At 
5h. 5m., the Constitution, with an American ensign at the 
peak, another in the larboard mizen shrouds, and a third at 
the fore, having arrived upon the weather beam of the 
Guerriere, opened her fire with great precision. To prevent 
being raked, the latter wore round three times, and this 
manoeuvring having lasted till 5h. 45m., the Constitution 
set her main-topgallant-sail, and in a few minutes, having 
ranged up on the larboard and weather beam of her anta- 
gonist, brought her to close action, both ships steering with 
the wind, on the larboard quarter. At 6h. 5m. the 
Guerrieres mizenmast fell over the larboard quarter, and 
the wreck, by dragging in the water, brought the ship head 
to wind. Throwing all aback, the Constitution then suc- 
ceeded in gaining a position on the bow of the British ship, 
within reach of the balls of the riflemen. At 6h. 15m. the 
two ships fell on board each other, the bowsprit of the 
Guerriere becoming entangled with the starboard main- 
rigging of the Constitution. An attempt was now made by 
the Americans to board, when a shot from a British marine 
brought down the leader, the first lieutenant of marines ; 
her first lieutenant was also shot, and the master wounded 
in the shoulder. The American marines, however, were not 
idle. From the tops they fired upon the Guerrieres officers 
and men with deadly aim. Captain Dacres was painfully 
wounded, but continued to animate and cheer his men to 
renewed exertions. The master, Robert Scott, was at about 
the same time shot through the knee ; and Samuel Grant, 
2d2 



404 GUERRIERE AND CONSTITUTION. [IS 12. 

master's mate, was also severely wounded. After the lapse 
of a few minutes the combatants dropped clear of each other, 
and the Guerriere was enabled to bring some of her star- 
board guns to bear upon the American frigate, some of the 
wads from which occasioned a fire on the Constitution's 
main deck. In falling astern of her adversaiy, the bowsprit 
of the Guerriere came in contact with the Constitution's 
taffrail, and the foremast and mainmast of the British frigate 
almost immediately afterwards fell over the starboard side. 
The defence was still protracted ; but, rolling heavily in her 
utterly defenceless state, little more than the semblance of 
resistance could be offered. The Constitution, with every 
stick standing, at 6h. 45m. took up a position on the star- 
board quarter of the Guerriere, intending to renew the 
action, and Captain Dacres finding further resistance un- 
availing, if not impracticable, a lee gun was fired, and the 
union-jack hauled down from the stump of the mizenmast. 

Captain Dacres having, as soon as the colours were 
hoisted, ordered seven Americans, included in his 251 men, 
to go below, the Guerriere commenced the action with 244 
men and nineteen boys ; and of these, the loss amounted, in 
killed, to Lieutenant Henry Ready, eleven seamen, and 
three marines ; and of wounded, she had Captain Dacres, 
severely, Bartholomew Kent, first lieutenant, slightly, the 
master (already named), Samuel Grant and William J. Snow, 
master's mates, and James Enslie, midshipman, forty-three 
seamen, thirteen marines, and one boy wounded. Total : 
fifteen killed, and six mortally, thirty-nine severely, and 
eighteen slightly wounded. The Constitution's loss was 
stated at seven killed and seven wounded ; but one of the 
Guerriere's officers counted thirteen wounded men on board, 
three of whom died after undergoing amputation. The 
thick sides of the Constitution will afford a reason for this 
small loss ; while the severe casualties of the Guerriere may 
also be accounted for in the heavy armament of her anta- 
gonist, and by the description of missile used in the action, 
comprising " langridge," " dismantling, or chain shot." The 
riflemen were also provided with buck-shot, four of which 
were used instead of a ball, and, at close quarters, with 
destructive effect. Further detail is unnecessary ; enough 
has, we think, been shown to prove that the Guerriere was 



1812.] BOATS OF BACCHANTE AT ROVIGNO. 405 

captured by a ship of nearly twofold 1 greater strength and 
power of resistance, and that Captain Dacres, his surviving 
officers and crew, richly merited the « honourable acquittal" 
and gratifying encomiums which a court-martial pronounced 
upon them. 

On the night of the 31st of August, the boats of the 
Bacchante frigate, Captain William Hoste, containing sixty- 
two officers and men, were despatched, under the orders of 
Lieutenant Donat Henchy O'Brien, to bring out several 
vessels laden with ship-timber in Port Lema, near Bovigno. 
Lieutenant O'Brien was assisted by Lieutenant Frank Gost- 
ling, Lieutenant of marines William Haig, Master's mate 
George Powell, and Midshipmen James Leonard Few and 
Thomas W. Langton. Having captured two vessels at the 
entrance to the port, Lieutenant O'Brien gained information 
that the vessels of which he was in search were under the 
protection of a French 3-gun xebeck and two gun-boats. 
Leaving the prizes in charge of Mr. Langton and six men, 
Lieutenant O'Brien, with the remainder, proceeded to the 
attack, and, without the loss of a man, brought out seven 
timber-laden, as well as the three armed vessels. The 
latter carried seven long guns and seventy-two men. On 
the morning of the 18th the same officer was intrusted with 
the command of six boats (containing seventy-two officers and 
men), assisted by Lieutenant Silas Thomson Hood and the 
officers above mentioned, except Lieutenant Gostling. The 
object was to intercept eighteen sail of merchant° vessels 
between the islands of Tremiti and Vasto. On the approach 
of the boats the vessels grounded, trusting for protection to 
eight vessels armed with long 12-pounders and swivels. 
The guns mounted on board the vessels consisted of eight 
long 12-pounders, six swivels, and the crews comprised 104 
men. The men belonging to the merchant vessels also had 
landed, and, armed with musketry, had posted themselves 
in a thick wood skirting the bay. This formidable array, 
1 Comparative force of the combatants :— 

GUERRIERE. CONSTITUTION. 

Broadside guns i ?° 24 - 28 

p , ° . l l J}s 517 768 

Lrew (men only) No 244 460 

Size— tons 1092 .' .' ." .' .' .' .' .' 1533 

— James. 



406 LAURA AND DILIGENTE. [1812. 

however, did not daunt the British ; and after a most dash- 
ing encounter the whole were captured. Lieutenant Haig, 
at the head of the marines, had in the mean time driven the 
enemy from the woods. Two men only were wounded. The 
letters reporting the above actions were not published until 
the 22nd of January, 1813, and the leader of the gallant 
enterprises was promoted at that date. In the meanwhile, 
however, Lieutenant O'Brien had acquired fresh claims to 
distinction, as will be seen in our next year's record. The 
naval medal is granted for the first of the above boat actions. 
On the 8th of September, the 10-gun schooner Laura, 
Lieutenant Charles N. Hunter, commander, being off the 
Delaware, was captured, after a very gallant action, by the 
French 18-gun privateer brig Diligente. Lieutenant Hun- 
ter, after being several times slightly wounded, received a 
most severe wound by a musket-ball, which, entering near 
the left ear, passed obliquely down the back, and made its 
way out. From excess of bleeding he was incapable of 
further effort, and all the officers having been sent away in 
prizes, the Laura was boarded and carried. The schooner 
had fifteen men killed and severely wounded ; and the 
Diligente, whose crew consisted of ninety-seven men, had 
nine killed and ten badly wounded. The captain of the 
privateer conveyed his prize to Philadelphia, and behaved 
most kindly and honourably to Lieutenant Hunter and his 
crew. Lieutenant Hunter was most honourably acquitted 
of all blame for the loss of his vessel. 

On the 18th of October, the 18-gun brig Frolic, Captain 
Thomas Whinyates, 1 in charge of a convoy for England, got 
sight of a strange sail to windward. The stranger was at 
first taken for one of the convoy which had separated from 
the Frolic in a heavy gale of wind, but on a nearer approach 
the error was discovered. Two days previously the Frolic 
had sustained considerable damage in a heavy gale, whicl 
had separated her from part of the convoy. During the gah 
the Frolic's mainyard was carried away in the slings, hei 
main-topmast badly sprung in two places, and her topsail; 
torn to pieces. These and other damages were in part attri 
butable to the general defects of the Frolic, which had beer 
five years out of an English dockyard, cruising in the Wes" 
1 This officer's captain's commission was dated 12th August, but bj 
had not been superseded in the command of the Frolic. 



1812.] FKOLIC AND WASP, 407 

Indies. With only her boom-mainsail and close-reefed fore- 
topsail set, the Frolic hauled to the wind to give her 
convoy a chance of escape, and at about llh. a.m. Captain 
Whinyates, anxious to draw the stranger's attention from 
the merchant ships, hoisted Spanish colours, upon which the 
ship bore up directly for her. The stranger, which was 
the United States 18-gun corvette Wasp, Captain Jacob 
Jones, five days only from the Delaware, hoisted her colours 
and steered for the Frolic, then on the larboard tack. On 
arriving within about sixty yards of the Frolic, the Wasp 
hailed, upon which the former, exchanging Spanish for Bri- 
tish colours, opened fire, which the Wasp returned. A heavy 
sea was running, which rendered it extremely difficult for 
the men in the Frolic to point the guns, the muzzles of which 
were often under water. The tonnage of the Wasp gave her 
an immense advantage. With ports nearly six feet above the 
level of the sea, she was enabled to fire her guns with delibera- 
tion and aim, while the Frolic's, being within a few feet only, 
to load and fire was all that was practicable. Every shot from 
the Wasp took effect, while the Frolic's passed harmlessly, 
or only damaged her opponent's sails and rigging, and shot 
away the main-topmast, gaff and mizen-topgallant mast. The 
Frolic's peak-halyards being cut by a shot, she was deprived 
of the only after-sail she could set, and payed off nearly before 
the wind. The Wasp now took up a position on the Frolic's 
larboard bow, and continued an animated fire, until, consi- 
dering the British vessel's deck pretty well thinned of men, 
Captain Jones determined to board. Perceiving, however, 
on a nearer approach, that he was likely to meet with more 
opposition than he anticipated, he delayed his intention, and 
taking whatever position he chose, continued to fire upon the 
defenceless brig. After the action had lasted forty three 
minutes, the Wasp ran her opponent on board, and the Frolic 
without further opposition became a prize. ^ 

Upon her deck, when thus boarded, Captain Whinyates, 
the second lieutenant (both of whom were severely wounded), 
and seventeen men, were all that remained, the few other 
survivors being below attending to their wounded shipmates 
or other indispensable duties. Out of ninety-one men and 
eighteen boys, with which she commenced the action, the 
Frolic had lost fifteen in killed, and Lieutenant Charles 
M'Kay, and the master, John Stephens, mortally wounded ; 



408 FROLIC AND WASP. [1812. 

and Captain Wliinyates, Lieutenant Frederick B. Wintle, 
and forty-three men, wounded. Total, killed and wounded, 
sixty-two. Her masts fell over the side a few minutes after 
her surrender. The Wasp's damages were comparatively 
trifling ; and out of a crew of 138 fine, able-bodied seamen 
(including many renegade British sailors), her loss amounted 
to eight men killed and about the same number wounded. 

Had the Frolic been fresh from a home port, with all her 
spars, well rigged and properly equipped, and with a crew 
not worn down by long service in a tropical climate, a different 
result might have been looked for ; but disabled as she was, 
and labouring under every possible disadvantage, which wind, 
weather, and a sickly crew conspired to create, no surprise 
can be felt at the Frolic's capture. The guns of the two 
vessels were the same in number and weight of shot, except 
that the Wasp mounted two long brass 12-pounders for the 
Frolic's long nines ; and in tonnage the Wasp measured 434 
tons, and the Frolic 384. 1 A few hours after the action 
ceased, the 74-gun ship Poictiers, Captain John Poer Beres- 
ford, hove in sight, captured the Wasp, and recaptured the 
Frolic. Captain Beresford immediately re-appointed Captain 
Wliinyates to his brig ; and the latter, with his few surviving 
officers and crew, underwent the ordeal of a court-martial, 
which pronounced an honourable acquittal upon all. 

On the 25th of October, the 18-pounder 38-gun frigate 
Macedonian, Captain John Surman Carden, being in lati- 
tude 28° 50' north, longitude 29° 30' west, the 44-gun frigate 
United States, Commodore Stephen Decatur, hove in sight, 
bearing north by east, distant about twelve miles. The Ma- 
cedonian, with a strong breeze from south-south-east, imme- 
diately bore up, and made all sail to close the enemy. At 
7h. 30m. a.m., the two ships having arrived within three miles 
of each other, hoisted their colours, and Commodore Decatur 
his broad pendant. Captain Carden then became fully aware 
of the force of the enemy ; but so little did British sailors 
think of defeat, that the announcement was most gratifying. 

* " The Congress of the United States voted 25,000 dollars, and their 
thanks to Captain Jacob Jones, the officers and crew of the Wasp ; also 
a gold medal to Captain Jones, and silver medals to each of the officers, 
in testimony of their high sense of the gallantry displayed by them in 
the capture of the British sloop of war of ' superior force.'" — James. 



1812.] MACEDONIAN AND UNITED STATES. 40 D 

On the other hand, Commodore Decatur mistook the Mace- 
donian for a larger ship, probably for a cut-down 64-gun 
ship, and therefore wore round on the starboard tack, 
and bore up. The Macedonian continued under all sail in 
chase, and as she rapidly overhauled the American, Com- 
modore Decatur fell into the opposite error, and took the 
Macedonian for a 32-gun frigate, whereupon he wore round 
on the larboard tack, and hauled up to meet her. At 9h. a.m. 
the Macedonian, having hauled to the wind, was on the 
weather beam of the United States, and the two ships passing 
on opposite tacks, exchanged broadsides. The Macedonian 
being then abaft the American frigate's beam, wore, and at 
9h. 20m. was on the enemy's larboard and weather quarter, 
on the same tack with her. In the course of a few minutes 
the Macedonian lost her mizen-topmast, and the United 
States her mizen topgallant-mast. The sailing of the two 
ships was thus nearly equalized, and the United States took 
advantage of the circumstance, and retained her position on 
the lee bow of the British frigate, keeping up a continued 
and severe fire. 

At 10b. lorn, the United States squared the main-yard to 
allow the Macedonian to close ; but it was then too late. 
At a little past Ilk the Macedonian lost her mizenmast, 
fore and main-topmasts, and mainyard ; her lower masts 
were badly wounded, and the standing and running rigging- 
destroyed. To render her state more defenceless, the wreck 
of her mizenmast fell over the starboard side, thereby dis- 
abling those of her quarter-deck guns which were not pre- 
viously useless from the imperfect fitting of the carronade 
slides. Having nothing to steady her, the Macedonian now 
rolled the muzzles of her main-deck guns in the water ; and, 
mder the circumstances, further effectual resistance was 
impossible. As a last resource, however, the determination 
:o attempt to board the American frigate was come to, and 
;he Macedonian's helm was put hard a-port with the intention 
)f carrying it into effect. Captain Carden was the more in- 
laced to resort to this plan by seeing the United States make 
sail. But the execution of the design was frustrated by a 
shot, which, having cut the lee fore-brace, the ship would 
lot pay off, and the United States crossed the Macedonian's 
>ows without firing a shot, having, as it afterwards appeared^ 



410 MACEDONIAN AND UNITED STATES. [1812. 

expended all her cartridges. It was at first supposed that 
the United States had given up the contest ; but having 
filled more cartridges and rove new running rigging, she 
made sail, and at noon arrived under the stern of the Mace- 
donian ; when Captain Garden, having no further means of 
resistance, ordered the colours to be hauled down. 

The loss sustained by the British, out of 254 men and 
boys, amounted to James Holmes, boatswain, Thomas J. 
Nankivel, master's mate, Dennis Colwell, schoolmaster, 
twenty-three seamen, eight marines, and two boys killed; 
and Lieutenants David Hope (severely) and John Bulford 
(slightly), Midshipmen Henry Roebuck and George Green- 
way, and Francis Baker, volunteer 1st class, fifty seamen, 
nine marines, and four boys wounded; making a total of 
thirty-six killed and sixty-eight wounded. The United 
States sustained comparatively slight loss, amounting to five 
killed ; two mortally and five severely, besides many, not in- 
cluded, slightly wounded. 

The Macedonian mounted the forty-six guns of her class ; 
but the quarter-deck carronade slides, being fitted on a new 
and defective principle, rendered those guns very ineflicient. 
The force of the United States has already been described ; 
but, unlike the Constitution, she retained her 42-pounder 
carronades, to which may be attributed the early fall of the 
Macedonian's masts and the carnage on her decks. Captain 
Carden and his oflicers were treated with respect by Com- 
modore Decatur, but every temptation, and even threats, 
were used, to induce the crew to enter the American service ; 
but the overtures were treated with the disdain they merited. 
The Macedonian was conveyed to New London, where she 
arrived on the 4th of December. Captain Carden and his 
oflicers were subsequently tried by a court-martial at Ber- 
muda, the sentence of which was " an honourable acquittal/' 
and the court expressed their very high sense of the loyalty 
of the seamen, which caused them to disregard the base 
offers of the enemy. 

The squadron, under Commodore Rogers, from which the 
United States had parted company, continued its cruise, and 
on the 31st of October chased the 38-gun frigate Galatea, 
Captain Woodley Losack ; but the latter escaped in the 
night, The squadron soon afterwards returned to Boston. 



1812.] JAVA AND CONSTITUTION. 



411 



The third and last frigate action in which the Americans 
were conquerors now demands our attention. The late 
French 38-guu frigate Renommle, which had been captured 
off Madagascar, was added to the British navy under the 
name of Java. In the month of August, she was commis- 
sioned by Captain Henry Lambert, and appointed to convey 
Lieutenant-General Hislop, the newly-appointed governor, to 
Bombay. In addition to the baggage generally accompany- 
ing officers of General Hislop's rank, the Java was deeply 
laden with stores of all descriptions for ships building at 
Bombay. The difficulty of manning this ship had been 
great. Our best seamen had been drained in many channels 
from their legitimate employ. Privateers, merchant-service 
crimps, and the mania for the American navy, had exhausted 
the grand reservoir, and to man an additional frigate pro- 
perly was a work of time. This was felt in a peculiar degree 
by Captain Lambert, and, with the exception of a few 
volunteers, who filled the petty officers' ratings, the men 
obtained, by pressing and other compulsory means, were of 
the most inferior description. The captain remonstrated, 
but without effect, and with a crew (not fifty of whom had 
ever seen a shot fired) of 277 men and twenty-three boys, 
and eighty-six supernumeraries, principally Marine Society 
boys, the Java put to sea. 

On the 30th of December, in the morning, being near 
St. Salvador, whither Captain Lambert was bound, to water, 
the American frigate Constitution, Commodore "William Bain- 
bridge, was descried ; and, casting off a prize which had been 
taken on the passage, the latter parted company, with nine- 
teen men and a master's mate, and the Java proceeded with 
a moderate breeze from the north-east in chase of the stranger. 
Commodore Bainbridge expecting to be joined by the Essex, 
mistook the Java for that ship ; and at about noon made 
the private signal. This, after remaining hoisted ten minutes, 
was hauled down, and the American frigate wore and made 
all sail away. The Java, under a press of sail, and going ten 
knots, was obliged to shorten sail, while the American frigate 
appeared scarcely to feel the breeze. At lh. 40m. p.m., the 
Java having got within two miles of the Constitution, the 
latter took in royals and flying-jib, clewed up her courses, 
and hauled to the wind on the starboard tack, and the Java 



412 JAVA AND CONSTITUTION. [1812. 

did the same. At 21i. 10m. the two ships were within a 
mile of each other, when the Constitution fired some of her 
starboard guns, but without effect. At 2h. 20m. a second broad- 
side was fired, which also did little damage ; and almost 
immediately afterwards the Java's larboard broadside was 
fired, almost eveiy shot striking. The Constitution by this 
one broadside had four men killed and many wounded, and 
her wheel was shot away. Not relishing this spirited salute 
from the little ship, the Constitution fired a third broadside 
and bore up in the smoke. The Java bore up after her, 
and at 2h. 25m., the two ships having come to the wind on 
the starboard tack, again exchanged broadsides. The Con- 
stitution again wore to get away, but Captain Lambert was 
not to be thus evaded, and the Java also wore. 

At 2h. 35m. the Java passed slowly and closely under the 
stern of the Constitution ; but the opportunity thus afforded 
was lost upon the raw, unskilful British crew, and the only 
gun discharged was the forecastle 9-pounder, and that was 
pointed and fired by Lieutenant James Saunders, a super- 
numerary officer. Commodore Bainbridge, however, had not 
yet made up his mind to engage the British frigate, and 
making sail about three points off the wind, ranged ahead of 
the Java, At 2h. 40m. the Java luffed across the stern of 
her antagonist, but again without making full use of the 
advantage ; and at about 2h. 43m. the commodore, em- 
boldened by the Java's inefficient fire, determined to engage. 
Having therefore hauled to the wind on the larboard tack,, 
the two ships were soon in close action, the Java to windward. 
At 2h. 52m. the head of the Java's bowsprit was shot away, 
upon which the Constitution wore, and as the Java, from the 
loss of her jibs, was unable to follow her with the requisite 
celerity, she tacked, and, taking a long time to pay off, 
received a raking broadside from the adversary. Instead of 
coming to the wind on the starboard tack, the Java bore up 
athwart the Constitution's bows, firing her broadside, and 
then luffed to on the larboard tack. The American frigate 
having wore round under the Java's stem, the two frigates 
were once more in action, at not more than pistol-shot 
distance, the Java to windward as before. This proved to 
the great disadvantage of the Java ; and after it had con- 
tinued ten minutes, that ship was completely unrigged, and 



1812.] JAVA AND CONSTITUTION. 413 

had lost her master, and a great many officers and men 
killed and wounded. 

Captain Lambert, finding his men falling so fast from the 
enemy's destructive fire, determined to board, and at 3h. 8m. 
ordered the helm a-port to carry this design into effect. 
Before, however, the two ships came in contact, the Java's 
foremast unfortunately fell inboard, passing through the 
•forecastle deck, and thereby encumbering the main deck. 
But, by the impetus which she had previously acquired, the 
stump of the Java's bowsprit caught the Constitution's mizen- 
riggmg, and brought her head to wind; then dropping astern, 
she lay at the mercy of her antagonist. The American 
frigate made good use of her advantage, and sailing round 
the Java, poured in broadside after broadside with tremendous 
effect. At 3h. 30m. Captain Lambert fell mortally wounded 
by a musket- ball in the left breast, and the command of the 
ship devolved on the first lieutenant, Henry Ducie Chads, 
who in gallantly emulated his late noble captain. This officer 
though painfully wounded, remained at his post, encouraging 
by his example the crew to continue their resistance. The 
latter, though wanting in skill, were not wanting in bravery, 
and far from relaxing their exertions, appeared to increase 
them as their chance of success receded. At 4h. 5m. the 
Java's mizenmast fell, and soon afterwards the Constitution 
again ranged up alongside the British ship, but was received 
with all the warmth of desperation. At 4h. 25m. the Con- 
stitution, having effectually crippled her antagonist, made sail 
ahead out of gun-shot ; and the Java's crew imagining she 
was about to make off, shouted after her and called to her 
to return. The American frigate having repaired the slight 
injuries she had received aloft, at a little before 6h. tookup 
a position across the bows of the Java (the crew of which, in 
the meanwhile, had cleared the wreck of her masts, and 
were erecting a jury-mast). Lieutenant Chads, aware that 
to protract the defence would be nothing less than a wanton 
sacrifice of life, ordered the colours to be struck, and at 
6k p.m., after near four hours' action, the Java became the 
Constitution's prize. 

The following is the official return of the Java's loss :— 
Killed : Charles Jones, Thomas Hammond, and William 
Gascoigne, master's mates, William Salmond, midshipman 



414 JAVA AND CONSTITUTION. [1812. 

Thomas Joseph Matthias, clerk, twelve seamen, and four 
marines : total, twenty-one. Wounded : Captain Henry- 
Lambert, Edward Keele, 1 midshipman, and one seaman 
mortally; James Humble, boatswain, and four men danger- 
ously \ Captain J. T. Wood (aide-de-camp to Major-General 
Hislop), Batty Robinson, master, Lieutenant of marines 
David Davies, Charles Keele, Martin Burke, Frederick 
Morten, and William Brown, midshipmen, and forty-five 
sailors, marines, and boys severely ; Commander John Mar- 
shall, Lieutenants Henry D. Chads and James Saunders, 
James West, midshipman, and thirty-nine men and boys 
slightly : total, 103 : grand total, 124. The Java s damages 
were in keeping with her loss \ she was totally dismasted, 
ten of her quarter-deck and forecastle carronades were dis- 
mounted, many of her main-deck guns disabled, all her boats 
destroyed, and her hold half-full of water when she surren- 
dered. Nor had the Constitution, notwithstanding her thick 
sides, escaped without loss : the British official account gives 
ten men killed ; her fifth lieutenant and four men (mortally), 
the commodore (slightly), and about forty-two of her crew 
wounded. The Java, on examination, was found so much 
damaged, that her captors determined to destroy her ; and 
after removing the prisoners, which, as the Constitution had 
only one boat that would swim, was a work of time, the 
Java, on the forenoon of the next day, was set on fire. 2 

There can be little doubt that had the Java, inferior as 
she was in point of materiel, been manned by a crew of 320 

1 This gallant youth, only thirteen years of age, was not killed out- 
right, but died the next day. The Java was his first ship. He had 
suffered amputation of a leg, and after the action was over, inquired 
anxiously if the ship had struck. Seeing one of the flags spread over 
him, he became very uneasy ; but being assured that it was English, he 
was satisfied. 

2 After this had been effected, one of the Java's late crew (three of 
whom, to their disgrace, had already entered on board the Constitution) 
informed Commodore Bainbridge that the prize had an immense quan- 
tity of specie in her hold. The commodore's feelings, on receiving this 
information, caused not a little amusement to the British officers ; but 
after a time one of them took pity upon him, and relieved his mind by 
assuring him that the cases in question contained, instead of gold or 
silver, only copper bolts. At 3h. p.m. the Java blew up, but without any 
colours hoisted. The Constitution entered the port of St. Salvador on 
the 3rd of January, 1813, where the prisoners were all landed. 



1812.] ALBACORE AND PICKLE WITH GLOIRE. 415 

stout, able-bodied, and well-trained seamen, instead of a raw 
set of men, wanting in everything save animal courage, and 
had the Java been laden less like a store-ship, she would 
have given a very different account of the Constitution ; 
and, under all the disadvantageous circumstances, her action 
is one highly creditable to the British navy in general, and 
to the brave officers and men who fought it in particular. 
Bear- Admiral Graham Moore, the president of the court- 
martial which tried Lieutenant Chads and the ship's com- 
pany for the loss of the Java, after an honourable acquittal, 
passed the following well-merited eulogium on the former : 
— " I have much satisfaction in returning you your sword. 
Had you been an officer who had served in comparative 
obscurity all your life, and never before been heard of, your 
conduct on the present occasion would have been sufficient 
to establish your character as a brave, skilful, and attentive 
officer." Lieutenant Chads' conduct received other honour- 
able testimony by promotion to the rank of commander in 
May, 1813. 

On the 16th of December, the French 40-gun frigate 
Gloire, Captain Roussin, sailed from Havre on a cruise, and 
on the 18th, at daylight, was discovered by the 18-gun cor- 
vette Albacore, Commander Henry T. Davies, about four 
miles to the westward of which was the 14-gun schooner 
Pickle, Lieutenant William Figg. The Gloire having, at 
9h. a.m., ascertained that the strangers were enemies, hauled 
to the wind on the larboard tack, and made all sail away, 
and Captain Davies, believing the frigate to be armed en 
flute only, immediately pursued, accompanied by the schooner. 
At lOh. 12m. the corvette opened fire on the Gloire, which 
the frigate, hoisting her colours, returned ; she then hauled 
up to rake the Albacore, and Captain Davies, being now 
aware of his error, tacked and discontinued the action. The 
Albacore's rigging was much damaged, and Lieutenant Wil- 
liam Harman was killed, and six men wounded. At lh. p.m. 
the Albacore was joined by the Pickle, 12-gun brig Borer, 
and 4-gun schooner Landrail, when the pursuit was resumed; 
but at midnight the Gloire was out of sight. 

On the 29th of December, the 18-gun brig Royalist, Com- 
mander George Downie, cruising in the Channel, captured 
the French privateer Ruse, for which service the naval. 
Daedal has been awarded. 



416 BOAT ACTIONS. [1813. 



1813. 



On the 6tli of January, at 2h. p.m., the boats of the 
Havannah, Captain the Honourable George Cadogan, under 
the orders of Lieutenant William Hambly, attacked and 
carried a French gun-boat, mounting one long 24-pounder, 
and having a crew of thirty-five men, although the enemy 
was fully prepared for the attack, and the boat was sup- 
ported by musketry from the shore. Three merchant vessels 
were also brought off. Edward Percival, master's mate, was 
killed, and two seamen wounded. 

On the 6th of January, the boats of the 38-gun frigate 
Bacchante, Captain William Hoste, and 18-gun brig Weasel, 
Commander James Black, being off Otranto, in the Adriatic, 
chased two divisions of gun-boats. The officers employed 
on this service were Lieutenants Donat H. O'Brien, Silas 
T. Hood, and Frank Gostling ; Lieutenant of marines Wil- 
liam Haig, and Master's mates and Midshipmen George 
Powell, James McKean, Honourable Henry J. Eous, 
Honourable William Waldegrave, Thomas C. Hoste, James 
L. Few, and Edward O. Pocock. At 8h. a.m., Lieutenant 
O'Brien, in the Bacchante's barge, overtook and captured 
the stemmost gun-boat, mounting two guns, and having a 
crew of thirty-six men ; when, leaving her in the charge of 
Mr. Hoste, Lieutenant O'Brien pushed on and captured two 
other boats making off towards the coast of Calabria. Two 
of the Weasel's boats were also despatched, under Lieute- 
nant Thomas Wlialey and James Stewart, midshipman, and 
another boat from the Bacchante, under Edward Webb, 
master's mate ; and the latter, taking the lead of the othei 
two, very gallantly boarded and carried two gun-boats sue 
eessively, after a determined resistance. The above actionr 
together with two other exploits of Lieutenant O'Brien 
appeared in the Gazette the same day, and that officer wa* 

1 See p. 405, ante. 



1813.] AMELIA AND ARETHUSE. 417 

immediately promoted. The medal is granted for the above 
action. 

On the 29th of January, the island of Augusta, in the 
Adriatic, surrendered to a British force, consisting of the 
38-gun frigate Apollo, Captain Bridges W. Taylor, Espe- 
ranza privateer, and four gun-boats, and 250 troops, under 
Lieutenant-Colonel Robertson. On the 3rd of February 
Curzola also surrendered to the same force. The Apollo's 
mainmast was much cut by shot, and her loss from the 
enemy's fire amounted to two seamen killed and one 
wounded. 

On the Gth of February, the 38-gun frigate Amelia, Cap- 
tain the Honourable Frederick Paul Irby, at 9h. 30m. am 
observed two frigates at anchor off the northern end of 
Tamara (one of the Isles de Los), on the coast of Africa. 
The strangers were the French 40-gun frigates Arethuse 
Commodore Bouvet, and Rubis, Captain Olivier, which a 
few days previously had chased the Daring gun-brio-, Lieu- 
tenant William R. Pascoe, and forced her to run on shore 
on Tamara to avoid capture, where she was burnt by her 
crew. On the 7th, at noon, a light breeze sprang up "from 
the westward, and the Arethuse on the larboard tack stood 
towards the Amelia under all sail, when the latter made sail 
away, in order to draw the Arethuse from her consort. 

At 5h. p.m. the Amelia shortened sail, wore round on the 
starboard tack, and, running under her three topsails, steered 
for the Arethuse, which ship had also shortened sail. To 
avoid being raked, the Arethuse, at 7h. 20m., tacked to the 
southward. It was a beautiful moonlight night, and the 
light air of wind was scarcely sufficient to cause a ripple. 
At 7h. 45m., just as the Amelia had arrived within pistol- 
shot on the starboard and weather bow of the Arethuse, 
intending to cross her bows, the latter opened fire, which 
was immediately returned. After the third broadside', owino- 
to the braces having been shot away, the main-topsail of the 
Amelia was thrown aback, and failing in her attempt to 
cross the enemy's bows, she fell on board the Arethuse, the 
bumpkin of the latter carrying away part of the Amelia's 
larboard forecastle bulwark, and her bowsprit the jib stay 
In this situation, the British frigate became exposed to a 
heavy fire of musketry and hand grenades, and an attempt 

VOL. II. 2 E 



418 AMELIA AND ARETHUSE. 1813.] 

was made to board, which was repelled by the marines 
under First Lieutenant John Simpson. The Arethuse, 
throwing all aback, then dropped clear. The Amelia upon 
this set her stay-sails and endeavoured to get her head 
towards the French ship ; but in attempting again to cross 
her bows, fell on board a second time, and the two ships 
swang alongside each other at about 9h. 15m. An endea- 
vour was then made by the crew of the Amelia to lash the 
ships together, but they were unable to do so on account of 
the heavy fire of musketry opened upon them from the deck 
and tops of the Arethuse. Among those who fell in trying 
to effect this, were Lieutenants John J. Bates and John 
Pope, and Second Lieutenant of marines Robert Gwinn 
Grainger ; and Captain Irby was severely wounded, and 
obliged to leave the deck in command of Lieutenant George 
Wills. The latter officer was shortly afterwards killed ; 
after whom, the master, Anthony De Mayne, took the com- 
mand. The ships at length dropped clear of each other, and 
gradually separated, until, at llh. 20m. p.m., they were out 
of gun-shot of each other. 

The Amelia's masts and yards were badly wounded, and • 
she was much shattered in hull. Of 265 men, thirty boys, 
and fifty-four supernumeraries (part of the Daring's crew, 
and some invalids), she had the three lieutenants, and second 
lieutenant of marines (already named), Lieutenant Pascoe, 
of the Daring, Charles Kennicott, midshipman, John Bogue, 
purser of the Thais, twenty-nine seamen, seven marines, and 
three boys killed; Captain Irby (severely), Lieutenant of 
marines John Simpson, John C oilman, purser, Boatswain 
John Parkinson, Edward Pobinson, George A. Rix, Thomas 
D. Buckle, George T. Gooch, and Arthur Beever, mid- 
si lipmen, fifty-six seamen (two mortally), twenty-five marines 
(three mortally), and three boys wounded. Total : fifty-one 
killed and mortally wounded, and ninety severely and 
slightly wounded. 

The Arethuse also suffered severely in hull and masts, 
and of 375 men, had thirty-one killed and seventy-four 
wounded 

The Amelia and Ar6thuse, in point of tonnage and arma- 
ment, met upon equal terms. The crew of the Amelia, 



1813.] CUTTING OUT THE LOTTERY. 419 

however, was unfit to cope with the fresh and vigorous crew 
of the Arethuse, comprising the very flower of the French 
navy. The latter ship had only just arrived from an 
European port, the former had been nearly two years under 
the influence of the most debilitating climate in the world. 
Had the Amelia suffered less than she did in her action, the 
propriety of seeking a renewal of the engagement, in the 
presence of a second frigate of equal force to the Arethuse, 
would have been questionable, for it must be remembered 
that Captain Irby was not at that time aware that the 
Rubis had been placed hors de combat by getting aground. 
On the whole, this action gives evidence of great bravery 
and skill on both sides, and no blame can reasonably 
attach to Captain Irby, his oflicers or crew. The fall of the 
officers and the captain's wounds were untoward events, 
which have an effect even upon the best of crews; and 
although the meeting terminated in a drawn battle, it is, 
notwithstanding, highly honourable to the British navy. 

At daylight on the 8th the frigates were becalmed about 
five miles apart, and on the breeze springing up, the 
Amelia having bent new sails, put before it for Madeira 
and England ; and the Arethuse stood back to the Isles de 
Los to rejoin her consort. 

On the 2nd of February, the 18-gun corvette Kingfisher, 
Commander Ewell Tritton, discovered* near Melara several 
trabacolos, and there being at the time very little wind, two 
boats, under Lieutenant George W. Palmer and John 
"Waller, gunner, were despatched in chase, which, after a 
row of five hours, captured one vessel, and drove on shore 
and destroyed five others, on the island of Corfu. The loss 
in the Kingfisher's boats amounted to two killed and seven 
severely wounded. 

On the 8th of February, nine boats from the frigates 
Maidstone, Belvidera, Junon, and Statira, Captains George 
Burdett, Richard Byron, James Sanders, and Hassard Stack- 
poole, under command of Lieutenant Kelly Nazer, of the 
former ship, attacked the United States 6-gun schooner 
Lottery, in the Chesapeake. After a most determined 
resistance, the privateer was boarded and carried. The 
American captain (John Southcomb) was mortally wounded ■ 
2 e2 



420 BOARDING AMERICAN SCHOONERS. [1813. 

and eighteen, out of a crew of twenty-eight men, were killed 
or wounded. The British had one man killed and five 
wounded. 

During the month of February, the 74-gun ships ban 
Domingo and Marlborough, with the Maidstone and Statira 
frigates, and Fantome, Commander John Lawrence, brig, 
under the orders of Admiral Sir John B. Warren and Rear- 
Admiral George Cockburn, arrived off the North American 
coast. In April they entered the Chesapeake, and on the 
3rd chased four large armed schooners into the river Rappa- 
hannock. It falling calm, the boats of the squadron were 
despatched in pursuit, and, after rowing fifteen miles, the 
four schooners were discovered : which were the Arab, of 
seven guns and forty-five men ; Lynx, of six guns and forty 
men ; Racer, of six guns and thirty-six men ; and Dolphin, 
of twelve guns and ninety-eight men, drawn up in line 
ahead. The boats were under the command of Lieutenant 
James Polkinghorne, of the San Domingo ; Matthew Lid- 
don, of the Maidstone ; George C. Urmston and James 
Scott, of the Marlborough; and George Bishop, of the 
Statira. The Marlborough's boats being in advance, were 
the first to board the enemy, and five boats had performed 
the principal part of the service before the remainder were 
able to close. The four vessels were captured after a 
desperate struggle. The loss amounted to two men killed ; 
and Lieutenants Polkinghorne and William A. Brand, 1 
Lieutenant of marines William R. Flint, John Sleigh, mid- 
shipman, and seven seamen and marines were wounded. The 
Americans had six men killed and ten wounded. The 
captured vessels were fine schooners, measuring from 200 to 

1 Mr Brand was at this time a master's mate passed eleven